Hereditary spastic paraplegia

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Hereditary spastic paraplegia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G11.4
ICD-9 334.1
DiseasesDB 33207
eMedicine pmr/45
MeSH D015419

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), also called Familial Spastic Paraplegias, French Settlement Disease, or Strumpell-Lorrain disease, is a group of inherited diseases whose main feature is progressive stiffness and contraction (spasticity) in the lower limbs,[1] as a result of damage to or dysfunction of the nerves.[2][3]

HSP is not a form of cerebral palsy even though it physically may appear and behave much the same as, for example, spastic diplegia. The origins of HSP are entirely separate phenomena from cerebral palsy. Despite this, some of the same anti-spasticity medications used in spastic cerebral palsy are sometimes used to try to treat HSP symptomatology.

The condition sometimes also affects the optic nerve and retina of the eye, causes cataracts, ataxia (lack of muscle coordination), epilepsy, cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and deafness.[4] HSP is caused by defects in the mechanisms that transport proteins and other substances through the cell. Long nerves are affected because they have to transport cellular material through long distances, and are particularly sensitive to defects of cellular transport.[5]

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia was first described in 1883 by Adolph Strümpell, a German neurologist, and was later described more extensively in 1888 by Maurice Lorrain, a French physician.

Neuropathology[edit]

The major neuropathologic feature of HSP is axonal degeneration that is maximal in the terminal portions of the longest descending and ascending tracts. These include the crossed and uncrossed corticospinal tracts to the legs and fasciculus gracilis.[6] The spinocerebellar tract is involved to a lesser extent. Neuronal cell bodies of degenerating fibers are preserved and there is no evidence of primary demyelination.[7] Loss of anterior spinal horn is observed in some cases. Dorsal root ganglia, posterior roots and peripheral nerves are normal.[8]

Classification[edit]

Hereditary spastic paraplegias are classified based on the symptoms; on their mode of inheritance; on the patient’s age at onset; and, ultimately, on the gene associated with the condition.

Based on symptoms[edit]

Spasticity in the lower limbs alone is described as pure HSP. On the other hand, HSP is classified as complex or complicated when associated with other neurological signs, including ataxia, mental retardation, dementia, extrapyramidal signs, visual dysfunction or epilepsy, or with extraneurological signs. Complicated forms are diagnosed as HSPs when pyramidal signs are the predominant neurological characteristic. This classification, however, is subjective and patients with complex HSPs are sometimes diagnosed as having cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation or leukodystrophy.[9]

Based on mode of inheritance[edit]

HSP being a group of genetic disorders, they follow general inheritance rules and can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or x-linked recessive manner. The mode of inheritance involved has a direct impact on the chances of inheriting the disorder.

Based on patient's age at onset[edit]

In the past, HSP also has been classified as type I or type II on the basis of the patient's age at the onset of symptoms, which influences the amount of spasticity versus weakness. Type I is characterized by age onset below 35 years, whereas Type II is characterized by onset over 35 years. In the type I cases, delay in walking is not infrequent and spasticity of the lower limbs is more marked than weakness. In the type II muscle weakness, urinary symptoms and sensory loss are more marked. Furthermore, type II form of HSP usually evolves more rapidly.[10]

Symptoms[edit]

Symptoms depend on the type of HSP inherited. The main feature of the disease is progressive spasticity in the lower limbs, due to pyramidal tract dysfunction. This also results in brisk reflexes, extensor plantar reflexes, muscle weakness, and variable bladder disturbances. Furthermore, among the core symptoms of HSP are also included abnormal gait and difficulty in walking, decreased vibratory sense at the ankles, and paresthesia.[11] Initial symptoms are typically difficulty with balance, stubbing the toe or stumbling. Symptoms of HSP may begin at any age, from infancy to older than 60 years. If symptoms begin during the teenage years or later, then spastic gait disturbance usually progresses insidiously over many years. Canes, walkers, and wheelchairs may eventually be required, although some people never require assistance devices.[12] More specifically, patients with the autosomal dominant pure form of HSP reveal normal facial and extraocular movement. Although jaw jerk may be brisk in older subjects, there is no speech disturbance or difficulty of swallowing. Upper extremity muscle tone and strength are normal. In the lower extremities, muscle tone is increased at the hamstrings, quadriceps and ankles. Weakness is most notable at the iliopsoas, tibialis anterior, and to a lesser extent, hamstring muscles.[10] In the complex form of the disorder, additional symptoms are present. These include: peripheral neuropathy, amyotrophy, ataxia, mental retardation, ichthyosis, epilepsy, optic neuropathy, dementia, deafness, or problems with speech, swallowing or breathing.[2]

Diagnosis[edit]

Initial diagnosis of HSPs relies upon family history, the presence or absence of additional signs and the exclusion of other nongenetic causes of spasticity, the latter being particular important in sporadic cases.[9]

Cerebral and spinal MRI is an important procedure performed in order to rule out other frequent neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, but also to detect associated abnormalities such as cerebellar or corpus callosum atrophy as well as white matter abnormalities. Differential diagnosis of HSP should also exclude spastic diplegia which presents with nearly identical day-to-day effects and even is treatable with similar medicines such as baclofen and orthopedic surgery; at times, these two conditions may look and feel so similar that the only perceived difference may be HSP's hereditary nature versus the explicitly non-hereditary nature of spastic diplegia (however, unlike spastic diplegia and other forms of spastic cerebral palsy, HSP cannot be reliably treated with selective dorsal rhizotomy).

Ultimate confirmation of HSP diagnosis can only be provided by carrying out genetic tests targeted towards known genetic mutations.

Prognosis[edit]

Although HSP is a progressive condition, the prognosis for individuals with HSP varies greatly. It primarily affects the legs although there can be some upperbody involvement in some individuals. Some cases are seriously disabling while others are less disabling and are compatible with a productive and full life. The majority of individuals with HSP have a normal life expectancy.[2]

Treatment[edit]

No specific treatment is known that would prevent, slow, or reverse HSP. Available therapies mainly consist of symptomatic medical management and promoting physical and emotional well-being. Therapeutics offered to HSP patients include:

  • Baclofen – a voluntary muscle relaxant to relax muscles and reduce tone
  • Tizanidine – to treat nocturnal or intermittent spasms
  • Diazepam and Clonazepam – to decrease intensity of spasms
  • Oxybutynin chloride – an involuntary muscle relaxant and spasmolytic agent, used to reduce spasticity of the bladder in patients with bladder control problems
  • Tolterodine tartate – an involuntary muscle relaxant and spasmolytic agent, used to reduce spasticity of the bladder in patients with bladder control problems
  • Botulinum toxin – to reduce muscle overactivity
  • Antidepressants (such as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors) – for patients experiencing clinical depression
  • Physical Therapy – to restore and maintain the ability to move; to reduce muscle tone; to maintain or improve range of motion and mobility; to increase strength and coordination; to prevent complications, such as frozen joints, contractures, or bedsores.

Epidemiology[edit]

Worldwide, the prevalence of all hereditary spastic paraplegias combined is estimated to be 2 to 6 in 100,000 people.[13] A Norwegian study of more than 2.5 million people published in March 2009 has found an HSP prevalence rate of 7.4/100,000 of population – a higher rate, but in the same range as previous studies. No differences in rate relating to gender were found, and average age at onset was 24 years.[14] In the United States, Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health which means that the disorder affects less than 200,000 people in the US population.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fink JK (August 2003). "The hereditary spastic paraplegias: nine genes and counting". Arch. Neurol. 60 (8): 1045–9. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.8.1045. PMID 12925358. 
  2. ^ a b c Depienne C, Stevanin G, Brice A, Durr A (2007). "Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: An Update". Current Opinion in Neurology 20 (6): 674–680. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282f190ba. PMID 17992088. 
  3. ^ "Classification". 
  4. ^ NINDS Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Information Page
  5. ^ De Matteis, M. A.; Luini, A. (2011). "Mendelian Disorders of Membrane Trafficking". New England Journal of Medicine 365 (10): 927–938. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0910494. PMID 21899453.  edit
  6. ^ Behan W, Maia M (1974). "Strümpell's familial spastic paraplegia: genetics and neuropathology". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37 (1): 8–20. doi:10.1136/jnnp.37.1.8. PMC 494557. PMID 4813430. 
  7. ^ Harding AE (1993). "Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias". Semin Neurol 13 (4): 333–336. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1041143. PMID 8146482. 
  8. ^ Schwarz GA, Liu C-N (1956). "Hereditary (familial) spastic paraplegia. Further clinical and pathologic observations". AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 75 (2): 144–162. PMID 13282534. 
  9. ^ a b Harding, AE (1983). Classification of the hereditary ataxias and paraplegias. New York: Lancet. 
  10. ^ a b Harding AE (1981). "Hereditary "pure" spastic paraplegia: a clinical and genetic study of 22 families". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 44 (10): 871–883. doi:10.1136/jnnp.44.10.871. 
  11. ^ McAndrew CR, Harms P. (2003). "Paraesthesias during needle-through-needle combined spinal epidural versus single-shot spinal for elective caesarean section". Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 31 (5): 514–517. PMID 14601273. 
  12. ^ Fink JK (2003). "The Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias". Archives of Neurology 60 (8): 1045–1049. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.8.1045. PMID 12925358. 
  13. ^ a b National Institute of Health (2008). "Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Information Page". Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  14. ^ Erichsen, AK; Koht, J; Stray-Pedersen, A; Abdelnoor, M; Tallaksen, CM (June 2009). "Prevalence of hereditary ataxia and spastic paraplegia in southeast Norway: a population-based study.". Brain : a journal of neurology 132 (Pt 6): 1577–88. PMID 19339254. 

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