Speed limits by country
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2008)|
A road speed limit is the limit of speed allowed by law for motorised road vehicles, either maximum limit or minimum limit. Speed limits are commonly set by the legislative bodies of national or local governments.
The following tables show various jurisdictions' default speed limits (where applicable) that apply to different types of vehicles travelling on three different types of road. Actual speed limits may range beyond these values. Speeds are listed in kilometers per hour. The enforcement tolerance is specified in km/h or percentage above the stated limit. For the United Kingdom and the United States, the speed limit is also listed in miles per hour in brackets:[fn 1]
|Country||Within towns||Automobiles & motorcycles (single carriageway)||Expressways/motorways (dual carriageway)||Trucks or automobiles with trailer||Outside built-up areas/highways||Enforcement tolerance|
|Argentina||40–60||80–110||120–130 (100 in Buenos Aires City)||80||110|
|Armenia||40–60||90||90||90||90||Up to 10 km/h over the limit|
|Australia||40–60[fn 2]||100–130[fn 2]||80–110[fn 2]||80||80–130[fn 3]||6 km/h in Victoria, 7 km/h over in Western Australia, Generally 10% over speed limit in other states, but a ticket can be given for less. Especially when detected by fixed speed camera.|
|Austria||50 (30 in many residential areas)||100||130[fn 4]||100[fn 5]||100[fn 6]|
|Belarus||60||90||110 ( 90)||70||90||Up to 10 km/h over the limit|
|Belgium||50 (30 in many residential areas)||90||Motorways: 120, Expressways: 120 (90 if no central reservation)||60–90||90||6 km/h tolerance under 100 km/h, 6% over 100 km/h|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||50||80||130 (motorways)
|Brazil||40–60||60–80||80–120||80 (90 for buses)||80–100||7 km/h when speed limit = or < 100 km/h and 7% when speed limit > 100 km/h|
|Bulgaria||50||90 ( 80)||140[fn 7][fn 8] ( 100)||70||100||Speed cameras have 10 km/h tolerance.|
|Canada||30–80||60–100||70–120[fn 9]||60–100||70–120||20% to 40% unofficially (depends on police officer, province, type of road). Speed limits are more strictly enforced in school zones and construction zones where road workers are present. Tickets can be given from 1 km/h more than speedlimit|
|People's Republic of China||30–60||60–80||100–120||N/A||N/A|
|Chile||40–60||80–100||100–120||100 (90 for trucks)||100|
|Colombia||40–60 (70 in urban freeways)||70–90||90–120||80||90|
|80||80||10% in all cases; additionally, outside towns there is no penalty for 10 km/h speeding|
|Cyprus||50||80||100||80||100||20% unofficially (depends on police officer). Tickets can be given from 1 km/h more than speed limit|
|Czech Republic||50||90||90 (with no physical separation)
130 (expressways & motorways)
|80||90||3 km/h when going under 100 km/h, 3% when going over 100 km/h|
|Denmark||50 (30 in many residential areas)||80||110–130 (motorways)
|70 (80 for buses)||80||10% in all cases|
|Ecuador||50||60–100||60–100||40–70 (50–90 for buses)||90|
|Estonia||50–70(20 in many residential areas)||90||110||90||90||6 km/h even with fixed cameras.|
|Faroe Islands (Denmark)||50||80|
|Finland||50||80–100[fn 10]||100–120[fn 10]||80||80||10 km/h in all cases; fixed speed cameras activate at 6 km/h and a notification is sent by mail with no consequences up to 10 km/h over the limit
Beyond 20 km/h fine is net income based with no upper limit (!)
|France||50 (30 in many residential areas)||90
(80 in rain)
|110 (100 in rain)-expressways
130 (110 in rain)-motorways
|60[fn 11]-110||80[fn 12]-130||5 km/h tolerance under 100 km/h, 5% over 100 km/h|
|Germany||50 (30 in many residential areas)||100 (no / 130 advisory with two or more lanes per direction)||
(130 advisory)[fn 13]
|80 (trucks) / 100 (automobiles with trailer and buses)||100||Up to 100 km/h: 3 km/h, over 100 km/h: 3% (rounded up) for fixed speed cameras.
Up to 100 km/h: 7 km/h, over 100 km/h: 7% (rounded up) for moving speed cameras.
|Greece||50||90 ( 70)||130 ( 80)||80 (School buses 60)||80 (School buses 60)||20 km/h above the speed limit, unofficially. However, it can depend on traffic officer, type of road and type of vehicle.|
|Guernsey||40 (25 mph)||56 (35 mph)||N/A||N/A||56 (35 mph)|
|Hong Kong (PRC)[fn 14]||50||50–70[fn 15]||70–110[fn 16]||70[fn 17]||30–70[fn 18]|
|Iceland||50||90 (80 on gravel)||90[fn 19]||80||80||Up to 3 km/h over the limit|
|India||50–70||80||80–120||65||50||No Speed Limit in India at new expressways.|
|Iran||50||70–110||70–120||70–110||70–110||under 60 limit up to 30 km/h above up to 20 fixed cameras have no tolerance|
|Ireland||50 (normal built-up)
30–60 (special limits)
|80–100[fn 20]||120 (80-100*[fn 20])||80–90||80–100|
|Isle of Man||48 (30 mph)||No Speed Limit||N/A||N/A||No Speed Limit|
|Italy||50 (70 on urban fast traffic roads)||90||110 (90 in adverse weather)-expressways
130 (110 in adverse weather)-motorways[fn 21]
|70||80||5 km/h tolerance under 100 km/h, 5% over 100 km/h |
70–80 (single carriageway expressways)
|Jersey||48 (30 mph)||64 (40 mph)||N/A||N/A||64 (40 mph)|
|Kazakhstan||60/80/100||90–100||110|
|Kuwait||60-80||80-120||100-120||70-100||120||Up to 20–25 km/h over the limit is tolerated on highways|
|South Korea||30–80||60–80||80–120( Prohibited)||40–60||80||10 km/h over, reduced penalties less than 20 km/h over. 22 km/h tolerance with speed cameras on expressways with a speed limit of 100 km/h or higher.|
|Latvia||50||90||90; 110 (motorways)||80||80–90||Up to 20 km/h over the limit is tolerated on highways|
|Lithuania||50||90 - Asphalt roads
70 - Gravel roads
|110/100* - motorways with physical separation
130/110* - expressways (*summer/winter period)[fn 22]
|70–80–90||90||Speed cameras have 7–13 km/h tolerance.|
|Luxembourg||50||90||130 (110 in rain)||90||90|
|Macau (PRC)||20–60||50–80||60–80||N/A||N/A||10 km/h|
|Malaysia||50–70||80–90||110||50–70||80–90||80 km/h speed limit on federal and state roads during festive seasons|
|Morocco||60 (40 in many residential areas)||100||120||N/A||100||10% (max 7 km/h)|
|Netherlands||50 (30 in many residential areas)||80
100 (single carriageway expressways)
|130 (motorways, 120 or lower on many stretches)
100 (dual carriageway expressways)
|80–90[fn 24]||80||3 km/h for up to 100 km/h measured, 3% of the measured speed otherwise. From 01–01–2012, the higher 9 km/h tolerance for speeds over 130 km/h has been abolished in favour of the 3% rule (resulting in fines being issued from 136 km/h).[fn 25]|
|New Zealand||50–70||80–100||100||90||80–100||4 km/h (school zones and holiday periods) or 10 km/h (otherwise) when enforced by police. Speed cameras have no tolerance. You get a ticket for 105 km/h at 100 km/h area.|
|Norway||50 (30 in many residential areas)||80||90–110||80, 60 without brakes on trailer||80||Speed cameras have a 5 km/h tolerance.
Police generally apply a tolerance of 5–10 km/h, but up to 20–25 km/h on motorways when driving conditions are favorable.
|Pakistan||40–70||60–100||120 (motorways)||70–80||100 (90 buses)|
|Peru||60 (on avenues)
40 (on streets)
30 (near schools and hospitals)
|100 (on paved highways in rural areas)||80 (urban areas)
100 (rural areas)
80 (for trucks)
70 (for school buses and dangerous goods)
|70-100 (paved highways)
60 (unpaved roads)
|Speed cameras are widely used in Lima and have no tolerance. On national paved roads in rural areas speeding is very common (up to 110 km/h) and speed limits are seldom enforced. Police offices can give fines at their own discretion.|
|Philippines||60–90||80–100||100–120||80–100||100–120||Vehicles in expressways are allowed to exceed the speed limit up to 120 km/h.|
|Poland||50 (60 at night)
can be increased up to 80 on main transit routes[fn 26]
|90 (single carriageways)
100 (dual carriageways)
120 (dual carriageway expressways)
100 (single carriageway expressways)
70 (some DN stretches)
|130[fn 27] (motorways)
|Russia||60 (can be increased by regional government up to 110)||90 (can be increased by regional government up to 110)||110 ( 110)||70–90||90||20 km/h (since September 1, 2013)|
|80||100||10% above the speed limit. However, it can depend on traffic officer.|
|Slovakia||50||90||90 (urban expressways & motorways)
|80||80||7 km/h up to 100 km/h, 8 km/h between 100 and 150 km/h and 9 km/h above 150 km/h|
|Saudi Arabia||40–80||100–120||120||80||80||10% above the speed limit.|
|Somalia||40–65||50–90||110–120(Freeways Prohibited)||40–80||80–100||9 km/h|
|South Africa||60||80–120||120||80||80–100||9km/h over the speed limit|
|Spain||50||90–100[fn 28]||120 (from 1 July 2011)||70–80[fn 29]||80–90[fn 30]|
|Sweden||30–60[fn 31]||60–100[fn 31](110)||110–120[fn 31]||80||80||No tolerance on any road; massive use of speed cameras
new 120 km/h limit is now enforced[fn 32]
|Switzerland||50 (30 in many residential areas)||80–100||120||80||80||Up to 100 km/h: 5 km/h, 101 to 150 km/h: 6 km/h, over 150 km/h: 7 km/h for fixed speed cameras.
Up to 100 km/h: 3 km/h, 101 to 150 km/h: 4 km/h, over 150 km/h: 5 km/h for laser speed cameras.
|Taiwan (Republic of China)||40–60||50–80||100–110(Freeways Prohibited)||60–80||80–90||9 km/h|
|Tanzania||70||80–100||110||100||N/A||9km/h over the speed limit|
|Thailand||Bangkok Metropolitan & Pattaya City: 80
|Bangkok Metropolitan & Pattaya City: 80
|90 Intercity Highway
Bangkok Metropolitan & Pattaya City: 60
Bangkok Metropolitan & Pattaya City: 45
|80–90||No tolerance on any road when speed cameras are in operation.|
|Tunisia||50 (70 on urban fast traffic roads)||90||110|
|Turkey[fn 33]||50||90 ( 80 if L3)||120 (motorways) (100 if L3)
110 (expressways) (90 if L3)
|%10 over the limit, except for motorways which have zero tolerance|
|Ukraine[fn 34]||60||90 ( 80)||110 (dual carriageway)
|United Arab Emirates||50–60||100–120||100–140||50–80||100–140 ( 80)||In Dubai 120 is the maximum speed limit which shows on board and have the tolerance of +20 km/h. But whenever it shows 140, no tolerance is available. Temporary speed cameras can be expected in any roads.|
|United Kingdom||48 (30 mph)[fn 35]||97 (60 mph)[fn 35]||113 (70 mph) (both Motorways and trunk Dual-carriageways)[fn 36]||64–97 (40–60 mph) dependent on class[fn 37]||97–113 (60–70 mph)[fn 37] dependent on class (Motorways)
80–113 (50–70 mph), ditto (trunk Dual-carriageways)
|3–14 km/h (2–9 mph) dependent on limit and jurisdiction.[fn 38] Patrol officers use own discretion (normally 10% + 2 mph).|
|United States[fn 1]||40–72 (25–45 mph)||88 (55 mph)[fn 39]||105–129 (65–80 mph).[fn 40] 137 (85 mph) is allowed on one highway in Texas [fn 41]||Restrictions only in few states, typically 10 mph lower.||89–113 (55–70 mph)[fn 40]||States have jurisdiction over speed limits. Enforcement varies, from warning (e.g., Nebraska) to fines to jail (e.g., Wyoming above 100 mph). Typically, ~5 mph over in speed limit zones 50 and under and ~10 mph in zones 55 and over (highway speeds.) But can be as little as 1 mph.|
|Vietnam||50 ( 40)||80 ( 60)||80-100 ( 60)||70||70|
- Signs are posted in mph. Until recently, speed limit signs on a stretch of Interstate 19 in southern Arizona were the only ones based on the metric system. As part of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the federal government funded a project where the state of Arizona replaced the km/h signs on that stretch with miles-based speed limit signs.
- Default speed limits in Australia vary between states and territories. See Speed limits in Australia for more details.
- No special limit applies for automobiles with trailers. A 100 km/h speed limit applies for heavy vehicles with a gross vehicle mass of 12 tonnes or more. A 100 km/h limit applies for buses with a gross vehicle mass of 5 tonnes or more. In some Australian states, Road Trains are limited to 90 km/h. In some cases, over steep descents or other potentially dangerous stretches of road, heavy vehicles may have other special speed limits as indicated by signage.
- A provisional increase to 160 km/h was in place on a 12 km stretch on the A10 (between Spittal an der Drau and Paternion) in May and June 2006. The 160 km/h speed limit was displayed only during the day (from 5 till 22) and under optimal conditions. In the night (from 22 till 5) the speed limit could be only up to 110 km/h. In bad weather or traffic conditions the displayed speed limit could be lowered. In very poor conditions, the rate was reduced to 80 km/h.
- Cars with heavy trailer: 80 km/h; lorries with heavy trailer: 70 km/h.
- Cars with heavy trailer: 100 km/h; lorries with heavy trailer: 80 km/h.
- "Bulgaria Ups Hwy Speed Limit to 140 Km/H". 26 June 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Bulgarian MPs Seal 140 km/h as Highway Speed Limit". 12 June 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Speed limit is 110 km/h in several provinces, 100 km/h in others. It's 120 km/h on some highways in British Columbia. It's 70 km/h in Montreal's Metropolitan Expressway. It's 80 km/h-90 km/h in Toronto's Municipal Expressway System.
- During winter, when conditions are often bad, all Finnish motorways have a speed limit of 100 km/h or less. Also most roads with 100 km/h speed limit in summer have 80 km/h limit during winter.
- Speed limit is 60 km/h for trailers on 2-lane non-priority roads.
- Speed limit is 80 km/h for lorries and trailers transporting dangerous goods.
- 130 km/h is the recommended maximum speed on motorways, as indicated by a square blue sign (round blue sign = minimum speed). Many sections of the German motorway network are now covered by speed limits, usually ranging from 80 to 130 km/h (140 km/h as speed limit is being tested in Lower Saxony -some politicians are against it, because 140 km/h is over the recommended maximum speed, depending on local conditions (i.e., frequent traffic, terrain, etc.). It is usual for drivers involved in crashes who were exceeding the 'recommended' speed limit to be held to be at least partly at fault, regardless of the circumstances of the crash, and insurance companies have the right to withhold payment. Already more than 50% Autobahns now have a (partially variable) speed limit. Vehicles also must be able to go faster than 60 km/h.
Roughly 30% of german Autobahn have permanent limits. An additional 17% have at least partial limits depending on time, weather or traffic. Study on the speed limit on german Autobahn. Achtung German
- Speed limits have been signed in kilometres per hour since the 1980s. The unit "km/h" was signed below the number before the late 1990's.
- Type restriction is not prescribed for private motor vehicles or motor cycles as opposed to goods vehicles and buses. The default speed limit is 50 km/h unless signed otherwise.
- No default speed limit is mandated on expressways. The lowerest signposted limit on main lines is 70 km/h, which is the norm for examples from the 1970's and 80's usually found in urban areas. More commonly, however, 80 km/h is signed. The rural standard is 100 km/h and is signed whenever practicable in the New Territories. The highest limit, 110 km/h, is only used on the island of Lantau.
- Buses, as well as goods vehicles with a laden weight of 7.5 tonnes, are limited to 70 km/h, minibuses to 80 km/h. Most buses and all minibuses are mechanically restricted. The restriction for goods vehicles is not enforced by the police.
- The default speed limit in the territory is 50 km/h. 30 km/h may be signed on less used roads built on rough terrain.
- Iceland does not have expressways/motorways in the traditional sense. There is only one such road, with three and four lanes and no traffic lights. It is within city limits, and the maximum speed is 80 km/h.
- 100 km/h is default limit on all National Routes regardless of design standard when local limits do not apply; regional and minor routes have an 80 km/h limit. All limits are signposted either way. *On urban motorways such as the M50 (100km/h) or M1 (as low as 80km/h in places) or in tunnels (80km/h).
- Two and three-lane motorways (autostrada): 130 km/h; since 2003 on some three-lane autostrade a 150 km/h limit was introduced, but is not operative).
- "Lithuanian parliament official speed limits. See XV article.". 8 April 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- Some two lane Federal highways are posted at 110 km/h provided they have a paved shoulder.
- In the Netherlands, only cars or vans pulling a trailer with a total weight of less than 3.5 metric tons (with the trailer weighing less than 750 kg) are allowed to drive 90 km/h, except where a lower speed limit is posted. Vehicles of other categories (i.e. trucks), as well as cars or vans with a trailer weighing more than 3.5 tons are restricted to 80 km/h.
- This is because the 3% are rounded up. 3% of 136 km/h is 4.08, which after rounding up results in a tolerance of 5 km/h. Thus after correction for tolerance, a measured speed of 136 km/h results in a fine for driving 131 km/h, or 1 km/h over the speed limit.
- 50 km/h in built-up areas during the day (from 5 till 23) and 60 km/h at night (from 23 till 5)
- Speed limit is 130 km/h, but no legal sanction is established for driving within 10 km/h over the speed limit.
- 100 km/h on: a) one-way roads, b) roads with more than two lanes, or c) roads with shoulders at least 1.5 m wide; 90 km/h elsewhere.
On two-way roads, cars and motorbikes are allowed to go 20 km/h over the speed limit in order to overtake a slower vehicle in a shorter amount of time.
- On roads with a speed limit of 100 km/h for cars and motorbikes: 90 km/h for buses, vans and vehicles with a trailer weighing 750 kg or less, 80 km/h for trucks and vehicles with a trailer weighing more than 750 kg.
On roads with a speed limit of 90 km/h for cars and motorbikes: 80 km/h for buses, vans and vehicles with a trailer weighing 750 kg or less, 70 km/h for trucks and vehicles with a trailer weighing more than 750 kg.
- 100 km/h for buses and vans, 90 km/h for trucks and vehicles with a trailer weighing 750 kg or less, 80 km/h for vehicles with a trailer weighing more than 750 kg.
- Sweden introduced new speed limits in 2008/2009, where the regular limits 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 km/h are complemented by 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 km/h. Please see this document for more information In general speed limits of 110 and 120 km/h apply on freeways only (4 lanes). However speed limits of 110 km/h remain on fence-divided 2-3 lane highways in the northern part of the country. Parts of the east-coast European Route E4 north of the city of Gävle towards Haparanda is an example of this. All other 2-3 lane highways previously zoned at 110 km/h have been lowered to either 90 or 100 km/h respectively.
- The 120 km/h limit is currently unenforced by the police due to lack of clarity in the legal text, per Teknikens Värld, 3 January 2012.
- In June 2010, a motion has taken by the Turkish Grand National Assembly to increase the speed limit in double lane highways in rural areas from 90 km/h to 110 km/h. New law is expected to be valid from July 2010.
- New speed limits in Ukraine effective from 22 April 2009.
- UK roads only have three blanket limits for non-towing private vehicles (separate from those for trucks, buses and towing vehicles). 30 mph (48 km/h) in towns (including dual carriageways), 60 mph (97 km/h) on non-urban single carriageway roads, and 70 mph (113 km/h) on all dual-carriageway roads and motorways (including rare single-carriageway motorway sections, and sliproads), which apply without needing signs. Any other limits in force must be clearly posted. For example, 20 mph (32 km/h) limits are common in residential estates and city-centre areas and outside primary schools, whereas 40 mph (64 km/h) limits are common on major urban through-routes, including many 2-lane single-carriageway residential urban roads, and usually come with both zone start/end signs and small repeaters (with 30 mph areas also usually having start/end signs for clarity, but rarely repeaters; 60/70 sections tend to be marked with struck-circle "de-restriction" signs, but very occasionally zone-start and repeaters for clarity or preserving the higher limit on limited-access routes that would otherwise technically class as an urban road). Higher limits in urban areas are usually reserved for limited-access dual carriageways. Lower limits are common on dual carriageways superseded by motorways[clarification needed] or of poor quality, even some major intercity routes. Permanent, mandatory lower motorway limits are rare but do exist, e.g. 50 mph (80 km/h) is generally applied on tidal flow sections, in tunnels, some bridges or sections of substandard alignment and junction structure. Variable, legally-enforceable limits for traffic control (including hard-shoulder running at up to 50~60 mph) are being gradually introduced (at time of writing, on sections of the M25, M42 and M6) and may go as low as 20 mph (32 km/h) in 10 mph steps. Any other speed signs on motorways are usually advisory-only but may be used for proportioning liability in accidents.
- All non-urban, all-purpose (i.e. not limited to motor traffic, except in the case of "A(M)" roads) dual carriageways are subject to the same 70 mph limit for light vehicles as motorways, but lower limits (50 and 60 mph) are in place for heavy trucks, buses/minibuses and towing vehicles. These roads take the place of motorways where a high-traffic trunk route is required but building a motorway would be impractical for reasons of cost, land take or geography. In the latter case, steeper or more winding alignments and less forgiving junctions than would be found on motorways necessitate lower limits for some stretches - as low as 30 mph in some cases, e.g. around Penmaenbach on the A55 in Wales, or a less severe 60 mph restriction on some parts of the A38 and A45.
- Generally in the UK, lorries over a laden weight of 7500 kg are mechanically or electronically speed-limited to 56 mph (90 km/h) because of overriding European law, even on motorways where they are legally permitted (under UK law) to travel at 60 mph. Some heavier machines are further limited to 53 (85 km/h) for the same reasons, and carry warning plates to this effect. Some lorries or trucks between a laden weight of 3500 kg and 7500 kg are also speed-limited to 56 mph (90 km/h) on all roads. On non-motorway roads, heavier trucks are legally limited to 40 (single-carriageway) or 50 (dual carriageway) mph (64 and 80 km/h), medium trucks and buses/commercial van-based minibuses to 50 and 60 mph (80 and 97 km/h), though the latter are further divided by being allowed to respectively travel at 60 and 70 mph on motorways (97 and 113 km/h). Light commercial vans are subject to the same 60/70/70 mph limits as private cars and motorcycles, and towing cycles/cars/vans subject to medium truck 50/60/60 limits.
- No blanket national guidelines exist, but most regional police forces are mooted to allow a 2 mph, 10%, or 10% + 2 mph tolerance (upper limits, IE these are the minimum speeds that will attract penalty), with no clear information on which level is in place in each jurisdiction. A driver on a 60 mph road may be able to sustain 61.9 or 67.9 mph without penalty either side of a border. 20 mph zones typically have a 5 mph tolerance to allow for poorer speedometer accuracy, increased difficulty of keeping to a constant low speed (and that these roads were typically under 30 mph limits until recently), and an understanding that the nature of a road attracting a 20 mph limit means drivers will need to be more vigilant and not "clock watching". Patrolling police officers not using static speed traps are free to make their own judgments depending on traffic, road conditions and driver behaviour - speeds in excess of 80 mph are often left unchallenged on free flowing trunk routes, but dangerously swift yet technically legal driving can still be prosecuted under separate statutes (dangerous driving, undue care and attention, etc), e.g. 60 mph on that same road in traffic and freezing fog. (Unofficial data)
- The lower speed limit in large inner-cities may be as low as 45 mph (72 km/h) for example on I-90/94 which goes through Chicago. In many urban areas, controlled-access highways typically take 5 - 15 mph off the speed limit. For example, in Cleveland and Cuyahoga county, the speed limit is 60 mph (97 km/h). Once out of the county, the speed limit returns to 65 mph (105 km/h).
- The state of Hawaii posts a 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit on many Interstate highways.
- One toll road near Austin, TX has a speed limit of 85 miles per hour. 85 MPH Highway Opens
- There are no specific speed limits in Venezuela. The standard within towns is 60 km/h and from 80 to 120 km/h in highways however it varies depending on road conditions therefore speed limits are set by transit authorities through signals. Ley de Transito Terrestre, 3 November 2007.
American interstate highways are frequently patrolled by law enforcement, typically referred to as Highway Patrol, State Patrol or State Police. Speed limit enforcement is the most profitable part of their duty, but other traffic laws are sometimes enforced. Enforcement varies notably between states and traffic conditions. Montana and Nebraska have high tolerance toward speeding. More states are experimenting with variable speed limits, with electronic speed limit displays replacing fixed-number signs. The New Jersey Turnpike has long been equipped with variable-limit signs; in 2011, the same system was put in place along a stretch of Interstate 80 through Wyoming. The idea is to vary speed limits with traffic and weather conditions, the latter being the most immediate concern in Wyoming.
In some countries in Europe, traffic calming is gradually becoming a regular part of urban traffic management, after a long evolution of opinions and attitudes towards car use and vulnerable road users. From 1980, regulations for 30 km/h zones were enacted and have been widely applied. New urban policies have been defined with a view to encouraging a switch from car use to public transport and non-motorised modes (cycling, walking), with the additional condition of lower speeds to improve safety of vulnerable road users, for example national policies such as Duurzaam Veilig ('sustainable safety') in the Netherlands or "Vision Zero" in Sweden.
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