Spanish general election, 1993

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Spanish general election, 1993
Spain
1989 ←
6 June 1993 → 1996

All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 (out of the 256) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies,
129 in the Senate (105 for elected seats)
Opinion polls
Turnout 76.4%
Increase6.7 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Felipe González Debate Estado Nación 1984.jpg Aznar at the Azores, March 17, 2003.jpg Julio Anguita en el Ateneo de Córdoba en 2004 (Recortada).jpg
Leader Felipe González José María Aznar Julio Anguita
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 13 October 1974 4 September 1989 November 1989
Last election 175 C & 107 S
39.6%
107 C & 78 S
25.8%
17 C & 1 S
9.1%
Seats won
159 / 350
96 / 208
141 / 350
93 / 208
18 / 350
0 / 208
Seat change Decrease16 C
Decrease11 S
Increase34 C
Increase15 S
Increase1 C
Decrease1 S
Popular vote 9,150,083 8,201,463 2,253,722
Percentage 38.8% 34.8% 9.5%
Swing Decrease0.8 pp Increase9.0 pp Increase0.4 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Miquel Roca i Junyent.jpg CDS 2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg
Leader Miquel Roca Rafael Calvo Ortega Iñaki Anasagasti
Party CiU CDS EAJ-PNV
Leader since 1980 1991 1986
Last election 18 C & 10 S
5.0%
14 C & 1 S
7.9%
5 C & 4 S
1.2%
Seats won
17 / 350
10 / 208
0 / 350
0 / 208
5 / 350
3 / 208
Seat change Decrease1 C
Steady0 S
Decrease14 C
Decrease1 S
Steady0 C
Decrease1 S
Popular vote 1,165,783 414,740 291,448
Percentage 4.9% 1.8% 1.2%
Swing Decrease0.1 pp Decrease6.1 pp Steady0.0 pp

Most voted party in each autonomous community and province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

Felipe González
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Felipe González
PSOE

The 1993 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 6 June, to elect the 5th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 256 seats to the Senate. This was a snap election, since new elections were not due until October 1993.

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party under Felipe González achieved the largest number of votes and seats for the fourth consecutive time, though it lost its absolute majority in both chambers of the Cortes. In contrast, José María Aznar's People's Party won a large share of the vote, thus increasing their seats in both the Congress and the Senate and consolidating its position as the main opposition party. For the first time since 1979, the election brought in a hung parliament, forcing the governing PSOE to pact with nationalist groups in order to renew their mandate.

In the aftermath of the election, the PSOE saw itself under increased pressure due both to political instability as a result of its low majority (relying on increasingly-unstable pacts with Convergence and Union to pass its legislation) and of the uncovering of numerous cases of corruption within the government itself. The pact with CiU would end in the fall of 1995, forcing PM Felipe González to call early elections 15 months before their scheduled date, which would see the opposition right-wing People's Party of Aznar win for the first time.

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The Congress of Deputies 350 members are elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elect one member each using plurality voting. Each district is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) are entitled to enter the seat distribution. Under articles 12 and 68 of the Constitution, the minimum voting age is 18.[1]

Elections to the Senate take place under a limited vote system. Each of the 47 peninsular districts (the provinces) is assigned 4 seats. In Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — one each. Ceuta and Melilla are assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors may vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district are elected for a 4-year term of office.

In addition, the legislative assemblies of the self-governing or autonomous communities into which the provinces of Spain are grouped are entitled to appoint at least one senator each, as well as one senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators.[2]

Apportionment[edit]

Under Article 68 of the Spanish constitution, the boundaries of the electoral districts must be the same as the provinces of Spain and, under Article 141, this can only be altered with the approval of Congress.[1]

The apportionment of seats to provinces follows the largest remainder method over the resident population ("Padrón") with a minimum of two seats (Art. 162 of the Electoral Law).[3]

Eligibility[edit]

Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies is prohibited, meaning that candidates must resign from regional assemblies if elected. Active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals are also ineligible,[1] as well as CEOs or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies, such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.[4]

Presenting candidates

Parties and coalitions of different parties which have registered with the Electoral Commission can present lists of candidates. Groups of electors which have not registered with the commission can also present lists, provided that they obtain the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district.[4]

Opinion polls[edit]

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Composition of the elected Congress.
Summary of the 6 June 1993 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 9,150,083 38.78 −0.82 159 −16
People's Party (PP) 8,201,463 34.76 +8.97 141 +34
United Left (IU) 2,253,722 9.55 +0.48 18 +1
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,165,783 4.94 −0.10 17 −1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 414,740 1.76 −6.13 0 −14
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 291,448 1.24 ±0.00 5 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 207,077 0.88 +0.56 4 +3
People's Unity (HB) 206,876 0.88 −0.18 2 −2
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 189,632 0.80 +0.39 1 +1
The Greens (LV) 185,940 0.79 +0.02 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 144,544 0.61 +0.26 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity-Basque Left (EA-EUE) 129,293 0.55 −0.12 1 −1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 126,965 0.54 +0.31 0 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 112,341 0.48 −0.23 1 −1
Andalusian Party (PA) 96,513 0.41 −0.63 0 −2
The Ecologists (LE) 68,851 0.29 −0.38 0 ±0
Ruiz Mateos' Group-European Democratic Alliance (ARM-ADE) 54,518 0.23 −0.84 0 ±0
Progress Andalusian Party (PAP) 43,169 0.18 New 0 ±0
Valencian People's Unity (UPV) 41,052 0.17 −0.03 0 ±0
Workers' Socialist Party (PST) 30,068 0.13 −0.27 0 ±0
Union for the Progress of Cantabria (UPCA) 27,005 0.11 New 0 ±0
Nationalists of the Balearic Islands (PSM-EN) 20,118 0.09 +0.05 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) 18,608 0.08 New 0 ±0
Alavese Unity (UA) 16,623 0.07 New 0 ±0
Independent Liberal Group (GIL) 16,452 0.07 New 0 ±0
Gran Canaria Party (PGC) 15,246 0.06 +0.03 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 13,097 0.06 New 0 ±0
Natural Law Party (PLN) 11,392 0.05 New 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 11,088 0.05 +0.02 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 10,653 0.05 ±0.00 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 10,233 0.04 −0.27 0 ±0
Majorcan Union (UM) 10,053 0.04 New 0 ±0
Ecologist Party of Catalonia (PEC) 9,249 0.04 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 8,834 0.04 −0.04 0 ±0
Worker Revolutionary Party (POR) 8,667 0.04 ±0.00 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx (FE-JONS) 8,000 0.03 −0.09 0 ±0
Coalition for a New Socialist Party (NPS) 7,991 0.03 New 0 ±0
Riojan Party (PR) 7,532 0.03 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Union (CHA) 6,344 0.03 +0.01 0 ±0
Galician Nationalist Convergence (CNG) 4,663 0.02 New 0 ±0
Communal Land-Castilian Nationalist Party (TC-PNC) 4,647 0.02 New 0 ±0
Galician Alternative (AG) 3,286 0.01 New 0 ±0
Spanish Democratic Republican Action (ARDE) 3,063 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL) 2,715 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
El Bierzo Party (PB) 2,681 0.01 New 0 ±0
Extremenian Regionalist Party (PREx) 2,086 0.01 New 0 ±0
Health and Ecology in Solidarity (SEES) 1,959 0.01 New 0 ±0
Madrilian Independent Regional Party (PRIM) 1,917 0.01 −0.01 0 ±0
Gray Panthers of Spain (ACI) 1,644 0.01 New 0 ±0
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 1,517 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Independent Spanish Phalanx (FE(I)) 1,415 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
People's Palentine Group (APP) 1,410 0.01 New 0 ±0
Rainbow (Rainbow) 1,407 0.01 New 0 ±0
Alicantine Country's Greens (PVPA) 1,375 0.01 New 0 ±0
Cantonalist Party (PCAN) 1,300 0.01 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 1,193 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Others 13,644 0.06 0 −2
Blank ballots 188,679 0.80 +0.11
Total 23,591,864 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 23,591,864 99.46 +0.20
Invalid votes 126,952 0.54 −0.20
Votes cast / turnout 23,718,816 76.44 +6.70
Abstentions 7,311,695 23.56 −6.70
Registered voters 31,030,511
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
PSOE
  
38.78%
PP
  
34.76%
IU
  
9.55%
CiU
  
4.94%
CDS
  
1.76%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.24%
CC
  
0.88%
HB
  
0.88%
ERC
  
0.80%
PAR
  
0.61%
EA-EUE
  
0.55%
UV
  
0.48%
Others
  
3.97%
Blank
  
0.80%
Parliamentary seats
PSOE
  
45.43%
PP
  
40.29%
IU
  
5.14%
CiU
  
4.86%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.43%
CC
  
1.14%
HB
  
0.57%
ERC
  
0.29%
PAR
  
0.29%
EA-EUE
  
0.29%
UV
  
0.29%

Investiture voting[edit]

9 July 1993
Investiture voting for Felipe González Márquez (PSOE)

Absolute majority: 176/350
Vote Parties Votes
YesY Yes PSOE (159), CiU (17), PNV (5)
181 / 350
No PP (141), IU (17), CC (4), ERC (1), EA (1), UV (1)
165 / 350
Abstentions PAR (1)
1 / 350
Both HB and 1 IU deputy missed the voting.
Source: Historia Electoral

References[edit]