Special economic zone

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The term special economic zone (SEZ) is commonly used as a generic term to refer to any modern economic zone. In these zones business and trades laws that differ from the rest of the country. Broadly, SEZs are located within a country's national borders. The aims of the zones include: increased trade, increased investment, job creation and effective administration. To encourage businesses to set up in the zone liberal policies are introduced. There policies typically regard investing, taxation, trading, quotas, customs and labour regulations. Additionally, companies may be offered tax holidays.

The creation of special economic zones by the host country may be motivated by the desire to attract foreign direct investment (FDI).[1][2] The benefits a company gains by being in a Special Economic Zone may mean it can produce and trade goods at a globally competitive price.[1][3] The operating definition of an economic zone is determined individually by each country. In some countries the zones have been criticized for being little more than Chinese labor camps, where labor rights are denied for workers.[4][5]

History[edit]

Free zones and Entrepôts have been used for centuries to guarantee free storage and exchange along trade routes.

Moderns SEZs appeared from late 1950s in industrial countries. From the 1970s onward, zones providing labor-intensive manufacturing have been established, starting in Latin America and East Asia. These zones attracted investment from multinational corporations.[1]

A recent trend has been for African countries to set up SEZs in partnership with China.[2]

Types[edit]

The term Special Economic Zone can include

Type Objective Size Typical Location Typical Activities Markets
FTZ Support trade <50 hectares Port of entry Entrepôts and trade related Domestic, re-export
EPZ (traditional) Export manufacturing <100 hectares None Manufacturing, processing Mostly export
EPZ (single Unit/free enterprise) Export manufacturing No minimum Countrywide Manufacturing, processing Mostly export
EPZ (hybrid) Export manufacturing <100 hectares None Manufacturing, processing Export, domestic
free port/SEZ Integrated development >1000 hectares None Multi-use Internal, domestic, export

Special economic zones by country[edit]

International[edit]

The term SEZ is not used by US International Trade Administration (ITA).[citation needed]

Bangladesh[edit]

Several Export Processing Zones, or EPZs, have been established across Bangladesh since the 1980s, and the government plans to establish eight new special economic zones. In 2010, FDi magazine ranked Chittagong EPZ as one of best competitive special economic zones in the world.

Belarus[edit]

Belarus has a SEZ called the China-Belarus Industrial Park.

Cayman Islands[edit]

The Cayman Enterprise City SEZ officially launched on Friday, 3 February 2012. It specializes in knowledge based industries. The SEZ has a range of incentives to attract businesses including no corporate, income or capital gains tax.[6]

China[edit]

Currently, the most prominent SEZs in the country are Shenzhen, Xiamen, Shantou, and Zhuhai. It is notable that Shenzhen, Shantou, and Zhuhai are all in Guangdong province, and all are on the southern coast of China where sea is very accessible for transportation of goods.

Democratic Republic of the Congo[edit]

Democratic Republic of the Congo planned to build its first Special Economic Zone in the Kinshasa district of N'Sélé. The SEZ was intended be operative in 2012 and dedicated to agro-industries.[7]

As of April 2013 the DRC did not have any FTZs or free ports.[8]

Greece[edit]

The German government is pushing for the creation of special economic zones in Greece and other European countries with struggling economies.[9]

Egypt[edit]

The North West Suez Special Economic Zone (SSEZ) is located at the Red Sea, 45 km south of Suez. It is served by Sokhna harbour. It was the first SEZ set up under laws passed in 2002.[2][10]

Additionally, in 2013 Egypt had nine FZs and thirteen Investment Zones.[2]

Ethiopia[edit]

Ethiopia has a SEZ in Oriental (near Addis) that produces electrical machinery, construction materials, steel and metallurgy. The zone is wholly own by China.[2][11]

India[edit]

A view of one of the IT blocks of Infosys Ltd in the Mahindra World City situated in Chennai. States such as Tamil Nadu and Haryana are housing a number of under construction SEZ projects.

India was one of the first countries in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. In order to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000.

In 2004, Narendra Modi amended the Industrial Disputes Act of Gujarat to create a special exemption for SEZs so that companies can terminate a worker in a SEZ with only 1 month of notice.[12] This flexibility has helped grow manufacturing jobs in Gujarat by 60% from 2000 till 2012.[12]

A comprehensive draft SEZ Bill was prepared after extensive discussions with the stakeholders. A number of meetings were held in various parts of the country both by the Minister for Commerce and Industry as well as senior officials for this purpose. The draft SEZ Rules were widely discussed and put on the website of the Department of Commerce. Around 800 suggestions were received on the draft rules.[citation needed]

SEZ Act and SEZ Rules have been drafted in haste and are an example of bad legislative drafting e.g. SEZ Act provides for Customs duty on services cleared into DTA. It does not take care of service sector issues like networking of servers etc.[citation needed]

It was hoped that the bill would instill confidence in investors and signal the Government's commitment to a stable SEZ policy regime. Thereby generating greater economic activity and employment through their establishment.

The Special Economic Zones Act was passed by the Government of India in May 2005, it received Presidential assent on the 23rd of June, 2005.

The bill came into effect on 10 February 2006, providing for drastic simplification of procedures and for single window clearance on matters relating to central as well as state governments. The remaining part of India, not covered by the SEZ Rules, is known as the Domestic tariff area. Exports from Indian SEZ totalled INR 2.2 Trillion in 2009-10 fiscal. It grew by 43% to reach INR 3.16 Trillion in 2010-11 fiscal. Indian SEZs have created over 840,000 jobs as of 2010-11.[citation needed] Exports through Indian SEZs grew further by 15.4% to reach INR 3.64 Trillion (roughly US$66 billion). As of 2011-12 fiscal, investments worth over US$36.5 billion (INR 2.02 Trillion) have been made in these tax-free enclaves. Exports of Indian SEZs have experienced a growth of 50.5% for the past eight fiscals from US$2.5 billion in 2003-04 to about US$65 billion in 2011-12 (accounting for 23% of India's total exports).[citation needed]

The objectives of SEZs can be explained as:[citation needed]

  1. Generation of additional economic activity;
  2. Promotion of exports of goods and services;
  3. Promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources;
  4. Creation of employment opportunities;
  5. Development of infrastructure facilities.

The incentives and facilities available to SEZ developers include:[citation needed]

  • Exemption from customs/excise duties for development of SEZs for authorized operations approved by the BOA.
  • Income Tax exemption on income derived from the business of development of the SEZ in a block of 10 years in 15 years under Section 80-IAB of the Income Tax Act.
  • Exemption from minimum alternate tax under Section 115 JB of the Income Tax Act.
  • Exemption from dividend distribution tax under Section 115O of the Income Tax Act.
  • Exemption from Central Sales Tax (CST).
  • Exemption from Service Tax (Section 7, 26 and Second Schedule of the SEZ Act).

There were about 143 SEZs (as of June 2012) operating throughout India, by June 2013 this had risen to 173.[13] 634 SEZs have been approved for implementation by the Government of India (as of June 2012).[14]

Indonesia[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iran's interest in free trade and special economic zones can be traced back to the 1970s. According to SOAS's Hassan Hakimian, "the FTZs are more ambitious in their objective of acting as magnets for the attraction of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and ultimately for generating a diversified industrial base and promoting Iran's non-oil exports, the SEZ are conceived for goods transit and improving the supply and distribution networks in the country."[15]

  • Arg-e-Jadid Special Economic Zone: Vehicle Manufacturing Hub.
  • PetZone: Petrochemical special economic Zone, Bandar-e Mahshahr.
  • Kish: Kish island special economic zone.
  • Sarakhs
  • Sirjan
  • Shahid Rajaee Port [6]
  • Amirabad Special Economic Zone [16]
  • Bushehr Port
  • Payam Special Economic Zone, closest SEZ to the capital city Tehran, with 3600 hec. area within 10000 hec. of Payam International Airport territory established in Karaj for development of air cargo and postal transportation, storage of goods, cold store, packing services, goods productivity, perishable and time sensitive goods export. Payam is the only SEZ in the region with the privilege of its own airport and airline. Adjacent to industrial, economical and agricultural center of Tehran, with easy access to railroad, underground and other related highways. In order to attract FDI Payam has created equal opportunity and possibility of investment for Iranian and foreign subjects on every scale of partnership, in addition guarantee foreign investment according to attraction and protection law of foreign investments and freedom of invest transfer and obtained income of it, with no administrative encumbrance laws. Furthermore, there is free entrance, without customs duties for goods, machinery and row material until it has been stationed in the zone, with possibility to export goods from zone without customs formalities.[7]
  • Abadan

Jamaica[edit]

The first of Jamaica’s Special Economic Zones was created in 1976 with the goal of industrializing the country, as well as increasing foreign exchange and access to technology.[17][18] This primary zone was located in Kingston and was strategically attached to one of the country's main ports, in order to facilitate efficient transportation. Although it is no longer in use, during its years of operation, the zone consisted of 146 acres of warehouse land, which could be rented by foreign enterprises at very low rates. Private companies were invited to occupy the warehouses, but the government in power at that time, The People’s National Party, remained tentative of relying on foreign capital as a means of industrializing.[19] With the shift to the Seaga government in the 1980s, export led industrialization became key to Jamaica’s economic development, and more effort was put into attracting foreign enterprises to the zone.[20] One of the ways in which this was executed, was by transforming the warehouse land into a center for production of manufactured goods.[21] While the Caribbean Development Bank and the World Bank funded the creation of the zone, the conversion into factories was initiated and paid for by the National Development Bank, a government owned institution.[22][23] Due to the large job creation that accompanied the transformation, a second Special Economic Zone was opened in Montego Bay in 1988. The majority of the activity however, remained at the Kingston location, with only ten percent of the factories found at the new, smaller site.[24][25] The factories were primarily occupied by foreign enterprises, and produced various apparel items, fish products, fruit juice concentrates and animal feed.[26] As a result of the Special Economic Zones, Jamaica’s export of manufactured goods increased ten-fold between 1980 and 1984, although the export of traditional goods, namely Bauxite and Alumina, stagnated.[27]

Foreign enterprises were attracted to the Special Economic Zones by the various incentives they offered.[28] The zones operated as separate entities that were not technically part of Jamaica, which allowed companies to bypass local import and exchange controls.[22] Additionally, under the Jamaica Free Zone Act, any enterprise with approval from the Port Authority, could import certain items without any customs duties.[29] Any remaining local labour controls were of little concern to foreign companies, since Jamaican workers were typically excluded from all steps except for manufacturing. The materials used for apparel manufacturing, for example, were all imported from the United States, and simply assembled by the local workers.[22] The minimal role played by Jamaicans in the production also meant that there were very few backwards and forwards linkages. With the exception of fish products, which incorporated local resources, most of the companies imported their inputs from home or from Asia.[30] Since these enterprises could execute their business with very little engagement with the country, there was no incentive for them to ameliorate Jamaican infrastructure or industry.[22] The Seaga government argued that despite this lack of success in industrializing the country, the zones were still effective in providing much needed employment for the locals.[31]

At its peak, the Kingston and Montego Bay Free Zones employed over 36, 000 locals, however, they were criticized for issues of poor working conditions and low wages.[18] The jobs that the factories provided were high pressure, laborious, and provided few opportunities for workers to gain new skills.[18][22] Jamaican women made up 95 percent of the workforce in the zones, the majority of whom were under 25 years old.[29] These women typically worked twelve-hour days; six days a week, with significant overtime expected.[30] Throughout the mid the 1980s, an average income in the zone was 30 US dollars per two weeks, a wage that was comparable to other low skill, entry-level jobs in Jamaica, but much less than the minimum wages of the countries that owned and operated the factories.[22] Although the creation of these jobs did lift some families out of dire economic situations, the wages were not high enough to stop the cycle of poverty for most.[18] In addition, the government taxed their incomes heavily for ‘health benefits’, yet no aid was provided when medical issues arose. This forced many locals to believe that the government was co-conspiring with foreign countries to exploit them, but without the adequate unionized backing, there was little they could do to fight these injustices.[22] This lack of unionization also meant that many enterprises were not forced to comply with the Factory Act, and so occupational issues that arose from poor working conditions, such as overheating, carpel tunnel syndrome, strained eyesight, or back problems, went unnoticed.[25][32]

Although the workers had a fundamental right to create or join unions, the majority of the factories found in the zones remained non-unionized.[33] The International Labour Law Organization set out guidelines for ethical working conditions, but it was largely up to the Jamaican government to enforce them. Since low wage female workers were not a priority, very little effort was made to support them.[34] Some women did try to improve the conditions of the factories and were met with mixed success. A few factories started to provide maternity leave and some medical benefits; however, the majority remained unchanged.[18] In response to strikes or labour movements, some companies dismissed their Jamaican workers and brought in workers from Asia who were less vocal about the injustices.[22] This not only took jobs from the locals, one of the key goals behind creating the Special Economic Zones, but also had deleterious effects on future movements to unionize the factories.

The creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 had significant impacts on the Special Economic Zones of Jamaica, and can be seen as one of the main reasons for the closure of the Kingston site.[18] Prior to this agreement, the United States had held a monopoly over the factory spaces, since the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983-1995, allowed for one-way free trade benefits on most products entering the US from the Caribbean.[35] NAFTA gave its members, Canada, the United States and Mexico, similar trade privileges amongst each other that foreign countries received in Jamaica. The agreement made it more attractive for the United States to invest in Mexico than Jamaica and resulted in many of their companies moving to factories in their neighbouring country.[18] Aside from the lower transportation costs between Mexico and the United States, in 1997, Mexican workers were also being paid much less than Jamaican workers.[36] In 1996, Jamaica’s exports to the United States declined 12 percent, while Mexico’s exports to the United States grew by 40 percent.[37] Similarly, by the mid 1990s, employment in the Special Economic Zones had declined 64 percent since its peak in 1987.[25] The loss of 16,000 jobs between the years 1995-1997 was severely detrimental to the workers, who claimed they had been ‘ruined’ by health issues attributed to factory work, and were therefore not fit to pursue any other work.[18] In response to the closure, the Jamaican government tried to promote export-oriented work like data processing and call centers, but neither venture was very successful and few jobs were created.[38] As of February 2013, there has been talk of opening another Special Economic Zone in the Caymanas.[39]

Malaysia[edit]

Malaysia launched an East Coast Economic Region (SEZ) in August 2009.[40] The country’s first Special Economic Zone is expected to contribute RM23 billion to the national GDP and create 220,000 new jobs in the ECER.

Mauritius[edit]

A Chinese owned SEZ has been created in Jinfei called the Mauritius Jinfei Economic Trade and Cooperation Zone. The zone manufacturers textiles, garments, machinery and high-tech. Additionally, it supports trade, tourism and finance.[11][41]

Myanmar[edit]

Special economic zones (Burmese: အထူးစီးပွားရေးဇုန်), which offer tax exemptions for different sectors (5 years for production, 8 years for high-tech, 2 years for agriculture, livestock breeding and forestry, and 1 year for banking) are undergoing preliminary construction in Sittwe Township and Kyaukpyu Township in Rakhine State.[42] An international standard airport is also to be constructed. The six free trade zones will be Thilawa Port in Yangon, Mawlamyine in Mon State, Myawaddy and Hpa-an in Kayin State, Kyaukphyu in Rakhine State and Pyin Oo Lwin in Mandalay Region.[43] According to the country's Special Economic Zone Law's Act 7, Section 36, homes and farming properties located on a proposed SEZ must be duly relocated and reimbursed.[44]

The Myanmar Port Authority has been involved in facilitating contracts to develop Myanmar's Special Economic Zones, including a USD $8.6 billion deal to develop a deep sea port at Dawei called the Dawei Port Project, by Italian-Thai Development).[45]

Nigeria[edit]

2 Chinese SEZs have been constructed in Nigeria.[46]

North Korea[edit]

The Rajin-Sonbong Economic Special Zone was established under a UN economic development programme in 1994. Located on the bank of the Tuman River, the zone borders on the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture (or, Yeonbyeon in Korean) of the People's Republic of China, as well as Russia. In 2000 the name of the area was shortened to Rason and became separate from the North Hamgyeong Province.

North Korea also operates Kaesong Industrial Region in conjunction with South Korea which was formed in 2002.

Pakistan[edit]

Taking the example of the Chinese success with their SEZs, China is helping Pakistan develop the RUBA SEZ on the outskirts of Lahore. RUBA SEZ PVT LTD is a subsidiary of RUBA Group of Companies and was expanded from existing Haier – RUBA Economic Zone.

Other economic zones include the China-Pakistan economic zone open only to Chinese investors and also the future crown jewel of Pakistan, Gwadar.

There are also talks of creating a Japanese city for foreign investors from Japan only.

There has also been new SEZ proposed on the currently under construction Sialkot-Lahore motorway, Qatar has proposed an investment for $1 billion in a new SEZ along the motorway.

There is also a new zone under construction in Faislababd, which will be the biggest industrial estate of Pakistan when complete, it has sections for each country and the first phase is already complete with a special Chinese zone in it.

Special economic zones in Pakistan:

Panama[edit]

The Colon Free Zone (C.F.Z.) is located in the city of Colon at the Atlantic entrance to the Panama Canal dedicated to re-export of merchandise to Latin America and the Caribbean.

The Panama Pacifico Special Economic Area (PPSEA) was passed into law in 2004 in the Republic of Panama. It is located on the former Howard AFB, near Panama city, on the Pacific side of the isthmus.

Philippines[edit]

Philippine economic zones (ecozones) are collections of industries, brought together geographically for the purpose of promoting economic development. These ecozones were established through Republic Act No. 7916, otherwise known as "The Special Economic Zone Act of 1995" as amended by Republic Act No. 8748.[47]

Philippine Ecozones are generally administered by the Philippine Economic Zone Authority through a Board (PEZA Board), attached to the Department of Trade and Industry. The PEZA Board sets the general policies on the establishment and operations of the Ecozones, industrial estates, export processing zones, free trade zones, and the like.[48] They also review proposals for the establishment of Ecozones, which they subsequently endorse to the President of the Republic of the Philippines. In addition, the PEZA Board regulates and undertakes the establishment, operation and maintenance of utilities, other services and infrastructure in the Ecozone, such as heat, light and power, water supply, telecommunications, transport, toll roads and bridges, port services, and the like.[49]

Several incentives are granted to business establishments operating within Philippine Ecozones, particularly those found in the Omnibus Investments Code of 1987.[50] These incentives include income tax holidays; zero percent (0%) duty on importation of capital equipment, spare parts, and accessories; exemption from wharfage dues and export tax, impost or fees; and the simplification of customs procedures, among others.[51] In addition, The Special Economic Zone Act of 1995 exempts business establishments operating within Ecozones from all taxes. In lieu of paying all other taxes, business establishments are only required to pay five percent (5%) of their gross income to the national government.[52][53]

Activities Eligible for PEZA Registration and Incentives include but are not limited to (1) Export Manufacturing; (2) Information Technology Service Export; (3) Tourism; (4) Medical Tourism; (5) Agro-industrial Export Manufacturing; (6) Agro-industrial Bio-Fuel Manufacturing; and (7) Logistics and Warehousing Services.[54]

Although designed to operate separately from the political and economic milieu of surrounding communities, Philippine economic zones do in fact interact with their neighbors. As of 31 May 2010, there were more than 200 Ecozones in the Philippines. Of these more than 200 Ecozones, seven (7) are Agro-Industrial Economic Zones, 134 are Information Technology Parks and Centers, 65 are Manufacturing Ecozones, two (2) are Medical Tourism Parks/Centers, and nine (9) are Tourism Economic Zones. Of the 41 private economic zones, the biggest exporter is Gateway Business Park in General Trias, Cavite and the second biggest private ecozone is Laguna Technopark Inc. The four governmentally owned are Cavite Economic Zone, Bataan Economic Zone, Mactan Economic Zone and Baguio City Economic Zone. Some of the more well-known Economic zones are the Clark Special Economic Zone, and Subic Economic Zone, former military bases of the United States of America.

Some of the over 200 SEZs in the Philippines are as follows:

Poland[edit]

There are fourteen SEZs in Poland.[56] The zones have been criticized for being Chinese labor camps, where labor rights are denied for workers.[4][5]

Special economic zones in Poland:

  • Kamiennogórska SSE
  • Katowice Special Economic Zone
  • Kostrzyńsko-Słubicka SSE
  • Krakowski Park Technologiczny
  • Legnicka SSE
  • Łódzka SSE
  • SSE EURO-PARK MIELEC
  • Słupska SSE
  • SSE Starachowice
  • Suwalska SSE
  • Pomorska SSE (Pomeranian Special Economic Zone)
  • Tarnobrzeska SSE
  • Wałbrzych Special Economic Zone "INVEST-PARK"
  • Warmińsko-Mazurska SSE OKS pany

Republic of Korea (South Korea)[edit]

Korean FEZs are designated by law[57] to facilitate foreign investment, and thereby to strengthen national competitiveness and seek balanced development among regions by improving the business environment for foreign-invested enterprises and living conditions for foreigners.

There are eight Free Economic Zones in South Korea. The first three zones were created in 2003 and three more were created in 2008.

  1. Incheon Free Economic Zone (IFEZ) in 2003
  2. Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone (BJFEZ) in 2004
  3. Gwangyang Free Economic Zone (GFEZ) in 2004
  4. Saemangum Free Economic Zone (SGFEZ) in 2008
  5. Yellow Sea Free Economic Zone (YESFEZ) in 2008
  6. Daegu-Gyeongbuk Free Economic Zone (DGFEZ) in 2008
  7. East Coast Free Economic Zone (EFEZ) in 2013
  8. Chungbuk Free Economic Zone (CBFEZ) in 2013

Russia[edit]

Russia currently has 16 federal economic zones and several regional projects.

As of March 2010 Russia's federal special economic zones host 207 investors from 18 countries. There are major MNCs among investors to Russia's SEZ, such as Yokohama, Cisco, Isuzu, Air Liquide, Bekaert, Rockwool and many others.

Russia’s 15 existing and to-be federal special economic zones are managed by OJSC "Special Economic Zones".

OJSC "SEZ" was founded in 2006 to accumulate and implement world's best practices in developing and managing SEZ and promote Foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Russian economy. It is fully owned and funded by the Russian state.

Federal economic zones in Russia are regulated by Federal Law # 116 FZ issued on July 22, 2005.

Technical/Innovational Zones[edit]

Industrial/developmental Zones[edit]

Tourist Zones[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

Special Economic Zones existed in Ukraine until March 31, 2005. The first created was the Nouth-Crimean Experimental Economic Zone Syvash (since 1996). From 1998 to 2000 11 new zones were created.

Name Location Area Established Time limit*
NCEEZ Syvash Autonomous Republic of Crimea 1996 5 years
Slavutych Slavutych, Kiev Oblast 2,000 ha 30.06.1998 until 01.01.2020
Azov Mariupol, Donetsk Oblast 315 ha 21.07.1998 60 years
Donetsk Donetsk, Donetsk Oblast 466 ha 21.07.1998 60 years
Zakarpattia Uzhhorodskyi Raion and Mukachivskyi Raion, Zakarpattia Oblast 737 ha 09.01.1999 30 years
Yavoriv Yavorivskyi Raion, Lviv Oblast 116,000 ha 17.02.1999 until 01.01.2020
Interport Kovel Kovel, Volyn Oblast 57 ha 01.01.2000 20 years
Kurortopolis Truskavets Truskavets, Lviv Oblast 774 ha 01.01.2000 20 years
Mykolaiv Mykolaiv, Mykolaiv Oblast, shipyard territory, and adjoining area 865 ha 01.01.2000 30 years
Port Krym Kerch, Autonomous Republic of Crimea 27 ha 01.01.2000 30 years
Porto-Franco Odessa, part of Odessa Trade Sea Port's territory 32 ha 01.01.2000 25 years
Reni Reni, Odessa Oblast 94 ha 17.05.2000 30 years
* Initially planned time of operation given. All zones were shut down on March 31, 2005.

NCEEZ — Nouth-Crimean Experimental Economic Zone.

Sources:[58][59][60] and Пехник А.В., Іноземні інвестиції в економіку України. Навчальний посібник, Вид. «Знання», Київ 2007, pages: 49, 310–319

Uzbekistan[edit]

Further information: Economy of Uzbekistan
  • Jizzakh high-tech industrial park - Uzbekistan and China are working together to jointly establish a SEZ in the central Uzbek city Jizzakh. This high-tech industrial park will be formally established by March 2013. China Development Bank will provide a $50 million loan to finance several of the joint projects in the construction, agro-industrial and mechanical engineering sectors.[62]

Zambia[edit]

Further information: Economy of Zambia

Zambia is home to two SEZs developed in partnership with China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining corporation. One sitting just outside of Lusaka foscuses on garments, food, appliances, tobacco and electronics. The second is in the copper rich town of Chambishi and focuses on copper related industries. The zones combine expedited customs and administration procedures with tax incentives, to attract increased investment.[63][64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Special Economic Zones Progress, Emerging Challenges, and Future Directions". Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Special economic zones and regional integration in Africa". tralac. 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "Goldman Sachs says reforms to create 110 mn jobs for economy in 10 yrs". Business Today. March 29, 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Sackings expose the harsh reality of Poland's junk jobs, the Guardian, July 2012
  5. ^ a b Maciejewska: Kobiety w strefie pracowniczego bezprawia. Nowe-peryferie.pl. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  6. ^ "Cayman Enterprise City". Cayman Enterprise City. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  7. ^ [1] Le "paradis" où le droit fera la loi, L'Echo, novembre 2010.
  8. ^ "2013 Investment Climate Statement - Democratic Republic of the Congo". US Department of State. April 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  9. ^ German Government Wants to Create Special Economic Zones in Europe - SPIEGEL ONLINE. Spiegel.de (2012-05-25). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  10. ^ "Location". Suez Industrial Development Company. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Yejoo Kim (2013). "CHINESE-LED SEZs IN AFRICA ARE THEY A DRIVING FORCE OF CHINA’s SOFT POWER?". Stellenbosch University. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  12. ^ a b [2]
  13. ^ List of Operational SEZs in India
  14. ^ List of Approved SEZs in India
  15. ^ Hakimian, Hassan (2009). Iran’s Free Trade and Special Economic Zones: Challenges and Opportunities. Conference on Iranian Economy at a Crossroads, University of Southern California. Retrieved 27 June 2012 
  16. ^ فروش و اجاره دامنه.pso.ir. Pso.ir. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  17. ^ Russell-Brown, Sherrie. " Labor rights as human rights: The situation of women workers in Jamaica's export free zones." Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 24, no. 1 (2003): 183. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=248045 (accessed February 1, 2013).
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Wyss, Brenda, and Marceline White. The effects of trade liberalization on Jamaica's poor an analysis of agriculture and services. Washington, D.C: Women's Edge Coalition, 2004.
  19. ^ Long, Frank. 1987. Employment Effects of Multinational Enterprises in Export Processing Zones in the Caribbean: A Joint ILO/UNCTC Research Project. Working paper, Multinational Enterprises Program, 50.
  20. ^ Ibid., 51.
  21. ^ Ibid.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Life and debt. VHS. Directed by Stephanie Black. New York, NY: Distributed by New Yorker Video, 2003.
  23. ^ Long, Frank. 1987. Employment Effects of Multinational Enterprises in Export Processing Zones in the Caribbean: A Joint ILO/UNCTC Research Project. Working paper, Multinational Enterprises Program, 51.
  24. ^ Ibid.
  25. ^ a b c Russell-Brown, Sherrie. " Labor rights as human rights: The situation of women workers in Jamaica's export free zones." Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 24, no. 1 (2003): 184. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=248045 (accessed February 1, 2013).
  26. ^ Long, Frank. 1987. Employment Effects of Multinational Enterprises in Export Processing Zones in the Caribbean: A Joint ILO/UNCTC Research Project. Working paper, Multinational Enterprises Program, 53.
  27. ^ Ibid., 51.
  28. ^ Russell-Brown, Sherrie. " Labor rights as human rights: The situation of women workers in Jamaica's export free zones." Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 24, no. 1 (2003):183. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=248045 (accessed February 1, 2013).
  29. ^ a b Russell-Brown, Sherrie. " Labor rights as human rights: The situation of women workers in Jamaica's export free zones." Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 24, no. 1 (2003): 183-184. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=248045 (accessed February 1, 2013).
  30. ^ a b Long, Frank. 1987. Employment Effects of Multinational Enterprises in Export Processing Zones in the Caribbean: A Joint ILO/UNCTC Research Project. Working paper, Multinational Enterprises Program, 56.
  31. ^ Ibid.
  32. ^ Long, Frank. 1987. Employment Effects of Multinational Enterprises in Export Processing Zones in the Caribbean: A Joint ILO/UNCTC Research Project. Working paper, Multinational Enterprises Program, 57.
  33. ^ Russell-Brown, Sherrie. " Labor rights as human rights: The situation of women workers in Jamaica's export free zones." Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 24, no. 1 (2003): 194. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=248045 (accessed February 1, 2013).
  34. ^ Ibid.
  35. ^ Wylie, Scott. " The U.S. and Jamaica: Growing Business Ties." Business America 6, no. 23 (1983): 35. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/203888003 (accessed January 24, 2013).
  36. ^ Ibid.
  37. ^ Ibid.
  38. ^ Ibid.
  39. ^ Caribbean Journal (Miami), "Jamaica Expects to Begin Work on Caymanas Economic Zone By May ," February 8, 2013. http://www.caribjournal.com/2013/02/08/jamaica-expects-to-begin-work-on-caymanas-economic-zone-by-may/ (accessed February 10, 2013).
  40. ^ [3] Read more: SEZ set to fire up economic growth
  41. ^ "Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in Africa: China’s economic development model comes to Mauritius". Consultancy Africa Intelligence. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  42. ^ "စစ်တွေနှင့် ကျောက်ဖြူမြို့တို့တွင် အထူးစီးပွားရေးဇုန် တည်ဆောက်သွားမည်ဟု သိရ". Weekly Eleven News (in Burmese). 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-08-28. 
  43. ^ "Roundup: Myanmar on road to establishing special economic zones". Xinhua (People's Daily). March 13, 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2011. 
  44. ^ "ထားဝယ်ရေနက်ဆိပ်ကမ်း စီမံကိန်း ဧရိယာရှိ ရွာများကို လျော်ကြေးပေးရန် မြေတိုင်းတာ". Weekly Eleven News (in Burmese). 13 June 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011. 
  45. ^ Aye Thidar Kyaw; Stuart Deed (7 February 2011). "SPDC signs Special Economic Zone law into effect on Jan 27". Myanmar Times. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  46. ^ The 6 Chinese SEZ's in Africa
  47. ^ The text of The Special Economic Zone Act of 1995 is found at http://www.peza.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=97&Itemid=55 or http://www.chanrobles.com/specialeconomiczoneact.htm
  48. ^ The Special Economic Zone Act of 1995, sec. 12
  49. ^ Id.
  50. ^ The Special Economic Zone Act of 1995, sec. 23.
  51. ^ Omnibus Investments Code, art. 39.
  52. ^ The Special Economic Zone Act of 1995, sec. 24.
  53. ^ See also Fiscal Incentives to PEZA-Registered Economic Zone Enterprises available at http://www.peza.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=112&Itemid=154
  54. ^ Eligible Activities. Peza.gov.ph. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  55. ^ a b Operating Economic Zones (277). Peza.gov.ph (2012-12-31). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  56. ^ [4] SEZ in Poland-Source-Govt of Poland
  57. ^ In 2002, the Special Act on Designation and Management of Free Economic Zones was first legislated. The latest version in English as of April 15, 2010 is available here.
  58. ^ Урядовий портал :: Вільні економічні зони в Україні. Kmu.gov.ua. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  59. ^ Урядовий портал :: Спеціальні економічні зони на карті України. Kmu.gov.ua. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  60. ^ http://www.gazdagroup.com/gazda/ua/vezpilgy.html
  61. ^ [5]
  62. ^ "Uzbekistan, China to Develop Special Economic Zone in Jizzakh". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 26 January 2013. 
  63. ^ "China’s Investment in African Special Economic Zones : Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities". Economic Premise. World Bank. March 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  64. ^ "China's stake in Zambia's election". BBC News. 19 September 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Chee Kian Leong, (2007) A Tale of Two Countries: Openness and Growth in China and India, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade, DEGIT Conference Paper pdf
  • Chee Kian Leong, (forthcoming) Special economic zones and growth in China and India: an empirical investigation, International Economics and Economic Policy. link
  • Thomas Farole, (2011) Special Economic Zones in Africa: Comparing Performance and Learning from Global Experiences, Washington, DC, World Bank

External links[edit]