Spanish general election, 2004

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Spanish general election, 2004
Spain
2000 ←
14 March 2004
→ 2008

All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 (out of the 259) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies,
130 in the Senate (105 for elected seats)
Opinion polls
Turnout 75.7%
Increase7.0 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Presidente José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero - La Moncloa 2011.jpg Presidente Mariano Rajoy Brey 2012 - La Moncloa (Recortada).jpg Llamazares.jpg
Leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Mariano Rajoy Gaspar Llamazares
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 22 July 2000 2 September 2003[1] 29 October 2000
Last election 125 C & 60 S
34.2%
183 C & 127 S
44.5%
8 C & 0 S
5.4%
Seats won
164 / 350
89 / 208
148 / 350
102 / 208
5 / 350
1 / 208
Seat change Increase39 C
Increase29 S
Decrease35 C
Decrease25 S
Decrease3 C
Increase1 S
Popular vote 11,026,163 9,763,144 1,284,081
Percentage 42.6% 37.7% 5.0%
Swing Increase8.4 pp Decrease6.8 pp Decrease0.4 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida (retrato).png Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira - 001.jpg MFJ 3804 (Recortada).jpg
Leader Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira Josu Erkoreka
Party CiU ERC EAJ-PNV
Leader since 2004 2004 2004
Last election 15 C & 8 S
4.2%
1 C & 1 S
0.8%
7 C & 6 S
1.5%
Seats won
10 / 350
4 / 208
8 / 350
3 / 208
7 / 350
6 / 208
Seat change Decrease5 C
Decrease4 S
Increase7 C
Increase2 S
Steady0 C
Steady0 S
Popular vote 835,471 652,196 420,980
Percentage 3.2% 2.5% 1.6%
Swing Decrease1.0 pp Increase1.7 pp Increase0.1 pp

Most voted party in each autonomous community and province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

José María Aznar
PP

Elected Prime Minister

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
PSOE

Escudo de España (colores THV).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Spain
Foreign relations

The 2004 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 14 March, to elect the 8th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 259 seats to the Senate.

The governing People's Party (PP) was led into the campaign by Mariano Rajoy, successor to outgoing Prime Minister José María Aznar. The election result took many by surprise, as polling leading up to the day of the election had shown the People's Party under leader Rajoy to be consistently ahead. The electoral outcome was heavily influenced by the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings and the PP government's handling of the attacks (maintaining the theory of ETA's responsibility even when evidence pointed to Islamist extremist groups), which resulted in large demonstrations on the days before the election.

The day after the election, Zapatero announced his intention to form a minority PSOE government, without a coalition, saying in a radio interview: "the implicit mandate of the people is for us to form a minority government negotiating accords on each issue with other parliamentary groups". Two minor left-wing parties, Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and IU, immediately announced their intention to support Zapatero's government. On April 16, 2004, Zapatero got the approval of the outright majority of the new Congress, with 183 out of 350 members voting for him, and became the Prime Minister of Spain the next day.[2]

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The Congress of Deputies 350 members are elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elect one member each using plurality voting. Each district is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) are entitled to enter the seat distribution. Under articles 12 and 68 of the Constitution, the minimum voting age is 18.[3]

Elections to the Senate take place under a limited vote system. Each of the 47 peninsular districts (the provinces) is assigned 4 seats. In Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — one each. Ceuta and Melilla are assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors may vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district are elected for a 4-year term of office.

In addition, the legislative assemblies of the self-governing or autonomous communities into which the provinces of Spain are grouped are entitled to appoint at least one senator each, as well as one senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators.[4]

Apportionment[edit]

Under Article 68 of the Spanish constitution, the boundaries of the electoral districts must be the same as the provinces of Spain and, under Article 141, this can only be altered with the approval of Congress.[3]

The apportionment of seats to provinces follows the largest remainder method over the resident population ("Padrón") with a minimum of two seats (Art. 162 of the Electoral Law).[5]

Eligibility[edit]

Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies is prohibited, meaning that candidates must resign from regional assemblies if elected. Active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals are also ineligible,[3] as well as CEOs or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies, such as the Spanish state broadcaster RTVE.[6] Additionally, under the Political Parties Law, June 2002, parties and individual candidates may be prevented from standing by the Spanish Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo), if they are judicially perceived to discriminate against people on the basis of ideology, religion, beliefs, nationality, race, gender or sexual orientation, foment or organise violence as a means of achieving political objectives or support or compliment the actions of "terrorist organisations".[7]

Presenting candidates

Parties and coalitions of different parties which have registered with the Electoral Commission can present lists of candidates. Groups of electors which have not registered with the commission can also present lists, provided that they obtain the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district.[6]

Opinion polls[edit]

15-day average trend line of poll results from March 2000 to March 2004, with each line corresponding to a political party.

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Composition of the elected Congress.
Summary of the 14 March 2004 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 11,026,163 42.59 +8.43 164 +39
People's Party (PP) 9,763,144 37.71 −6.81 148 −35
United Left (IU) 1,284,081 4.96 −0.49 5 −3
Convergence and Union (CiU) 835,471 3.23 −0.96 10 −5
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 652,196 2.52 +1.68 8 +7
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 420,980 1.63 +0.10 7 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 235,221 0.91 −0.16 3 −1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 208,688 0.81 −0.51 2 −1
Andalusian Party (PA) 181,868 0.70 −0.19 0 −1
Aragonese Union (CHA) 94,252 0.36 +0.03 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 80,905 0.31 −0.12 1 ±0
Yes to Navarre (Na-Bai) 61,045 0.24 New 1 +1
Valencian Nationalist Bloc-Green Left (BNV-EV) 40,759 0.16 −0.09 0 ±0
Nationalist Agreement (PSM-EN,EU,EV,ER) 40,289 0.16 +0.06 0 ±0
Citizens for Blank Votes (CenB) 40,208 0.26 New 0 ±0
Aralar-Standing (Aralar-Zutik) 38,560 0.15 New 0 ±0
The Greens-Ecopacifists (LV-E) 37,499 0.14 +0.04 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 36,540 0.14 −0.03 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 34,101 0.13 +0.03 0 ±0
The Greens-The Ecologist Alternative (EV-AE) 30,528 0.12 New 0 ±0
Andalusian Socialist Party (PSA) 24,127 0.09 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 21,758 0.08 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of the Madrid Community (LVCM) 19,600 0.08 −0.01 0 ±0
Republican Left (IR) 16,993 0.07 New 0 ±0
Cannabis Party for Legalisation and Normalisation (PCLyN) 16,918 0.07 New 0 ±0
Family and Life Party (PFyL) 16,699 0.06 New 0 ±0
National Democracy (DN) 15,180 0.06 +0.02 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 14,160 0.05 −0.13 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 12,979 0.05 −0.01 0 ±0
The Greens-Green Group (LV-GV) 12,749 0.05 −0.04 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx (FE-JONS) 12,266 0.05 +0.02 0 ±0
Majorcan Union (UM) 10,558 0.04 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Phalanx (FE) 10,311 0.04 −0.02 0 ±0
Communal Land-Castilian Nationalist Party (TC-PNC) 8,866 0.03 −0.05 0 ±0
Internationalist Socialist Workers' Party (POSI) 8,003 0.03 −0.02 0 ±0
The Greens of the Region of Murcia (LVRM) 7,074 0.03 New 0 ±0
Republican Social Movement (MSR) 6,768 0.03 New 0 ±0
Spanish Democratic Party (PADE) 5,677 0.02 −0.02 0 ±0
Democrats Convergence of Navarre (CDN) 5,573 0.02 −0.02 0 ±0
The Greens of Asturias (Verdes) 5,013 0.02 New 0 ±0
Authentic Phalanx (FA) 4,589 0.02 New 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 4,292 0.02 −0.01 0 ±0
Spain 2000 (E-2000) 4,231 0.02 −0.02 0 ±0
Canarian Nationalist Party (PNC) 4,092 0.02 New 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 3,916 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of Extremadura (LV) 3,133 0.01 New 0 ±0
Freelance and Professionals' Party (AU.TO.NO.MO) 3,124 0.01 −0.01 0 ±0
Initiative for the Development of Soria (I.DE.S) 2,934 0.01 New 0 ±0
Andalusia Assembly (A) 2,930 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Canarian People's Alternative (APCa) 2,715 0.01 New 0 ±0
European Green Group (GVE) 2,662 0.01 New 0 ±0
Independent Candidate - Castilla and Leon Party (PCL) 2,421 0.01 −0.01 0 ±0
Unsubmissive Seats (Ei) 2,332 0.01 New 0 ±0
Democratic Karma Party (PKD) 2,300 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Galician Popular Front (FPG) 2,257 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Galician Coalition (CG) 2,235 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Alliance for the Development and Nature (ADN) 2,215 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party for Precarious-Employed Workers (PTPRE) 2,115 0.01 New 0 ±0
Valencian Kingdom Identity (IRV) 2,111 0.01 New 0 ±0
Freelancers, Retired and Widows' Party (PAE) 2,082 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Andecha Astur (AA) 1,970 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Union of the Salamancan People (UPSa) 1,871 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Carlist Party (PC) 1,813 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Romantic Mutual Support Party (PMAR) 1,561 0.01 New 0 ±0
Cantabrian Nationalist Council (CNC) 1,431 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 1,322 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Another Democracy is Possible (OtraDem) 1,302 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Others 17,942 0.07 0 ±0
Blank ballots 407,795 1.58 ±0.00
Total 25,891,299 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 25,891,299 98.99 −0.33
Invalid votes 264,137 1.01 +0.33
Votes cast / turnout 26,155,436 75.66 +6.95
Abstentions 8,416,395 24.34 −6.95
Registered voters 34,571,831
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
PSOE
  
42.59%
PP
  
37.71%
IU
  
4.96%
CiU
  
3.23%
ERC
  
2.52%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.63%
CC
  
0.91%
BNG
  
0.81%
CHA
  
0.36%
EA
  
0.31%
Na-Bai
  
0.24%
Others
  
3.17%
Blank
  
1.58%
Parliamentary seats
PSOE
  
46.86%
PP
  
42.29%
CiU
  
2.86%
ERC
  
2.29%
EAJ-PNV
  
2.00%
IU
  
1.43%
CC
  
0.89%
BNG
  
0.57%
CHA
  
0.29%
EA
  
0.29%
Na-Bai
  
0.29%

Senate[edit]

Composition of the Senate after the election.
Summary of the 14 March 2004 Spanish Senate election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % +/− Won +/− Total
People's Party (PP) 102 −25 126
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 81 +28 96
Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSC-ERC-ICV) 12 +4 16
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 6 ±0 7
Convergence and Union (CiU) 4 −4 6
Canarian Coalition (CC) 3 −2 4
United Left (IU) 0 ±0 2
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 0 ±0 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 ±0 1
Others 0 −1 ±0
Blank ballots 679,816 2.67 −0.15
Total 25,426,107 100.00 208 ±0 259
Valid votes 25,426,107 97.09 −0.42
Invalid votes 761,055 2.91 +0.42
Votes cast / turnout 26,187,162 75.75 +6.92
Abstentions 8,384,669 24.25 −6.92
Registered voters 34,571,831
Source(s):
Parliamentary seats
PP
  
48.65%
PSOE
  
37.07%
PSC-ERC-ICV
  
6.18%
EAJ-PNV
  
2.70%
CiU
  
2.32%
CC
  
1.54%
IU
  
0.77%
BNG
  
0.39%
PAR
  
0.39%

The Spanish Senate at the time of the 2004 election was composed by 208 directly-elected seats and 51 seats appointed by the regional parliaments of the autonomous communities when a new Parliament resulting from a regional election convenes. The appointment process of these seats depended on the political composition of those regional assemblies, and as such, it could change each time regional elections were held. A summary of the Senate composition evolution throughout the 2004−2008 legislature can be found in the table below, showing changes due to seat appointment variation as a result of regional elections.

Summary of Spanish Senate seat composition for the period 2004−2008
Party Seats
2004 2008
Elect. App. Total Splits App. Total
PP 102 24 126 21 123
PSOE and allies

89

81
8

17

15
2

106

96
10

19

17
2

108

98
10

EAJ-PNV 6 1 7 2 8
CiU 4 2 6 2 6
IU and allies

1

0
1

3

2
1

4

2
2

1

1
0

2

1
1

ERC 3 1 4 1 4
CC-NC-PNC 3 1 4 1 4
BNG 0 1 1 1 1
PAR 0 1 1 1 1
PSM 0 0 0 1 1
Independents 0 0 0 1 1
Total 208 51 259 51 ±0 259
Source: Historia Electoral

Results by region[edit]

Election results by province.
Party AN AR AS BA BC CI CN CM CL CA CE EX GA LR MA ME MU NA VA Total
PSOE S 38 7 4 4 7 6 2 9 14 21 0 5 10 2 16 0 3 2 14 164
V 52.9 41.3 43.4 39.5 27.2 34.5 40.9 46.5 41.9 39.5 35.8 51.2 37.2 44.0 44.1 41.4 35.0 33.6 42.5 42.6
PP S 23 5 4 4 4 6 3 11 19 6 1 5 12 2 17 1 6 2 17 148
V 33.7 36.5 43.8 45.9 18.9 35.4 51.9 47.4 50.3 15.6 59.2 42.4 47.2 49.9 45.0 54.6 57.4 37.6 46.8 37.7
IU S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 5
V 6.4 2.8 8.4 8.2 1.9 3.3 3.4 2.8 5.8 0.6 3.5 1.7 2.8 6.4 0.8 4.3 5.9 4.7 5.0
CiU S 10 10
V 20.8 3.2
ERC S 8 0 8
V 15.9 0.5 2.5
PNV S 7 7
V 33.7 1.6
CC S 3 3
V 24.3 0.9
BNG S 2 2
V 11.4 0.8
CHA S 1 1
V 12.1 0.3
EA S 1 1
V 6.5 0.3
Na-Bai S 1 1
V 18.0 0.2
Others V 5.3 5.3 2.3 12.7 4.1 2.8 1.6 1.1 3.0 1.5 3.0 1.6 0.9 1.2 2.4 1.6 1.9 2.9 4.0 3.3
Blank 1.7 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.1 2.3 1.6 2.0 0.9 1.4 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.6 1.4 2.0 1.5 1.6
Total seats 61 13 8 8 19 15 5 20 33 47 1 10 24 4 35 1 9 5 32 350
Turnout 74.8 77.0 71.7 68.8 75.0 66.7 77.2 79.9 77.8 76.0 63.5 79.3 71.0 79.5 78.9 55.8 77.1 76.2 77.7 75.7

Investiture voting[edit]

16 April 2004
Investiture voting for José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)

Absolute majority: 176/350
Vote Parties Votes
YesY Yes PSOE (164), ERC (8), IU (5), CC (3), BNG (2), CHA (1)
183 / 350
No PP (148)
148 / 350
Abstentions CiU (10), PNV (7), EE (1), Na-Bai (1)
19 / 350
Source: Historia Electoral

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]