|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
|Stylistic origins||NWOBHM, hardcore punk|
|Cultural origins||Late 1970s and early 1980s, Europe and North America|
|Typical instruments||Electric guitar, bass, drums, vocals|
|Derivative forms||Thrash metal, power metal, neo-classical metal, black metal, death metal|
|North America • United Kingdom • Germany|
Speed metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music that originated in the late 1970s from New Wave of British Heavy Metal (NWOBHM) and hardcore punk roots. It is described by Allmusic as "extremely fast, abrasive, and technically demanding" music.
"It is usually considered less abrasive and more melodic than thrash metal, showing less influence from hardcore punk. However, speed metal is usually faster and more aggressive than traditional heavy metal, also showing more inclination to virtuoso soloing and featuring short instrumental passages between couplets. Speed metal songs frequently make use of highly expressive vocals, but are usually less likely to employ 'harsh' vocals than thrash metal songs."
New Wave Of British Heavy Metal
One of the key influences on the development of speed metal was the New Wave of British Heavy Metal, or NWOBHM. This was a heavy metal movement that started in the late 1970s, in Britain, and achieved international attention by the early 1980s. NWOBHM bands toned down the blues influences of earlier acts, incorporated elements of punk, increased the tempo, and adopted a "tougher" sound, taking a harder approach to its music.
It was an era directed almost exclusively at heavy metal fans and is considered to be a major foundation stone for the extreme metal genres; acts such as the American metal band Metallica cite NWOBHM bands like Iron Maiden, Saxon, Motörhead and Diamond Head as a major influence on their musical style.
The NWOBHM came to dominate the heavy metal scene of the early-mid-1980s. It was musically characterized by fast upbeat tempo songs, power chords, fast guitar solos and melodic, soaring vocals. Groups such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Venom, Saxon and Motörhead as well as many lesser-known ones, became part of the canon that influenced American bands that formed in the early eighties.
Another key influence on the development of speed metal was the genre of hardcore punk (usually referred to simply as hardcore), a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. Hardcore music is generally faster, heavier, and more abrasive than regular punk rock. Speed metal has less hardcore influence than thrash metal.
According to Allmusic.com, the overall blueprint for hardcore was playing louder, harder and faster. Hardcore vocalists often shout, scream or chant along with the music, an approach that was taken up by thrash bands. Hardcore vocal lines are often based on minor scales. Hardcore songs may include shouted background vocals from the other band members. Guitar parts in hardcore can be complex, technically versatile and rhythmically challenging.
Other metal influences
Motörhead is often credited as the first band to invent/play speed metal. Some of speed metal's earlier influences include Black Sabbath's "Children of the Grave", Budgie's "Breadfan" and Queen's "Stone Cold Crazy" (which were both eventually covered by the thrash metal band Metallica) as well as certain Deep Purple songs such as "Fireball", and "Highway Star". The latter was called 'early speed metal' by Robb Reiner of speed metal band Anvil.
Black Sabbath is a British heavy metal band from England, and are often cited as one of the grandfathers of the genre. Though usually known for playing a fairly slow, sludgy tempo, "After Forever" is a very up-tempo song with a much faster pace than other songs in their catalogue. Still in certain other songs such as "Electric Funeral", "Into the Void" and "Under the Sun (Every Day Comes and Goes)" there is a section in the middle of the song that shifts away from the core music and plays a much faster pace than in the rest of the song, then returns to the original melody.
Judas Priest are a British heavy metal band formed in Birmingham, England in 1969. They often played faster than most rock groups of the time and brought a more "metallic" sound to the guitars. Some songs, such as 1978's "Exciter", were groundbreaking for their sheer ferocity and speed; few, if any, bands exempting Motörhead, played with the same tempo.
Exciter (who took their name from the aforementioned Judas Priest song) is a Canadian speed metal band from Ottawa, Ontario which was formed in 1978. They are widely considered to be one of the first speed metal bands and a seminal influence of the thrash metal genre. Anvil are another Canadian speed metal band, from Toronto, Ontario, who also formed in 1978. To date, the band has released fifteen studio albums, and has been cited as having influenced many notable thrash metal groups, including Megadeth, Slayer, Anthrax and Metallica. Annihilator is a Canadian speed/thrash metal band founded in 1984 by vocalist, guitarist and bassist Jeff Waters. They are the highest selling heavy metal group in Canadian history, having sold 2 million records worldwide.
Accept is a German heavy metal which band played an important role in the development of speed and thrash metal, being part of the German heavy metal scene, which emerged in the early to mid-1980s. Of particular importance was their 1982 track Fast as a Shark.
Speed metal eventually evolved into thrash metal. Although many tend to equate the two subgenres, others argue that there is a distinct difference between them. In his book Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal, Ian Christe states that "...thrash metal relies more on long, wrenching rhythmic breaks, while speed metal... is a cleaner and more musically intricate subcategory, still loyal to the dueling melodies of classic metal."
Speed metal's sound varied between various regional scenes. European bands leaned towards the sound of bands like Venom and Motörhead. Japanese bands had a more melodic sound that resembled power metal. North American bands had a faster, more aggressive sound that would later influence the thrash metal movement.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Speed metal.|
- "The best Speed Metal albums". Heavy Metal Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Motörhead: Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- Jones, Chris (2007-06-07). "Queen: Sheer Heart Attack Review". BBC. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- Posted 3/16/09. ""Anvil On Deep Purple's "Highway Star"" by Anvil | Show Clip". VH1.com. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
- "Speed Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-06-07.