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Spectral analysis or Spectrum analysis may refer to:
- Spectroscopy in chemistry and physics, a method of analyzing the properties of matter from their electromagnetic interactions
- Spectral estimation, in statistics and signal processing, an algorithm that estimates the strength of different frequency components (the power spectrum) of a time-domain signal. This may also be called frequency domain analysis
- Spectrum analyzer, a hardware device for achieving this
- Spectral theory, in mathematics, a theory that extends eigenvalues and eigenvectors to linear operators on Hilbert space, and more generally to the elements of a Banach algebra
- In nuclear and particle physics, gamma spectroscopy, and high-energy astronomy, the analysis of the output of a pulse height analyzer for characteristic features such as spectral line, edges, and various physical processes producing continuum shapes
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