Spanish general election, 2011

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Spanish general election, 2011
Spain
2008 ←
20 November 2011
→ 2015

All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 (out of the 266) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies, 134 in the Senate
Opinion polls
Turnout 68.9%
Decrease4.9 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Presidente Mariano Rajoy Brey 2012 - La Moncloa (Recortada).jpg Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba (diciembre de 2010).jpg CayoLaraIU2.jpg
Leader Mariano Rajoy Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba Cayo Lara
Party PP PSOE IU
Leader since 2 September 2003 9 July 2011[1] 14 December 2008
Last election 154 C & 124 S
39.9%
169 C & 117 S
43.9%
2 C & 2 S
3.8%
Seats won
186 / 350
166 / 266
110 / 350
74 / 266
11 / 350
2 / 266
Seat change Increase32 C
Increase42 S
Decrease59 C
Decrease43 S
Increase9 C
Steady0 S
Popular vote 10,866,566 7,003,511 1,686,040
Percentage 44.6% 28.8% 6.9%
Swing Increase4.7 pp Decrease15.1 pp Increase3.1 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Rosa Diez.jpg Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida (retrato).png Iñaki Antiguedad 2.jpg
Leader Rosa Díez Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Iñaki Antigüedad
Party UPyD CiU Amaiur
Leader since 26 September 2007 2003 11 October 2011[2]
Last election 1 C & 0 S
1.2%
10 C & 7 S
3.0%
Did not contest
Seats won
5 / 350
0 / 266
16 / 350
13 / 266
7 / 350
3 / 266
Seat change Increase4 C
Steady0 S
Increase6 C
Increase6 S
Increase7 C
Increase3 S
Popular vote 1,143,225 1,015,691 334,498
Percentage 4.7% 4.2% 1.4%
Swing Increase3.5 pp Increase1.2 pp New party

Most voted party in each autonomous community and province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

Jose Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Mariano Rajoy
PP

The 2011 Spanish general election took place on Sunday, 20 November, to elect the 10th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 266 seats to the Senate. The Cortes were dissolved and the general election called by King Juan Carlos I on 26 September,[3] at the request of Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, who had already announced his intention to call for a snap election on 28 July. Elections were not due until March 2012.[4]

The election was held amid the ongoing Spanish financial crisis, and Zapatero's government's perceived failure to cope with the worsening situation of the country's economy resulted in the ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) being swept from power in the worst defeat of a sitting government since 1982. The PSOE lost roughly 38% of its 2008 vote (4.3 out of 11.3 million) and garnered only 110 seats and 28.8% of the share – its worst result ever in a general election since the Spanish transition to democracy. In contrast, the opposition People's Party (PP) won a record 186 seats and 44.6% of the share and winning for the first time ever in the Andalusia region – which up until then had been won by the PSOE in every single general election.[5]

Electoral system[edit]

The Congress of Deputies consists of 350 members, elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method, with Ceuta and Melilla electing one member each using plurality voting. Each constituency is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations.

Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The electoral system used is closed-list proportional representation with seats allocated using the D'Hondt method. Only lists which poll 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes votes en blanco—for none of the above) can be considered. Under articles 12 and 68 of the constitution, the minimum voting age is 18.[6]

Elections to the Senate take place under a limited vote system, in which each of the 47 peninsular provinces is assigned 4 seats, while the larger islands on Baleares and Canarias - Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife - are assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller islands - Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma - one each; Ceuta and Melilla are assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In constituencies with 4 Senators, electors may vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 Senators, for up to 2 candidates; and for one candidate in single member constituencies. Electors vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each constituency are elected for a 4-year term of office. In addition, the legislative assemblies of the self-governing or autonomous communities into which the provinces of Spain are grouped are entitled to appoint at least one Senator each, as well as one Senator for every million inhabitants.[7]

Apportionment[edit]

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Under Article 68 of the Spanish constitution, the boundaries of the electoral districts must be the same as the provinces of Spain and, under Article 141, this can only be altered with the approval of Congress.[6]

The apportionment of seats to provinces follows the largest remainder method over the resident population ("Padrón") with a minimum of two seats (cf. Art. 162 of the Electoral Law).[8]

Eligibility[edit]

Article 67.3 of the Spanish Constitution prohibits dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies, meaning that candidates must resign from regional assemblies if elected. Article 70 also makes active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals ineligible.[6] Additionally, under Article 11 of the Political Parties Law, June 2002 (Ley Orgánica 6/2002, de 27 de junio, de Partidos Políticos), parties and individual candidates may be prevented from standing by the Spanish Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo), if they are judged to have violated Article 9 of that law which prohibits parties which are perceived to discriminate against people on the basis of ideology, religion, beliefs, nationality, race, gender or sexual orientation (Article 9a), foment or organise violence as a means of achieving political objectives (Article 9b) or support or compliment the actions of "terrorist organisations" (Article 9c).[9] Article 55, Section 2 of the 1985 electoral law also disqualifies director generals or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.[10] Lastly, following changes to the electoral law which took effect for the 2007 municipal elections, candidates' lists must be composed of at least 40% of candidates of either gender and each group of five candidates must contain at least two males and two females.[11]

Presenting candidates

Parties and coalitions of different parties which have registered with the Electoral Commission can present lists of candidates (Article 44, 1985 electoral law). Groups of electors which have not registered with the commission can also present lists, provided that they obtain the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district (Article 169).[10]

General election[edit]

Background[edit]

The outgoing Spanish government was led by Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero from the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, who had announced on 2 April 2011 in a Federal Committee of his party that he would be stepping down as prime ministerial candidate for the next election.[12] Zapatero's decision not to seek a third term in office can be explained, partly, due to internal pressures within his party as both the party's performance in opinion polls and Zapatero's approval ratings had begun to plummet after Zapatero's radical change of policy on May 2010, when his government began to apply a series of unpopular austerity packages and budget cuts in order to try to curb the country's high public deficit during the ongoing Spanish financial crisis.[13] However, Zapatero's own disaffection with the policies he had been instructed to apply from Europe, as well as the quick deterioration of Spain's economic situation (with a 20% unemployment rate), are also though to have helped influence his final decision.

Interior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba was chosen as the party's candidate for Prime Minister, as he remained the only candidate in the leadership election in his party after the withdrawal of the other major candidate, Carme Chacón, from the race to the 2011 general election.[14] The other major national party, the People's Party, was led by Mariano Rajoy for the third successive time after two defeats in the 2004 and 2008 elections and fresh from its landslide victory in the May 2011 regional elections.

The end of the legislature presided over by PM José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero was initially scheduled for March 2012, but on 28 July 2011 Zapatero announced his intention to call an early election for 20 November. "I want a new government to take control of the economy from 1 January next year," said Zapatero to justify his decision. "It is convenient to hold elections this fall so a new government can take charge of the economy in 2012, fresh from the balloting."[15] This decision made this election the 7th early election since Spain's transition to democracy.[16]

As a result of President of Andalusia José Antonio Griñán's decision not to call a snap election in Andalusia, this was the first time since 1996 that a general election was not held concurrently with an Andalusian regional election. Andalusia held its election separately in 25 March 2012.

Political parties[edit]

Spain has more than 50 registered national parties, but fewer than 10 are considered significant. Since 1982, only 2 political parties have won in Spanish national elections:[17]

At the 2008 general election the only two other nationally represented parties which won seats were United Left and Union, Progress and Democracy.[17] A number of other regional parties also won seats (Convergence and Union and Republican Left in Catalonia, the Basque Nationalist Party in the Basque Country, the Galician Nationalist Bloc in Galicia, the Canarian Coalition in the Canary Islands and the Navarrese People's Union and Nafarroa Bai in Navarre).

A change in the electoral law, passed in January 2011, requires parties without representation in the Courts to obtain the signatures of 0.1% of registered electors per district they are running in.[18] For an updated list please see the following link.

Campaign[edit]

The electoral campaign started at 12:00 AM on 4 November with the traditional pasting of party's posters.[19]

Party slogans[edit]

Opinion polls[edit]

15-day average trend line of poll results from March 2008 to November 2011, with each line corresponding to a political party.

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Composition of the elected Congress.
Summary of the 20 November 2011 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
People's Party (PP) 10,866,566 44.63 +4.69 186 +32
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 7,003,511 28.76 −15.11 110 −59
United Left-The Greens: Plural Left (IU-LV) 1,686,040 6.92 +3.15 11 +9
Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 1,143,225 4.70 +3.51 5 +4
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,015,691 4.17 +1.14 16 +6
Amaiur (Amaiur) 334,498 1.37 New 7 +7
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 324,317 1.33 +0.14 5 −1
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 256,985 1.06 −0.10 3 ±0
EQUO (EQUO) 216,748 0.89 New 0 ±0
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 184,037 0.76 −0.07 2 ±0
Canarian Coalition-New Canarias (CC-NC-PNC) 143,881 0.59 −0.24 2 ±0
Commitment Coalition-EQUO (Compromís-Q) 125,306 0.51 +0.38 1 +1
Animal Rights Party (PACMA) 102,144 0.42 +0.25 0 ±0
Asturian Forum (FAC) 99,473 0.41 New 1 +1
Blank Seats (Eb) 97,673 0.40 +0.34 0 ±0
Andalusian Party (PA) 76,999 0.32 +0.05 0 ±0
Platform for Catalonia (PxC) 59,949 0.25 +0.24 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) 44,010 0.18 New 0 ±0
Yes to the Future (GBai) 42,415 0.17 −0.07 1 ±0
For a Fairer World (PUM+J) 27,210 0.11 +0.02 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 26,254 0.11 +0.03 0 ±0
Anti-capitalists (Anticapitalistas) 22,289 0.09 New 0 ±0
Pirates of Catalonia (Pirata.cat) 21,876 0.09 New 0 ±0
Communist Unification of Spain (UCE) 15,869 0.07 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 10,132 0.04 ±0.00 0 ±0
Spain 2000 (E-2000) 9,266 0.04 +0.01 0 ±0
Internationalist Solidarity and Self-Management (SAIn) 6,863 0.03 +0.01 0 ±0
Republicans (RPS) 5,430 0.02 New 0 ±0
Jaded.org (Hartos.org) 3,820 0.02 New 0 ±0
Pirate Party (Pirata) 3,426 0.01 New 0 ±0
Canarian Nationalist Alternative (ANC) 3,180 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx (FE-JONS) 2,898 0.01 −0.04 0 ±0
Liberal Democratic Centre (CDL) 2,848 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Castilian Party (PCAS) 2,431 0.01 −0.01 0 ±0
United by Valencia (UxV) 2,210 0.01 New 0 ±0
Individual Freedom Party (P-LIB) 2,065 0.01 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 2,058 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Internationalist Socialist Workers' Party (POSI) 2,007 0.01 −0.02 0 ±0
National Democracy (DN) 1,867 0.01 −0.04 0 ±0
Regionalist Party for Eastern Andalusia (PRAO) 1,784 0.01 New 0 ±0
Caballas Coalition (Caballas) 1,712 0.01 New 0 ±0
Twenty-first Convergence (C.XXI) 1,443 0.01 New 0 ±0
Others 13,019 0.05 0 ±0
Blank ballots 333,461 1.37 +0.26
Total 24,348,886 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 24,348,886 98.71 −0.65
Invalid votes 317,555 1.29 +0.65
Votes cast / turnout 24,666,441 68.94 −4.91
Abstentions 11,113,050 31.06 +4.91
Registered voters 35,779,491
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
PP
  
44.63%
PSOE
  
28.76%
IU
  
6.92%
UPyD
  
4.70%
CiU
  
4.17%
Amaiur
  
1.37%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.33%
ERC
  
1.06%
BNG
  
0.76%
CC-NC-PNC
  
0.59%
Compromís-Q
  
0.51%
FAC
  
0.41%
GBai
  
0.17%
Others
  
3.24%
Blank
  
1.37%
Parliamentary seats
PP
  
53.14%
PSOE
  
31.43%
CiU
  
4.57%
IU
  
3.14%
Amaiur
  
2.00%
UPyD
  
1.43%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.43%
ERC
  
0.86%
BNG
  
0.57%
CC-NC-PNC
  
0.57%
Compromís-Q
  
0.29%
FAC
  
0.29%
GBai
  
0.29%

Results by region[edit]

Election results by province.
Party AN AR AS BA BC CI CN CM CL CA CE EX GA LR MA ME MU NA VA Total
PP S 33 8 3 5 3 9 4 14 21 11 1 6 15 3 19 1 8 2 20 186
V 45.6 47.7 35.4 49.6 17.8 48.0 52.2 55.8 55.4 20.7 65.9 51.2 52.5 54.7 51.0 66.7 64.2 38.2 53.3 44.6
PSOE S 25 4 3 3 4 4 1 7 11 14 0 4 6 1 10 0 2 1 10 110
V 36.6 31.5 29.3 28.9 21.6 24.9 25.2 30.3 29.2 26.7 20.3 37.2 27.8 31.1 26.0 25.3 21.0 22.0 26.8 28.8
IU S 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 11
V 8.3 10.5 13.2 4.9 3.7 4.3 3.6 5.8 5.6 8.1 1.8 5.7 4.1 4.6 8.0 5.7 5.5 6.5 6.9
UPyD S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 5
V 4.8 5.8 3.9 4.2 1.8 2.6 3.6 5.0 6.1 1.2 3.3 3.5 1.2 6.0 10.3 3.7 6.3 2.1 5.6 4.7
CiU S 16 16
V 29.4 4.2
Amaiur S 6 1 7
V 24.1 14.9 1.4
PNV S 5 5
V 27.4 1.3
ERC S 0 3 0 3
V 1.1 7.1 0.3 1.1
BNG S 2 2
V 11.2 0.8
CC S 2 2
V 15.5 0.6
Compr. S 1 1
V 4.8 0.5
FAC S 1 0 1
V 14.7 0.2 0.4
GBai S 1 1
V 12.8 0.2
Others V 3.3 2.5 2.2 9.5 2.5 3.4 14.2 1.8 2.0 4.9 7.1 1.2 1.6 2.0 3.5 2.4 1.9 2.5 1.6 3.1
Blank 1.4 2.0 1.3 1.8 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.0 1.9 0.9 2.0 1.1 1.4
Total seats 60 13 8 8 18 15 5 21 32 47 1 10 23 4 36 1 10 5 33 350
Turnout 68.9 71.0 64.6 61.0 67.3 59.6 71.6 75.8 71.3 65.2 53.2 73.9 62.2 72.8 73.3 49.4 74.1 68.9 74.2 68.9

Senate[edit]

Composition of the elected Senate.
Summary of the 20 November 2011 Spanish Senate election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % +/− Won +/− Total
People's Party (PP) 136 +35 166
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 48 −40 66
Convergence and Union (CiU) 9 +5 13
Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSC-ICV-EUiA) 7 −5 10
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 4 +2 5
Amaiur (Amaiur) 3 +3 3
Canarian Coalition-New Canarias (CC-NC-PNC) 1 ±0 2
Asturian Forum (FAC) 0 ±0 1
Others 0 ±0 0
Blank ballots 1,264,947 5.36 +3.30
Total 23,578,950 100.00 208 ±0 266
Valid votes 23,578,950 96.30 −1.41
Invalid votes 904,722 3.70 +1.41
Votes cast / turnout 24,483,672 68.43 −6.06
Abstentions 11,295,819 31.57 +6.06
Registered voters 35,779,491
Source(s):
Parliamentary seats
PP
  
62.41%
PSOE
  
24.81%
CiU
  
4.89%
PSC-ICV-EUiA
  
3.76%
PNV
  
1.88%
Amaiur
  
1.13%
CC-NC-PNC
  
0.75%
FAC
  
0.38%

Composition[edit]

The Spanish Senate is composed by 208 directly-elected seats and a variable number of seats appointed by the regional parliaments of the autonomous communities when a new Parliament resulting from a regional election convenes. The appointment process of these seats (58 at the time of the 2011 election) depends on the political composition of those regional assemblies, and may change each time regional elections are held. A summary of the Senate composition evolution throughout the legislature can be found in the table below, showing changes due to seat appointment variation as a result of regional elections. There are three remarkably different stages in seat appointment:

Summary of Spanish Senate seat composition for the period 2011−2015
Party Seats
2011 2011−2015 2015
Elect. App. Total Splits App. Total Splits App. Total
PP and allies

136

134
2

30

29
1

166

163
3

−1

−1
±0

29

28
1

164

161
3

PSOE and allies

54

48
6

20

18
2

74

66
8

17

16
1

71

64
7

CiU 9 4 13 4 13
EAJ-PNV 4 1 5 1 5
Amaiur 3 0 3 1 4
IU and allies

1

0
1

1

0
1

2

0
2

3

2
1

4

2
2

CC-NC-PNC 1 1 2 1 2
FAC 0 1 1 1 1
ERC 0 0 0 1 1
Independents 0 0 0 +1 0 1
Total 208 58 266 ±0 58 266 ±0 58 266
Source(s): Historia Electoral

Post-election[edit]

Overview of results[edit]

With an overall voter turnout of 68.9%, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party suffered its worst defeat in a general election ever, while it also was one of the worst electoral performances for a ruling party in Spain since the UCD defeat in 1982. The People's Party was able to form a majority government with 186 out of 350 seats (actually 185, since 1 of them was obtained in coalition with the regional Navarrese People's Union), after almost eight years in opposition. The PSOE went on to lose in all but two provinces (Barcelona and Seville), while losing in both Andalusia and Catalonia, which up to that point had been carried by the PSOE in every general election.

Minoritary national parties, such as United Left and Union, Progress and Democracy, benefitted from the PSOE collapse, winning 11 (2 in the previous parliament) and 5 seats (1) respectively. It was also the first election in which almost all other parties won votes; of all parties with representation in the Congress of Deputies, only Republican Left of Catalonia and Geroa Bai lost votes compared to 2008. The Basque Nationalist Party lost 1 seat despite scoring higher than in 2008, but this came as a result of Amaiur's irruption, with 6 out of its 7 seats being elected in the Basque Country.

PSOE's electoral result would remain the worst electoral result for a ruling party in a nationwide-held election since 1977 until the European Parliament election, 2014.

Investiture voting[edit]

On 20 December 2011, Mariano Rajoy was elected in the first round of voting as new Prime Minister with an absolute majority in the Congress (187/350).

20 December 2011
Investiture voting for Mariano Rajoy Brey (PP)

Absolute majority: 176/350
Vote Parties Votes
YesY Yes PP (185), UPN (1), FAC (1)
187 / 350
No PSOE (110), CiU (16), IU (11), UPyD (5), ERC (3), BNG (2), Compromís (1), GBai (1)
149 / 350
Abstentions Amaiur (7), PNV (5), CC-NC (2)
14 / 350
Source: Historia Electoral

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rubalcaba dice adiós a las ideas y el estilo de Zapatero". La Vanguardia. 2011-07-10. 
  2. ^ "Iñaki Antigüedad será el cabeza de lista de Amaiur por Bizkaia el 20-N". Deia. 2011-10-12. 
  3. ^ "Real Decreto 1329/2011, de 26 de septiembre, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones". Boletín Oficial del Estado. 26 September 2011. 
  4. ^ "Zapatero convoca el 20-N para que "otro Gobierno dé certidumbre"". El País. 29 July 2011. 
  5. ^ "Rajoy logra para el PP una mayoría histórica con 186 diputados y el PSOE se hunde con 110". RTVE. 20 November 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c "The Spanish Constitution of 1978". 
  7. ^ "General Aspects of the Electoral System". 
  8. ^ Electoral Law
  9. ^ "Law regarding registration of political parties". Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "Law governing electoral procedures". Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  11. ^ "OSCE observers task force report on 2008 Spanish election" (PDF). Organisation for security and cooperation in Europe OSCE. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  12. ^ "Zapatero abre paso a un nuevo liderazgo en el PSOE tras renunciar a ser candidato". El País. 3 April 2011. 
  13. ^ "Zapatero da un vuelco a su estrategia con un recorte de sueldos públicos sin precedentes". El País. 13 May 2010. 
  14. ^ "Rubalcaba, "candidato de facto" del PSOE al no lograr avales ningún aspirante". ABC. 13 June 2011. 
  15. ^ Ross, Emma (29 July 2011). "Spain's embattled prime minister calls early elections". USA Today. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "Zapatero anuncia el séptimo adelanto electoral en democracia". El País. 29 July 2011. 
  17. ^ a b Elections in Spain accessed 6 March 2011
  18. ^ Los partidos minoritarios dispondrán de 20 días para recoger firmas
  19. ^ "La campaña electoral starts this night with the traditional "paste of posters"". ABC. 2011-11-03. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  20. ^ "Pelea por lo que quieres", lema de campaña del PSOE
  21. ^ 'Súmate al cambio', lema del Partido Popular para las elecciones del 20-N
  22. ^ IU anima a superar la "dicotomía" PP-PSOE con su lema "Rebélate!"
  23. ^ Para UPyD, 'Cada voto vale' y luchará por conseguir la confianza de los ciudadanos