Spanish general election, 1993

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Spanish general election, 1993
Spain
1989 ←
6 June 1993 → 1996

All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of the 256) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Turnout 23,718,816 (76.4%)
Increase6.7 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Felipe González par Claude Truong-Ngoc juillet 2013.jpg Aznar at the Azores, March 17, 2003.jpg Julio Anguita en el Ateneo de Córdoba en 2004 (Recortada).jpg
Leader Felipe González José María Aznar Julio Anguita
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 13 October 1974 4 September 1989 November 1989
Last election 175 seats, 39.6% 107 seats, 25.8% 17 seats, 9.1%
Seats won 159 141 18
Seat change Decrease16 Increase34 Increase1
Popular vote 9,150,083 8,201,463 2,253,722
Percentage 38.8% 34.8% 9.6%
Swing Decrease0.8 pp Increase9.0 pp Increase0.5 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Miquel Roca i Junyent.jpg CDS 2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg
Leader Miquel Roca Rafael Calvo Ortega Iñaki Anasagasti
Party CiU CDS EAJ-PNV
Leader since 1980 1991 1986
Last election 18 seats, 5.0% 14 seats, 7.9% 5 seats, 1.2%
Seats won 17 0 5
Seat change Decrease1 Decrease14 Steady0
Popular vote 1,165,783 414,740 291,448
Percentage 4.9% 1.8% 1.2%
Swing Decrease0.1 pp Decrease6.1 pp Steady0.0 pp

Most voted party in each autonomous community and province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

Felipe González
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Felipe González
PSOE

The 1993 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 6 June, to elect the 5th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 256 seats to the Senate. This was a snap election, since new elections were not due until October 1993.

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party under Felipe González achieved the largest number of votes and seats for the fourth consecutive time, though it lost its absolute majority in both chambers of the Cortes. In contrast, José María Aznar's People's Party won a large share of the vote, thus increasing their seats in both the Congress and the Senate and consolidating its position as the main opposition party. For the first time since 1979, the election brought in a hung parliament, forcing the governing PSOE to pact with nationalist groups in order to renew their mandate.

In the aftermath of the election, the PSOE saw itself under increased pressure due both to political instability as a result of its low majority (relying on increasingly-unstable pacts with Convergence and Union to pass its legislation) and of the uncovering of numerous cases of corruption within the government itself. The pact with CiU would end in the fall of 1995, forcing PM Felipe González to call early elections 15 months before their scheduled date, which would see the opposition right-wing People's Party of Aznar win for the first time.

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

Congress of Deputies

The 350 members of the Congress of Deputies were elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elected 1 member each using plurality voting. Each district was entitled to an initial minimum of 2 seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) were entitled to enter the seat distribution.

Senate

For the Senate, each of the 47 peninsular provinces was assigned 4 seats. For insular provinces, such as Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — 1 each. Ceuta and Melilla were assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors could vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors would vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district would be elected for a 4-year term of office.

In addition, the legislative assemblies of the autonomous communities are entitled to appoint at least 1 senator each, as well as 1 senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators.[1] This appointment usually did not take place at the same time that the general election, but when the autonomous communities held their elections.

Eligibility[edit]

Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies was prohibited. Active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals were also ineligible,[2] as well as CEOs or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies, such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.[3]

Parties and coalitions of different parties which had registered with the Electoral Commission could present lists of candidates. Groups of electors which had not registered with the commission could also present lists, provided that they obtained the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district.[3]

Opinion polls[edit]

Congress of Deputies results[edit]

Overall[edit]

Composition of the elected Congress.
Summary of the 6 June 1993 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 9,150,083 38.78 Decrease0.82 159 Decrease16
People's Party (PP) 8,201,463 34.76 Increase8.97 141 Increase34
United Left (IU) 2,253,722 9.55 Increase0.48 18 Increase1
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,165,783 4.94 Decrease0.10 17 Decrease1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 414,740 1.76 Decrease6.13 0 Decrease14
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 291,448 1.24 ±0.00 5 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 207,077 0.88 Increase0.56 4 Increase3
People's Unity (HB) 206,876 0.88 Decrease0.18 2 Decrease2
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 189,632 0.80 Increase0.39 1 Increase1
The Greens (LV) 185,940 0.79 Increase0.02 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 144,544 0.61 Increase0.26 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity-Basque Left (EA-EUE) 129,293 0.55 Decrease0.12 1 Decrease1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 126,965 0.54 Increase0.31 0 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 112,341 0.48 Decrease0.23 1 Decrease1
Andalusian Party (PA) 96,513 0.41 Decrease0.63 0 Decrease2
The Ecologists (LE) 68,851 0.29 Decrease0.38 0 ±0
Ruiz Mateos' Group-European Democratic Alliance (ARM-ADE) 54,518 0.23 Decrease0.84 0 ±0
Progress Andalusian Party (PAP) 43,169 0.18 New 0 ±0
Valencian People's Unity (UPV) 41,052 0.17 Decrease0.03 0 ±0
Workers' Socialist Party (PST) 30,068 0.13 Decrease0.27 0 ±0
Union for the Progress of Cantabria (UPCA) 27,005 0.11 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 188,679 0.80 Increase0.11
Total 23,591,864 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 23,591,864 99.46 Increase0.20
Invalid votes 126,952 0.54 Decrease0.20
Votes cast / turnout 23,718,816 76.44 Increase6.70
Abstentions 7,311,695 23.56 Decrease6.70
Registered voters 31,030,511
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
PSOE
  
38.78%
PP
  
34.76%
IU
  
9.55%
CiU
  
4.94%
CDS
  
1.76%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.24%
CC
  
0.88%
HB
  
0.88%
ERC
  
0.80%
PAR
  
0.61%
EA-EUE
  
0.55%
UV
  
0.48%
Others
  
3.97%
Blank
  
0.80%
Parliamentary seats
PSOE
  
45.43%
PP
  
40.29%
IU
  
5.14%
CiU
  
4.86%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.43%
CC
  
1.14%
HB
  
0.57%
ERC
  
0.29%
PAR
  
0.29%
EA-EUE
  
0.29%
UV
  
0.29%

Results by region[edit]

Election results by province.

Investiture voting[edit]

9 July 1993
Investiture voting for Felipe González Márquez (PSOE)

Absolute majority: 176/350
Vote Parties Votes
YesY Yes PSOE (159), CiU (17), PNV (5)
181 / 350
No PP (141), IU (17), CC (4), ERC (1), EA (1), UV (1)
165 / 350
Abstentions PAR (1)
1 / 350
Both HB and 1 IU deputy missed the voting.
Source: Historia Electoral

References[edit]