Spanish general election, 2004

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Spanish general election, 2004
Spain
2000 ←
14 March 2004
→ 2008

All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 (out of the 259) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies, 130 in the Senate
Opinion polls
Turnout 75.7%
Increase7.0 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Zapatero cornella-cropped.jpg Rajoy Jornadas Para Mejorar tu Vida-cropped.jpg Llamazares.jpg
Leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Mariano Rajoy Gaspar Llamazares
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 22 July 2000 2 September 2003[1] 29 October 2000
Last election 125 C & 78 S
34.2%
183 C & 150 S
44.5%
8 C & 2 S
5.4%
Seats won
164 / 350
106 / 259
148 / 350
126 / 259
5 / 350
3 / 259
Seat change Increase39 C
Increase28 S
Decrease35 C
Decrease24 S
Decrease3 C
Increase1 S
Popular vote 11,026,163 9,763,144 1,284,081
Percentage 42.6% 37.7% 5.0%
Swing Increase8.4 pp Decrease6.8 pp Decrease0.4 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida (retrato).png Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira - 001.jpg MFJ 3804 (Recortada).jpg
Leader Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira Josu Erkoreka
Party CiU ERC EAJ-PNV
Leader since 2004 2004 2004
Last election 15 C & 11 S
4.2%
1 C & 2 S
0.8%
7 C & 8 S
1.5%
Seats won
10 / 350
6 / 259
8 / 350
4 / 259
7 / 350
7 / 259
Seat change Decrease5 C
Decrease5 S
Increase7 C
Increase2 S
Steady0 C
Decrease1 S
Popular vote 835,471 652,196 420,980
Percentage 3.2% 2.5% 1.6%
Swing Decrease1.0 pp Increase1.7 pp Increase0.1 pp

Most voted party in each autonomous community and province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

José María Aznar
PP

Elected Prime Minister

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
PSOE

Escudo de España (colores THV).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Spain
Foreign relations

The 2004 Spanish general election was held on 14 March 2004 to elect the 9th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 259 seats to the Senate.

The governing People's Party (PP) was led into the campaign by Mariano Rajoy, successor to outgoing Prime Minister José María Aznar. The election result took many by surprise, as polling leading up to the day of the election had shown the People's Party under leader Rajoy to be consistently ahead. The electoral outcome was heavily influenced by the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings and the PP government's handling of the attacks (maintaining the theory of ETA's responsibility even when evidence pointed to Islamist extremist groups), which resulted in large demonstrations on the days before the election.

The day after the election, Zapatero announced his intention to form a minority PSOE government, without a coalition, saying in a radio interview: "the implicit mandate of the people is for us to form a minority government negotiating accords on each issue with other parliamentary groups". Two minor left-wing parties, Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and IU, immediately announced their intention to support Zapatero's government. On April 16, 2004, Zapatero got the approval of the outright majority of the new Congress, with 183 out of 350 members voting for him, and became the Prime Minister of Spain the next day.[2]

Electoral system[edit]

This was the eighth general election since the restoration of democratic government in 1978, or the ninth if the elections to a constitutional assembly in 1977 are included. Each of Spain's autonomous communities elects a number of deputies and senators in rough proportion to its population. The smaller autonomous communities (such as La Rioja) form a single electoral district (a circumscription). The larger autonomous communities (such as Catalonia) are divided into several circumscriptions.

All 350 deputies are elected on party lists, by roughly proportional representation in each electoral district. The method used to allocate the seats is the D'Hondt method, which favours larger parties over smaller ones, and concentrated minorities over scattered ones.

In the Senate, each of Spain's 50 provinces (except in the Canary and Balearic Islands) elects four Senators regardless of population. This results in under-representation for the large urban circumscriptions of Madrid and Barcelona, and over-representation for the conservative provinces of Castile and Galicia. Further, the Canary Islands and the Balearic Islands elect additional senators (since circumscriptions consist of the island governments rather than the provinces), and the small autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla (Spanish enclaves on the coast of Morocco) elect two Senators each. The islands and the enclaves are PP strongholds. The net effect of this system is to advantage the PP at the expense of the PSOE in the Senate. In the senate elections, voters can cast votes for up to three different people. Voters tend to cast all their votes for members of the same party, with the result that most provinces allocate 3 senators to the party with the strongest support, and 1 senator to the second party.

The Congress of Deputies must appoint the prime minister within two months of convening on 2 April. Although constitutionally the King, as head of state, submits a proposed prime minister to the approval of the Congress, in practice the King exercises no discretion. Each of the candidates, starting with the candidate of the largest party, comes before the Congress for two investiture votes, the first by majority and the second by plurality. Typically, the leader of the largest bloc becomes Prime Minister of Spain, unless a coalition of different parties has a majority of seats.

At the 2000 general election, the People's Party won a majority of seats in Congress with 183 S the Socialists won 125, the Catalan nationalist party Convergence and Unity won 15 and the United Left (a coalition around the Communist Party) won 8. Minor parties won the remaining 19 seats.

Elections to Andalusia's regional parliament were held on the same day. The PSOE retained office in these elections with an increased majority.[3]

Opinion polls[edit]

15-day average trend line of poll results from March 2000 to March 2004, with each line corresponding to a political party.

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Composition of the elected Congress.
Summary of the 14 March 2004 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 11,026,163 42.59 +8.43 164 +39
People's Party (PP) 9,763,144 37.71 −6.81 148 −35
United Left (IU) 1,284,081 4.96 −0.49 5 −3
Convergence and Union (CiU) 835,471 3.23 −0.96 10 −5
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 652,196 2.52 +1.68 8 +7
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 420,980 1.63 +0.10 7 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC) 235,221 0.91 −0.16 3 −1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 208,688 0.81 −0.51 2 −1
Andalusian Party (PA) 181,868 0.70 −0.19 0 −1
Aragonese Union (CHA) 94,252 0.36 +0.03 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 80,905 0.31 −0.12 1 ±0
Yes to Navarre (Na-Bai) 61,045 0.24 New 1 +1
Valencian Nationalist Bloc-Green Left (Bloc-EV) 40,759 0.16 −0.09 0 ±0
Nationalist Agreement (PSM-EN,EU,EV,ER) 40,289 0.16 +0.06 0 ±0
Citizens for Blank Votes (CenB) 40,208 0.26 New 0 ±0
Aralar-Standing (Aralar-Zutik) 38,560 0.15 New 0 ±0
The Greens-Ecopacifists (LV-E) 37,499 0.14 +0.04 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 36,540 0.14 −0.03 0 ±0
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 34,101 0.13 +0.03 0 ±0
The Greens-The Ecologist Alternative (EV-AE) 30,528 0.12 New 0 ±0
Andalusian Socialist Party (PSA) 24,127 0.09 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 21,758 0.08 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of the Madrid Community (LVCM) 19,600 0.08 −0.01 0 ±0
Republican Left (IR) 16,993 0.07 New 0 ±0
Cannabis Party for Legalisation and Normalisation (PCLyN) 16,918 0.07 New 0 ±0
Family and Life Party (PFyL) 16,699 0.06 New 0 ±0
National Democracy (DN) 15,180 0.06 +0.02 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 14,160 0.05 −0.13 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 12,979 0.05 −0.01 0 ±0
The Greens-Green Group (LV-GV) 12,749 0.05 −0.04 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx (FE-JONS) 12,266 0.05 +0.02 0 ±0
Majorcan Union (UM) 10,558 0.04 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Phalanx (FE) 10,311 0.04 −0.02 0 ±0
Communal Land-Castilian Nationalist Party (TC-PNC) 8,866 0.03 −0.05 0 ±0
Internationalist Socialist Workers' Party (POSI) 8,003 0.03 −0.02 0 ±0
The Greens of the Region of Murcia (LVRM) 7,074 0.03 New 0 ±0
Republican Social Movement (MSR) 6,768 0.03 New 0 ±0
Spanish Democratic Party (PADE) 5,677 0.02 −0.02 0 ±0
Democrats Convergence of Navarre (CDN) 5,573 0.02 −0.02 0 ±0
The Greens of Asturias (Verdes) 5,013 0.02 New 0 ±0
Authentic Phalanx (FA) 4,589 0.02 New 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 4,292 0.02 −0.01 0 ±0
Spain 2000 (E-2000) 4,231 0.02 −0.02 0 ±0
Canarian Nationalist Party (PNC) 4,092 0.02 New 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 3,916 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Greens of Extremadura (LV) 3,133 0.01 New 0 ±0
Freelance and Professionals' Party (AU.TO.NO.MO) 3,124 0.01 −0.01 0 ±0
Initiative for the Development of Soria (I.DE.S) 2,934 0.01 New 0 ±0
Andalusia Assembly (A) 2,930 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Canarian People's Alternative (APCa) 2,715 0.01 New 0 ±0
European Green Group (GVE) 2,662 0.01 New 0 ±0
Independent Candidate - Castilla and Leon Party (PCL) 2,421 0.01 −0.01 0 ±0
Unsubmissive Seats (Ei) 2,332 0.01 New 0 ±0
Democratic Karma Party (PKD) 2,300 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Galician Popular Front (FPG) 2,257 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Galician Coalition (CG) 2,235 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Alliance for the Development and Nature (ADN) 2,215 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party for Precarious-Employed Workers (PTPRE) 2,115 0.01 New 0 ±0
Valencian Kingdom Identity (IRV) 2,111 0.01 New 0 ±0
Freelancers, Retired and Widows' Party (PAE) 2,082 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Andecha Astur (AA) 1,970 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Union of the Salamancan People (UPSa) 1,871 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Carlist Party (PC) 1,813 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Romantic Mutual Support Party (PMAR) 1,561 0.01 New 0 ±0
Cantabrian Nationalist Council (CNC) 1,431 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 1,322 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Another Democracy is Possible (OtraDem) 1,302 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Others 17,942 0.07 0 ±0
Blank ballots 407,795 1.58 ±0.00
Total 25,891,299 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 25,891,299 98.99 −0.33
Invalid votes 264,137 1.01 +0.33
Votes cast / turnout 26,155,436 75.66 +6.95
Abstentions 8,416,395 24.34 −6.95
Registered voters 34,571,831
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
PSOE
  
42.59%
PP
  
37.71%
IU
  
4.96%
CiU
  
3.23%
ERC
  
2.52%
EAJ-PNV
  
1.63%
CC
  
0.91%
BNG
  
0.81%
CHA
  
0.36%
EA
  
0.31%
Na-Bai
  
0.24%
Others
  
3.17%
Blank
  
1.58%
Parliamentary seats
PSOE
  
46.86%
PP
  
42.29%
CiU
  
2.86%
ERC
  
2.29%
EAJ-PNV
  
2.00%
IU
  
1.43%
CC
  
0.89%
BNG
  
0.57%
CHA
  
0.29%
EA
  
0.29%
Na-Bai
  
0.29%

Results by region[edit]

Election results by province.
Party AN AR AS BA BC CI CN CM CL CA CE EX GA LR MA ME MU NA VA Total
PSOE S 38 7 4 4 7 6 2 9 14 21 0 5 10 2 16 0 3 2 14 164
V 52.9 41.3 43.4 39.5 27.2 34.5 40.9 46.5 41.9 39.5 35.8 51.2 37.2 44.0 44.1 41.4 35.0 33.6 42.5 42.6
PP S 23 5 4 4 4 6 3 11 19 6 1 5 12 2 17 1 6 2 17 148
V 33.7 36.5 43.8 45.9 18.9 35.4 51.9 47.4 50.3 15.6 59.2 42.4 47.2 49.9 45.0 54.6 57.4 37.6 46.8 37.7
IU S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 5
V 6.4 2.8 8.4 8.2 1.9 3.3 3.4 2.8 5.8 0.6 3.5 1.7 2.8 6.4 0.8 4.3 5.9 4.7 5.0
CiU S 10 10
V 20.8 3.2
ERC S 8 0 8
V 15.9 0.5 2.5
PNV S 7 7
V 33.7 1.6
CC S 3 3
V 24.3 0.9
BNG S 2 2
V 11.4 0.8
CHA S 1 1
V 12.1 0.3
EA S 1 1
V 6.5 0.3
Na-Bai S 1 1
V 18.0 0.2
Others V 5.3 5.3 2.3 12.7 4.1 2.8 1.6 1.1 3.0 1.5 3.0 1.6 0.9 1.2 2.4 1.6 1.9 2.9 4.0 3.3
Blank 1.7 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.1 2.3 1.6 2.0 0.9 1.4 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.6 1.4 2.0 1.5 1.6
Total seats 61 13 8 8 19 15 5 20 33 47 1 10 24 4 35 1 9 5 32 350
Turnout 74.8 77.0 71.7 68.8 75.0 66.7 77.2 79.9 77.8 76.0 63.5 79.3 71.0 79.5 78.9 55.8 77.1 76.2 77.7 75.7

Senate[edit]

Composition of the elected Senate.
Summary of the 14 March 2004 Spanish Senate election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes  % +/− Won +/− Total
People's Party (PP) 102 −25 126
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 81 +28 96
Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSC-ERC-ICV) 12 +4 16
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 6 ±0 7
Convergence and Union (CiU) 4 −4 6
Canarian Coalition (CC) 3 −2 4
United Left (IU) 0 ±0 2
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 0 ±0 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 ±0 1
Independent Party of Lanzarote (PIL) 0 −1 0
Others 0 0 ±0
Blank ballots 679,816 2.67 −0.15
Total 25,426,107 100.00 208 ±0 259
Valid votes 25,426,107 97.09 −0.42
Invalid votes 761,055 2.91 +0.42
Votes cast / turnout 26,187,162 75.75 +6.92
Abstentions 8,384,669 24.25 −6.92
Registered voters 34,571,831
Source(s):
Parliamentary seats
PP
  
48.65%
PSOE
  
37.07%
PSC-ERC-ICV
  
6.18%
EAJ-PNV
  
2.70%
CiU
  
2.32%
CC
  
1.54%
IU
  
0.77%
BNG
  
0.39%
PAR
  
0.39%

Investiture voting[edit]

16 April 2004
Investiture voting for José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)

Absolute majority: 176/350
Vote Parties Votes
YesY Yes PSOE (164), ERC (8), IU (5), CC (3), BNG (2), CHA (1)
183 / 350
No PP (148)
148 / 350
Abstentions CiU (10), PNV (7), EE (1), Na-Bai (1)
19 / 350
Source: Historia Electoral

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]