Spanish general election, 2004

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Spanish general election, 2004
Spain
2000 ←
14 March 2004 → 2008

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of the 259) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered 34,571,831 Increase1.8%
Turnout 26,155,436 (75.7%)
Increase7.0 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Presidente José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero - La Moncloa 2011.jpg Presidente Mariano Rajoy Brey 2012 - La Moncloa (Recortada).jpg Gaspar Llamazares.jpg
Leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Mariano Rajoy Gaspar Llamazares
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 22 July 2000 2 September 2003 29 October 2000
Last election 125 seats, 34.2% 183 seats, 44.5% 9 seats, 6.0%[a]
Seats won 164 148 5
Seat change Increase39 Decrease35 Decrease4
Popular vote 11,026,163 9,763,144 1,284,081
Percentage 42.6% 37.7% 5.0%
Swing Increase8.4 pp Decrease6.8 pp Decrease1.0 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida (retrato).png Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira - 001.jpg MFJ 3804 (Recortada).jpg
Leader Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira Josu Erkoreka
Party CiU ERC EAJ-PNV
Leader since 2004 2004 2004
Last election 15 seats, 4.2% 1 seat, 0.8% 7 seats, 1.5%
Seats won 10 8 7
Seat change Decrease5 Increase7 Steady0
Popular vote 835,471 652,196 420,980
Percentage 3.2% 2.5% 1.6%
Swing Decrease1.0 pp Increase1.7 pp Increase0.1 pp

Most voted party in each autonomous community and province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

José María Aznar
PP

Elected Prime Minister

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
PSOE

The 2004 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 14 March, to elect the 8th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 259 seats in the Senate.

The governing People's Party (PP) was led into the campaign by Mariano Rajoy, successor to outgoing Prime Minister José María Aznar. The election result took many by surprise, as polling leading up to the day of the election had shown the People's Party under leader Rajoy to be consistently ahead. The electoral outcome was heavily influenced by the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings and the PP government's handling of the attacks (maintaining the theory of ETA's responsibility even when evidence pointed to Islamist extremist groups), which resulted in large demonstrations on the days before the election.

The day after the election, Zapatero announced his intention to form a minority PSOE government, without a coalition, saying in a radio interview: "the implicit mandate of the people is for us to form a minority government negotiating accords on each issue with other parliamentary groups". Two minor left-wing parties, Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and IU, immediately announced their intention to support Zapatero's government. On April 16, 2004, Zapatero got the approval of the outright majority of the new Congress, with 183 out of 350 members voting for him, and became the Prime Minister of Spain the next day.[1]

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

Congress of Deputies

The 350 members of the Congress of Deputies were elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elected 1 member each using plurality voting. Each district was entitled to an initial minimum of 2 seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) were entitled to enter the seat distribution.

Senate

For the Senate, each of the 47 peninsular provinces was assigned 4 seats. For insular provinces, such as Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — 1 each. Ceuta and Melilla were assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors could vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors would vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district would be elected for a 4-year term of office.

In addition, the legislative assemblies of the autonomous communities are entitled to appoint at least 1 senator each, as well as 1 senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators.[2] This appointment usually did not take place at the same time that the general election, but when the autonomous communities held their elections.

Eligibility[edit]

Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies was prohibited. Active judges, magistrates, ombudsmen, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals were also ineligible,[3] as well as CEOs or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies, such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.[4] Additionally, under the Political Parties Law, June 2002, parties and individual candidates may be prevented from standing by the Spanish Supreme Court, if they were judicially perceived to discriminate against people on the basis of ideology, religion, beliefs, nationality, race, gender or sexual orientation, foment or organise violence as a means of achieving political objectives or support or compliment the actions of "terrorist organisations".[5]

Parties and coalitions of different parties which had registered with the Electoral Commission could present lists of candidates. Groups of electors which had not registered with the commission could also present lists, provided that they obtained the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district.[4]

Opinion polls[edit]

15-day average trend line of poll results from March 2000 to March 2004, with each line corresponding to a political party.

Congress of Deputies results[edit]

Overall[edit]

Summary of the 14 March 2004 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Spanish Congress of Deputies election, 2004 results.svg
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 11,026,163 42.59 Increase8.43 164 Increase39
People's Party (PP) 9,763,144 37.71 Decrease6.81 148 Decrease35
United Left (IU)[a] 1,284,081 4.96 Decrease1.00 5 Decrease4
Convergence and Union (CiU) 835,471 3.23 Decrease0.96 10 Decrease5
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 652,196 2.52 Increase1.68 8 Increase7
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 420,980 1.63 Increase0.10 7 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 235,221 0.91 Decrease0.16 3 Decrease1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 208,688 0.81 Decrease0.51 2 Decrease1
Andalusian Party (PA) 181,868 0.70 Decrease0.19 0 Decrease1
Aragonese Union (CHA) 94,252 0.36 Increase0.03 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 80,905 0.31 Decrease0.12 1 ±0
Yes to Navarre (NaBai) 61,045 0.24 New 1 Increase1
Valencian Nationalist Bloc-Green Left (BNV-EV) 40,759 0.16 Decrease0.09 0 ±0
Nationalist Agreement (PSM-EN,EU,EV,ER) 40,289 0.16 Increase0.06 0 ±0
Citizens for Blank Votes (CenB) 40,208 0.16 New 0 ±0
Aralar-Standing (Aralar-Zutik) 38,560 0.15 New 0 ±0
The Greens Ecopacifists (LVE) 37,499 0.14 Increase0.04 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 36,540 0.14 Decrease0.03 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 34,101 0.13 Increase0.03 0 ±0
The Greens-The Ecologist Alternative (EV-AE) 30,528 0.12 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 407,795 1.58 ±0.00
Total 25,891,299 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 25,891,299 98.99 Decrease0.33
Invalid votes 264,137 1.01 Increase0.33
Votes cast / turnout 26,155,436 75.66 Increase6.95
Abstentions 8,416,395 24.34 Decrease6.95
Registered voters 34,571,831
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
PSOE
  
42.59%
PP
  
37.71%
IU
  
4.96%
CiU
  
3.23%
ERC
  
2.52%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.63%
CC
  
0.91%
BNG
  
0.81%
CHA
  
0.36%
EA
  
0.31%
NaBai
  
0.24%
Others
  
3.17%
Blank ballots
  
1.58%
Parliamentary seats
PSOE
  
46.86%
PP
  
42.29%
CiU
  
2.86%
ERC
  
2.29%
EAJ-PNV
  
2.00%
IU
  
1.43%
CC
  
0.89%
BNG
  
0.57%
CHA
  
0.29%
EA
  
0.29%
NaBai
  
0.29%

Results by region[edit]

Election results by province.
Party AN AR AS BA BC CI CN CM CL CA CE EX GA LR MA ME MU NA VA Total
PSOE S 38 7 4 4 7 6 2 9 14 21 0 5 10 2 16 0 3 2 14 164
V 52.9 41.3 43.4 39.5 27.2 34.5 40.9 46.5 41.9 39.5 35.8 51.2 37.2 44.0 44.1 41.4 35.0 33.6 42.5 42.6
PP S 23 5 4 4 4 6 3 11 19 6 1 5 12 2 17 1 6 2 17 148
V 33.7 36.5 43.8 45.9 18.9 35.4 51.9 47.4 50.3 15.6 59.2 42.4 47.2 49.9 45.0 54.6 57.4 37.6 46.8 37.7
IU S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 5
V 6.4 2.8 8.4 8.2 1.9 3.3 3.4 2.8 5.8 0.6 3.5 1.7 2.8 6.4 0.8 4.3 5.9 4.7 5.0
CiU S 10 10
V 20.8 3.2
ERC S 8 0 8
V 15.9 0.5 2.5
PNV S 7 7
V 33.7 1.6
CC S 3 3
V 24.3 0.9
BNG S 2 2
V 11.4 0.8
CHA S 1 1
V 12.1 0.3
EA S 1 1
V 6.5 0.3
Na-Bai S 1 1
V 18.0 0.2
Others V 5.3 5.3 2.3 12.7 4.1 2.8 1.6 1.1 3.0 1.5 3.0 1.6 0.9 1.2 2.4 1.6 1.9 2.9 4.0 3.3
Blank 1.7 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.1 2.3 1.6 2.0 0.9 1.4 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.6 1.4 2.0 1.5 1.6
Total seats 61 13 8 8 19 15 5 20 33 47 1 10 24 4 35 1 9 5 32 350
Turnout 74.8 77.0 71.7 68.8 75.0 66.7 77.2 79.9 77.8 76.0 63.5 79.3 71.0 79.5 78.9 55.8 77.1 76.2 77.7 75.7

Senate results[edit]

Summary of the 14 March 2004 Spanish Senate election results
Spanish Senate election, 2004 results.svg
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % +/− Won +/− Total +/−
People's Party (PP) 102 Decrease25 126 Decrease24
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 81 Increase28 96 Increase29
Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSC-ERC-ICV) 12 Increase4 16 Increase4
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 6 ±0 7 ±0
Convergence and Union (CiU) 4 Decrease4 6 Decrease4
Canarian Coalition (CC) 3 Decrease2 4 Decrease2
United Left (IU) 0 ±0 2 Decrease1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 0 ±0 1 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 ±0 1 ±0
Others 0 Decrease1 0 Decrease2
Blank ballots 679,816 2.67 Decrease0.15
Total 25,426,107 100.00 208 ±0 259 ±0
Valid votes 25,426,107 97.09 Decrease0.42
Invalid votes 761,055 2.91 Increase0.42
Votes cast / turnout 26,187,162 75.75 Increase6.92
Abstentions 8,384,669 24.25 Decrease6.92
Registered voters 34,571,831
Source(s):
Parliamentary seats
PP
  
48.65%
PSOE
  
37.07%
PSC-ERC-ICV
  
6.18%
EAJ-PNV
  
2.70%
CiU
  
2.32%
CC
  
1.54%
IU
  
0.77%
BNG
  
0.39%
PAR
  
0.39%

The Spanish Senate at the time of the 2004 election was composed by 208 directly-elected seats and 51 seats appointed by the regional parliaments of the autonomous communities when a new Parliament resulting from a regional election convenes. The appointment process of these seats depended on the political composition of those regional assemblies, and as such, it could change each time regional elections were held.

Post-election[edit]

Investiture voting[edit]

Candidate Date Vote PSOE PP CiU ERC PNV IU CC BNG CHA EA NB Total
José Luis
Rodríguez Zapatero

(PSOE)
16 Apr 2004
Majority required:
Absolute (176/350)
YesYYes 164 8 5 3 2 1
183 / 350
No 148
148 / 350
Abst. 10 7 1 1
19 / 350
Source: Historia Electoral - Spanish General Election 14 March 2004

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b United Left results are compared to the combined totals of United Left and Initiative for Catalonia Greens in the 2000 election.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]