Special Patrol Group (RUC)
|Royal Ulster Constabulary|
|Badge of the Royal Ulster Constabulary.|
|Formed||1 June 1922|
|Preceding agency||Royal Irish Constabulary|
|Dissolved||4 November 2001|
|Superseding agency||Police Service of Northern Ireland|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|National agency||Northern Ireland, UK|
|Map of Royal Ulster Constabulary's jurisdiction.|
The Special Patrol Group (SPG) of the Royal Ulster Constabulary was formerly known as the Police Reserve Force. A tactical reserve of 150 officers which had the role: to provide backup in civil commotion, to police sensitive areas at times of confrontation, and to show the flag in a disciplined and impressive way to those who wished to break the peace.  The name was changed to Special Patrol Group in 1970 to avoid confusion between the Reserve Force and the newly formed RUC Reserve.
Each SPG had 30 members. These were the first policemen trained by the British Army in the use of riot equipment and tactics which the army had developed since starting their deployment in Northern Ireland in 1969. They were given upgraded weaponry and dispersed in units across the province.
The SPG was the closest thing the RUC had to a dedicated anti-terrorist unit in the earlier days of the troubles. The army disagreed with its use believing that army units were better disposed to carry out the role.
Within the SPG another unit was formed and given the name "Bronze section". Apparently modelled on the Mobile Reaction Force created by Brigadier (later general) Frank Kitson. Whilst, like its army counterpart, not enjoying any notable successes, the formation of Bronze section led directly to the creation of the police "E" units within Special Branch the best known of which is the E4A department which dealt with humint and E4B which specialised in operations such as ambushes etc. Bronze section itself was replaced by the secretive Special Support Unit (SSU) which was trained by the SAS and intended for direct action against IRA ASU's using humint supplied by E4A.
Two SPG members, John Weir and Billy McCaughey were arrested in 1979 and confessed to paramilitary activities. In June 1980, they were convicted of the murder of Catholic chemist William Strathearn in April 1977.
Weir accused his colleagues of participation in 11 killings. An independent inquiry in 2006 found that in 7 out of 8 cases, ballistics tests corroborated his claims, linking the killings to weapons carried by RUC officers. The Barron report found that a group of loyalist paramilitaries, RUC officers, and British military personnel operating out of a farm in Glenanne was responsible for up to 31 killings. This group become known as the Glenanne gang.
According to Toby Harnden, "the years when McCaughey and the RUC Special Patrol Group were at large represented the only period when loyalist paramilitaries made forays deep into South Armagh, a republican stronghold".
The Armagh SPG was stood down and the remainder of the Special Patrol Group was renamed as the Divisional Mobile Support Unit (DMSU) which had already existed as to supplement the numbers in the SPG.
The first casualty was Const Robert Buckley from Portadown, married with two young daughters. Killed on 20 February 1971 when gunmen opened fire from the cover of a rioting mob at Alliance Avenue, Belfast. An SPG constable, Noel Davies, was the first policeman killed by the INLA as he made to drive away a recovered stolen vehicle.
- Doherty, Richard. The Thin Green Line The History of the Royal Ulster Constabulary GC, Pen & Sword, 2004, ISBN 1-84415-058-5
- Ellison, Graham; Smyth, Jim. The Crowned Harp: Policing Northern Ireland. Pluto Press, London, 2000, ISBN 978-0-7453-1393-1.
- Harnden, Toby. Bandit Country:The IRA and South Armagh . Hodder Paperbacks; New Ed edition, 6 July 2000, ISBN 0340717378
- David R Orr (2013), "RUC Spearhead: The RUC Reserve Force 1950-1970" Redcoat Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9538367-4-1.
- Doherty p58
- Doherty p93
- Doherty p134
- Ellison:Smyth p105
- "CAIN: Issues: Policing: Graham Ellison and Jim Smyth (2000) 'The Crowned Harp: Policing Northern Ireland'". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "SeeingRed [John Weir's Affadavit]". Seeingred.com. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- Barron throws light on a little shock of horrors, Susan McKay, Sunday Tribune, 14 December 2003.
- Harnden p139
- Doherty p98
- Doherty p119