Speedo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about swimwear maker Speedo International. For North American licensee Speedo USA, see Warnaco Group. For other uses, see Speedo (disambiguation).
Speedo International Limited
Type Private
Industry Textiles, Apparel, Luxury Goods
Fate Acquired
Predecessor(s) Danomic Investments Ltd.
Founded Bondi Beach, New South Wales, Australia (1914 (1914))
Founder(s) Alexander MacRae
Headquarters Nottingham, UK
Area served Worldwide
Key people
  • Andrew Rubin
    chief executive officer
  • David Robinson
    President
Products Swimwear, accessories, Sportswear
Parent Pentland Group, Plc.
Website speedo.com/en/
References: [1]

Speedo International Ltd. is a manufacturer and distributor of swimwear and swim-related accessories. Founded in Sydney in 1914, the industry leading company is now a subsidiary of the British Pentland Group. Today, the Speedo brand can be found on products ranging from swimsuits and goggles to wrist watches and MP3 players.[2] The Speedo brand is manufactured for and marketed in North America as Speedo USA by the Warnaco Group under exclusive perpetual license.[3]

History[edit]

Australian swimmers Bonnie Mealing, Clare Dennis, Frances Bult with chaperone and sprinters Eileen Wearne (Aus) and Thelma Kench (NZ) at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics

Speedo Knitting Mills[edit]

Company founder Alexander MacRae emigrated from Loch Kishorn in the Western Highlands of Scotland to Sydney, Australia in 1910. Originally working as a milkman, he founded MacRae and Company Hosiery four years later, manufacturing underwear under the brand name Fortitude (taken from his family crest).[4] The Australian Army's need for socks during the First World War provided MacRae with enough business to expand and in 1927 his first line of swimwear, called a "racer-back costume" was introduced. The following year, a naming contest held among the MacRae staff yielded the slogan "Speed on in your Speedos." The brand name was born. The contest winner, Captain Parsonson, was awarded £5 for his slogan and the company was renamed Speedo Knitting Mills.[4]

The controversial yet revolutionary racerback style's open shoulder and exposed back allowed greater range of motion in water and was quickly adopted by competitive swimmers, despite being banned by some beaches.[5] In 1932, Speedo made its Olympic debut when 16-year-old Australian Clare Dennis won the Women's 200 Meter Breaststroke at the Los Angeles Olympic Games. After nearly being disqualified for "showing too much shoulder" in her regulation silk Speedo brand swimsuit, Dennis went on to set a world record time of 3:06.3.[6] The 1936 Berlin Summer Games also saw some controversy as the men's Australian swim team featured shirtless swim trunks for the first time. Also in 1936, Alexander MacRae became involved in the Surf Life Saving Association. To this day, Speedo continues to support the Australian volunteer organisation.[7]

Two years later, company founder Alexander MacRae died at the age of 50.[4]

Post-War expansion[edit]

Australian Jon Henricks after record-breaking 100 meter freestyle finish at The 1956 Melbourne Summer Olympics

After devoting most of its resources to the War Effort during World War II, Speedo enjoyed a great post-war demand for swimsuits, specifically the recently invented bikini style. The company quickly reestablished itself as a leader in swimwear manufacturing and once again drew controversy when its two-piece was banned by Australian beach inspectors.[7] In 1951, Speedo Knitting Mills (Holdings) Ltd. incorporated and went public, selling its stock on the Sydney Stock Exchange.[7] In 1955, nylon was used for the first time in the company's swimsuits[8] and the next year, the increasingly popular swimsuit brand returned to the Olympics when its home country hosted the Melbourne Summer Games.[4] The Speedo sponsored Australian men's swim team took home eight gold medals[9] and brought a new worldwide level of notoriety to the company which debuted the swim briefs that would become synonymous with the brand name. By 1957, Speedo had the exclusive license to manufacture and distribute Jockey brand men's underwear in Australia.[10] The company finished off the 1950s by exporting to the United States and exploring potential opportunities in South America, Europe, New Zealand and Japan.[7]

The end of the 1950s also saw the beginning of a long-lasting business partnership which continues to this day. In 1958, Speedo began the manufacture of American Warnaco's White Stag ski-wear line. In exchange, in 1961, White Stag became the exclusive US distributor of Speedo swimwear. Through White Stag, Speedo's product line expanded to include men's and women's sportswear.[11] By the middle of the 1960s, Speedo had acquired 30% of Nottingham, UK textile manufacturer Robert Shaw and Company Ltd. and had established a European subsidiary. Licenses were also granted to Japanese and South American corporations.[7] The 1968 Mexico City Summer Olympics saw 27 of the 29 gold medalists—22 of which set world records—wearing Speedo brand swimsuits.[7]

Speedo began the next decade by completing its acquisition of Robert Shaw and Company in 1971.[12] The 1970s also saw the company pioneer the use of elastane (spandex) and the brand's use in Olympic record breaking continued at the 1972 Munich and 1976 Montreal games, the latter of which Speedo was an official swimwear licensee.[7]

On Australia Day, 26 January 1981 the Australian Institute of Sport opened in Canberra, with Speedo as its first official sponsor.[7] Also early in the decade, Speedo provided equipment and training to China[7] to aid the communist country's return to the Olympics for first time since 1958.[13] Throughout the decade, the brand expanded its reach in Europe by licensing production in Italy, Spain, Sweden and other nations, bringing its total distribution to 112 countries.[7]

Modern technology[edit]

In 1990, British sportswear firm Pentland Group, which had just sold its shares of sneaker company Reebok, acquired a significant stake in Warnaco offshoot Authentic Fitness, which was the exclusive North American licensee of Speedo. Pentland followed this move with the purchase of 80% of Speedo (Europe) Ltd. Early the next year, Pentland completed its aggressive entrance into the global swimwear market by wholly acquiring Speedo Australia and Speedo International.[14] Under Pentland's ownership, Speedo expanded its line of swimwear to include more fashion-oriented beachwear as well as triathlon accessories.

Michael Phelps (centre) unveils the Speedo LZR Racer suit.

Even under the new corporate command, Speedo continued its winning tradition of utilising cutting edge technology to decrease drag in the water and increase speed into the 1990s. The decade saw the creation of the low-drag S2000 suit, the chlorine resistant Endurance line as well as the Aquablade series which was worn by more than three-fourths of medal winners at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games.[7]

Speedo began the 21st century with the introduction of its Fastskin swimsuit and, again, broke world records when the Summer Games returned to the swimwear leader's home town. The company website boasts that 13 out of the 15 swimming records broken in the 2000 Sydney Olympics were by athletes wearing Speedo. Three years later, Speedo celebrated its 75th anniversary with special limited edition lines endorsed by Jerry Hall, Naomi Campbell and others. In 2004, Michael Phelps wore the latest evolution of the Fastskin series[7] in Athens to become the first swimmer to earn eight medals.[15] Phelps followed up this performance four years later, earning eight golds[15] at Beijing, while wearing Speedo's LZR Racer suit[7] In 2010, the company launched Speedo Sculpture ShapeLine, a new line of body-shaping swimsuits for women.[16]

Products[edit]

Although the brand name Speedo is often genericised to refer to any style of men's swim briefs, these account for less than 2% of the company's sales.[17] The Speedo name can be found on a wide range of swimsuit styles for men, women, and children focusing on performance and style. Speedo also offers a range of sportswear, footwear, and accessories ranging from swim goggles to electronics. Additionally, Speedo International offers a line of men's underwear and Speedo Australia features a line of underwear called Speedo Underbody for men and women, sold only in select David Jones retail stores.[18]

Accessories[edit]

Speedo offers a broad range of swim accessories including more than seventy models of goggles,[19] several models of watches, sunglasses, and towels. In addition, Speedo offers several lines of aquatic fitness aids and swim aids for children and adults as well as scuba masks, snorkels and swimfins. Speedo International offers a line of beach games equipment not offered on the SpeedoUSA website.

Footwear[edit]

The speedo brand can be found on a wide variety of footwear including sandals, flip-flops, and water shoes. Speedo USA offers waterproof sneakers for aqua fitness training.[20]

Speedo Digital[edit]

The Speedo Digital line of accessories includes the waterproof Aquabeat and LZR Racer Aquabeat digital music players and related accessories, which are manufactured by South Korean consumer electronics company Iriver.[21] Speedo's electronics offerings also include the Auquashot waterproof digital camera.

Swimwear[edit]

Speedo's swimwear line-up is as diverse as ever. Speedo USA's online catalogue divides its women's swimwear lines into the following categories: Competition, Fashion, Racing, Aquatic Fitness, and Lifeguard.[22] Speedo International offers the additional categories of women's swimsuits: Essentials, Bikinis, and Maternity as well as full-bodied wetsuits.[23] Speedo USA's men's collections are categorised as: Competition, Racing, Boardshorts and Swim Trunks, Fashion, and Lifeguard.[22] Speedo International's men's offerings also include wetsuits.[23] Both Speedo USA and Speedo International also offer a wide range of children's styles including performance, racing, fashion and beginner lines.[22][23]

Additionally, Speedo International offers a website and line of products called Speedo Sea Squad which features games and activities to help young children learn about swimming and water safety.[24]

Controversial Technology[edit]

Beginning with Arne Borg's record breaking introduction of the racerback suit in 1932, Speedo has utilised the latest technologies available and – more recently – has been an industry leader in fabric technology innovations. Swim records were broken in Speedo brand silk suits in the 1930s, and the company was the first to introduce the use of nylon in the 1950s[8] and later nylon/elastane in the 1970s.[7] Speedo's most recent technological advances are found in the Fastskin, Fastskin FS II series and the LZR Racer suit. Throughout the company's history, though, it seemed each design innovation was met with great controversy. Clare Dennis was nearly disqualified from her record-breaking Olympic meet because her suit showed too much skin;[6] early Speedo bikinis were banned from some Australian beaches;[7] more recently, the NASA technology in the LZR Racer suit Michael Phelps wore at the Beijing Olympics was the subject of great media scrutiny.

Fastskin[edit]

In 2009, British designer and former competitive swimmer Fiona Fairhurst was named as a finalist for European Inventor of the Year.[25] Fairhurst helped Speedo's Aqualab design team invent the first-of-its-kind Fastskin swimsuit. Inspired by the varying skin texture of a shark, Fairhurst told the BBC that she "was looking to develop a fabric that mimics nature".[26] Both the Fastskin and Fastkskin FS II are textured with bumps and ridges in key places, similar to those on a shark's skin. These ridges serve to channel the water over the swimmer's body in a more efficient manner than traditional material suits.[27] In addition, the suits are custom designed for the type of stroke the swimmer will use as well as being engineered differently for women and for men. These high-tech suits make use of elastic compression materials to limit muscle oscillation and to compress the swimmer's body, while in other areas a more flexible fabric is used to allow greater range of motion. Leaving no detail overlooked, the design team also uses low-profile seams. According to author Frank Vizard, the Fastskin suits reduce drag by up to four percent.[28] Speedo adapted this new fabric technology for the 2006 Winter Olympics.[17] The full-bodied Fastskin FSII Ice suits were debuted by the silver medal winning American women's bobsled team.[29]

By the time the lady bobsledders were given the opportunity to don their Fastskin suits, the line had already gone through several evolutions including the Fastskin FS-II and Fastskin FS-Pro. From the very beginning, these drag reducing suits were met with great resistance. At issue was Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) rule 10.7, which stated "No swimmer shall use any device that may aid his speed, buoyancy, or endurance during a competition (such as webbed gloves, flippers, fins etc). Goggles may be worn".[30] Early in 2000, Speedo hand-delivered their new Fastskin suits to 150 Olympic hopefuls and promised 6,000 more would be made available for Olympic trials. Fearing the possibility of Speedo-clad race winners being stripped of medals due to challenges, the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC) asked the Court of Arbitration for Sport to examine the legality of the FINA-sanctioned suits.[31] In May that year, a CAS-appointed arbitrator backed the FINA ruling allowing use of the suits for Olympic tryouts. Australian Olympic Committee president John Coates, however, said in a press conference that their swimmers would be allowed to wear the futuristic neck to ankle covering suits, but would do so "at their own risk".[32] Coates later stated that the ruling he sought was whether the suits should be classified as costumes or devices.[32]

Professor Emeritus of Exercise and Nutritional sciences at San Diego State University, Brent S. Rushall claimed in a report sent to CAS that the suits were – by FINA's definition and based on manufacturer's claims – in fact devices, rather than costumes[33] and are therefore in violation of the FINA rule, which disallows equipment such as fins or flippers. In the report, Rushall equally criticises Adidas (who had a similarly designed bodysuit) and Speedo for giving FINA members presents and declares that these members should recuse themselves from ruling on the legality of these suits.[33]

Ultimately, the suits were approved for use in the Sydney Olympics and in December 2000 the super-suit earned a place on Popular Science's "100 Best of What's New", alongside the US Navy's F-16 replacement and Kodak's Smart Digital Picture Frame with built-in modem.[34]

Four years later, the FSII debuted in the Athens summer games. While this next stage in swimwear evolution was quickly approved by FINA, it was not without controversy. Speedo competitor TYR developed a similar full body suit with detached sleeves, which the company calls Aqua Bands. Both TYR's detached Aqau bands and Speedo FSII's attached sleeves are designed to essentially "grip" the water on the inner forearm. TYR maintained that essentially the only difference between their suit and Speedo's was whether the sleeves were attached. Despite this, FINA did not approve TYR's armbands.[35] In 2004, 47 medals were won by swimmers wearing Fastskin II.[citation needed]

In late 2011, in time for the holiday season, Speedo introduced a new Fastskin3 suit. This suit comes in two styles, Elite and Super Elite. Speedo developed the Fastskin3 as a racing "system", consisting of a newly introduced cap, goggles, and competition suit. Michael Phelps is the principle advertiser for the Fastskin3 line of suits, as Ryan Lochte has been reported to prefer the older Fastskin LZR Elite suits. In succession to the LZR Pro and Elite, Speedo switched the branding for their technical suits from "Fastskin LZR Racer" to "Fastskin", continuing the trend they left off in 2008 when they debuted the LZR Racer. The male suit is available as a normal-cut suit and a high-waisted suit that utilises the space in between the belly button and waist of the male swimmer. The core of Speedo's advertising campaign for the new line touted the benefits of "becoming one" with the suit. Speedo advertises up to 16.6% drag reduction and 11% improved oxygen economy. The system is sold featuring "fit point markers", allowing the swimmer to line up the suit, cap, and goggles to achieve an ideal fit and appearance. FINA approved this suit shortly after it was launched, and the suit is anticipated to be used at the London 2012 Olympics by a majority of athletes, along with the Arena PowerSkin Carbon Pro suit, which debuted in early 2012.

LZR Racer[edit]

Main article: LZR Racer
NASA computer image used in development of the Speedo LZR Racer

Speedo's most controversial move came with 2008's unveiling of the LZR (pronounced "lazer") Racer – a suit, as Speedo's website boasts, "so fast, it was banned from competition".[36] Indeed the LZR Racer was banned by FINA in 2009, but not until swimmers wearing this suit had already broken at least 46 world records.[37] The super smooth suit, which was optimised with the help of NASA wind tunnels, uses welded seams and multiple woven fabrics to reduce drag by up to six percent.[27] In addition, the LZR, like the Fastskin, utilises a core stabiliser, which acts almost as a girdle, to reduce muscle movement. This is designed to help the swimmer maintain the proper angle in the water for longer periods of time.[27][37] Popular Science magazine named this suit to their "100 Best of What's New '08" list, calling it "The fastest swimsuit in the world".[38]

FINA's ban on the LZR Racer and all "hi-tech" suits came shortly before Michael Phelps's 200 meter freestyle loss to Germany's Paul Biedermann at the 2009 FINA World Aquatics Championships in Rome, Italy. Wearing Arena's polyurethane X-Glide suit, Biedermann broke two world records that day[39] and beat Phelps by more than one second.[40] Even though FINA had already approved the ban, it had not been scheduled to go into effect until the following spring. The delay in FINA's hi-tech prohibition and Phelps's unexpected second place finish (his first loss since 2005) led Phelps's coach Bob Bowman to threaten a boycott of international swim competitions.[41] In the first three days of the eight-day competition, 15 world records were set.[41]

The vague decision by swimming's governing body stated that suit materials would need to be textile, rather than polymer-based, but offered no specific deadline for this changeover to occur. [42] The reason for the delay, FINA executive director Cornel Marculescu told the AP, is to give manufacturers enough time "to pass from polyurethane to textiles".[41] The ambiguity continued when FINA was unable to define textile.[42] The most specific aspect of the ruling returned men to bare chests and ladies to bare shoulders.[43] The current rule (GR 5.4), as posted on FINA's website, states "Before any swimwear of new design, construction or material is used in competition, the manufacturer of such swimwear must submit the swimwear to FINA and obtain approval of FINA".[44]

Speedo's latest version of the LZR Racer series, the LZR Racer Elite, carries the FINA stamp of approval. The Elite series, like its predecessor utilises welded seams and compression material to sculpt the swimmer's body.[36] The SpeedoUSA website specifically denies the new generation of LZR Racers is a "quick fix".[36] The most recent list of FINA approved swimsuits, which was published in January 2011 lists 78 specific Speedo brand swimsuits among 45 worldwide brands and nearly 720 models. Among them, 71 are Fastskin models and 13 are LZR series suits.[30] Several Speedo designs have been removed from the FINA list including the original LZR Racer, and multiple Fastskin models.[18]

Post-FINA Surplus[edit]

FINA's ban on LZR Racers left Speedo with a significant surplus stock. The obsolete competition suits have found new life, though. London's Chelsea College of Art and Design received a donation of 600 suits,[45] 200 of which were turned into the Chelsea Xpo Pavilion as part of the 2010 London Festival of Architecture project.[46] The pavilion can be seen on the college's campus at the Rootstein Hopkins Parade Ground.[47]

Another collaboration between Speedo and academia netted a line of designer fashions. Teams of students from the London College of Fashion, University College Falmouth and the University of Huddersfield have reused the material to create a complete fashion line including casual slacks, jackets, and even different forms of swimwear. Speedo International president David Robinson said in a press release "we are pleased to see this quality of talent emerging from the universities that have taken part. Speedo is committed to reducing its impact on the environment and as such it is good to see the Speedo LZR Racer live on in these innovative designs".[48]

This was not the company's first foray into recycled high fashion, though. In September 2010, award winning sustainable fashion label, From Somewhere announced a new line of dresses made from Speedo's surplus.[49][50]

Sponsorships[edit]

Olympic Committees[edit]

Team Nation Expires Ref
Olympic Committee of Israel Israel N/A [51]

National teams[edit]

Speedo is the sponsor of several national swim teams.

Team Nation Expires Ref
Swimming Australia Australia 2011 [52]
Brazilian Aquatic Sports Confederation Brazil N/A [53]
Swimming Canada Canada N/A [54]
Diving Plongeon Canada Canada N/A [55]
Synchro Canada Canada N/A [56]
Canadian Water Polo Association Canada N/A [57]
Colombian Federation of Swimming Colombia N/A [58]
Finnish Swimming Association Finland N/A [59]
Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association Hong Kong N/A [60]
Icelandic Swimming Association Iceland 2012 [61]
Israel Swimming Association Israel N/A [51]
Japan Swimming Federation Japan N/A [62]
Mexican Swimming Federation Mexico N/A [63]
Romanian Water Polo Association Romania N/A [64]
Royal Spanish Swimming Federation Spain 2014 [65]
British Swimming United Kingdom 2016 [66]
USA Swimming United States N/A [67]
US Masters Swimming United States N/A [68]

Speedo also offers sponsorships to some High School and College (NCAA, NAIA, Junior college) Leagues as well as non-profit recreation leagues such as YMCA and Boys and Girls Clubs.[69]

[edit]

In addition to team and league sponsorships, several celebrity athletes endorse Speedo products.[70]

Name Country Discipline
Barratt, Bronte Australia Freestyle
Samulski, Daniela Germany Backstroke
Winnard, Chris Australia Freestyle
Kissock, Emma Australia Freestyle
Gilot, Fabien France Freestyle
Heemskerk, Femke Netherlands Freestyle
Magnini, Filippo Italy Freestyle
Ziegler, Kate United States Freestyle
Hoff, Katie United States Freestyle
Jones, Leisel Australia Breaststroke
Tancock, Liam United Kingdom Backstroke
Trickett, Libby Australia Butterfly
Veldhuis, Marleen Netherlands Freestyle
Phelps, Michael United States Butterfly
Coughlin, Natalie United States Backstroke
Vanderkaay, Peter United States Freestyle
Adlington, Rebecca United Kingdom Freestyle
Lochte, Ryan United States Backstroke
Park, Tae-Hwan South Korea Freestyle

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Speedo International Limited: Private Company Information". BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  2. ^ "Speedo USA Swimwear". Speedousa.com. Warnaco Group, Inc. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  3. ^ Warnaco (2010). "2009 Annual Report on Form 10-K" (pdf). Warnaco 2009 Annual Report: pp. 1–3. 
  4. ^ a b c d 1001 Australians You Should Know, p. 361, at Google Books
  5. ^ "Speedo Swimwear". Australia Innovates. Powerhouse Museum. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Dennis, Clara (Clare) (1916–1971) Biographical Entry". Australian Dictionary of Biography Online. Australian National University. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Speedo History". Explore Speedo. Speedo International. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  8. ^ a b "The Inventive Australian Mind". ConvictCreations.Com. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  9. ^ "Australia at the 1956 Melbourne Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 12 October 2010. 
  10. ^ "Australia's Finest Sportswear". Sydney Morning Herald. 25 February 1957. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  11. ^ "Profits". Sydney Morning Herald. 17 April 1970. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  12. ^ Costume: the journal of the Costume Society, Volume 1; Volume 35; Volume 24, p. 80, at Google Books
  13. ^ (ed.) Monique Berlioux (August–September 1983). "China and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review (International Olympic Committee) (190–191): pp. 583–592. Retrieved 13 August 2008. 
  14. ^ "Pentland Group Plc – Company History". Funding Universe. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "Michael Phelps | Athletes | USA Swimming". Team USA. United States Olympic Committee. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  16. ^ "Speedo Launches Shapeline – Swimwear Made By Real Women For Real Women" (pdf) (Press release). Speedo. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  17. ^ a b Horovitz, Bruce (December 2005). "Speedo Speeds Suits to Winter Athletes". USA Today (Gannet Co., Inc.). Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  18. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions". Speedo.com. Speedo International Limited. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  19. ^ "Speedo Equipment and Footwear". Speedo.com. Speedo International Ltd. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  20. ^ "Footwear". speedousa.com. Speedo USA. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  21. ^ "スピード レーザー・レーサー アクアビート" [Speedo LZR Racer Aquabeat] (pdf) (Press release) (in Japanese). Iriver. 14 April 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  22. ^ a b c "Speedo USA Swimwear". SpeedoUSA.com. Speedo USA. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c "Official Speedo Swimwear, Online Sales & Info". Speedo.com. Speedo International Limited. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  24. ^ "Speedo Sea Squad". Speedo.com. Speedo International Limited. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  25. ^ "A revolutionary swimsuit". European Patent Office. Retrieved 29 April 2009. 
  26. ^ "Design Heroes: Fiona Fairhurst". Profiles. BBC. May 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  27. ^ a b c Susan Nasr. "Can a swimsuit make you swim faster?". HowStuffWorks.com. Discovery. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  28. ^ Why a Curveball Curves: The Incredible Science of Sports at Google Books
  29. ^ "Torino 2006 Official Report – Bobsleigh" (pdf). Torino Organizing Committee. LA84 Foundation. March 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009. 
  30. ^ a b "SW 10 The Race". Rules and Regulations. Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA). Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  31. ^ "Olympics Features – The Fastskin". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. April 2000. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  32. ^ a b John Pye (2 May 2000). "Bodysuits ruling still not resolved". The Independent (London). Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  33. ^ a b Brent S. Rushall, PhD,R.Psy. (April 2000). "A serious threat to the very nature of competitive swimming or not?". San Diego State University. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  34. ^ Popular Science, p. 46, at Google Books
  35. ^ "TYR Appeals Ban of Arm Bands". CollegeSwimming.com. Collegeswimming.com, LLC. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  36. ^ a b c "LZR Racer Collection". Explore Speedo. Speedo USA. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  37. ^ a b "Tech,view: Making waves in Beijing". The Economist (The Economist Newspaper Limited). August 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  38. ^ "Best of What's New '08". Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. November 2008. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  39. ^ Alan Boyle (29 July 2009). "The science behind the swimsuit war". Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  40. ^ "2009 World Championships – 200 m freestyle results (final)". Omega Timing. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  41. ^ a b c "Coach Threatens to pull Phelps out of meets". NBC Sports. Associated Press. July 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  42. ^ a b Dillman, Lisa (29 July 2009). "FINA Ruling – FINA's ruling doesn't clear things up much". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Interactive). Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  43. ^ Adam Tschorn (July 2009). "FINA and the Speedo LZR Racer:slippery suit, slippery slope". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Interactive). Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  44. ^ "Rules & Regulations". fina.org. Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA). Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  45. ^ Bridgette Meinhold (June 2010). "Pavillion Upcycled from 200 Obsolete Speedo Swimsuits". Inhabitat. inhabitat.com. Retrieved 21 January 2011. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Chelsea Xpo Pavilion – Story of 4000 pcs of swimming suits". lfa2010.org. London Festival of Architecture 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2011. [dead link]
  47. ^ "Chelsea Xpo Pavilion – Story of 4000 pcs of swimming suits". Chelsea Snapshot. Chelsea College of Art & Design. Retrieved 21 January 2011. [dead link]
  48. ^ "Creative collaborations to recycle the now surplus Speedo LZR racer suit" (Press release). Speedo. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  49. ^ Goldwert, Lindsey (22 September 2010). "Pool wear: Banned Speedo LZR Racer swimsuits to live again as recycled fashion". New York Daily News (Mortimer Zuckerman). Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  50. ^ "Speedo collaborates with award winning sustainable fashion label, From Somwhere" (Press release). Speedo. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  51. ^ a b "השחייה בישראל" (in Hebrew). השחייה בישראל. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  52. ^ Camille Alarcon (March 2005). "Speedo strengthens swim team sponsorship". B & T. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  53. ^ "Sponsors". CDBA.org (in Portuguese). Brazilian Aquatic Sports Confederation. August 2003. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  54. ^ "Our Partners". Swimming.ca. Swimming Canada. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  55. ^ "Sponsors". Diving.ca. Diving Plongeon Canada. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  56. ^ "Sponsors". Synchro.ca. Synchro Canada. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  57. ^ "Water Polo Canada". Waterpolo.ca. Canadian Water Polo Association. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  58. ^ "FECNA". fecna.com (in Spanish). La Federación Colombiana de Natación. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  59. ^ "Suomen Uimaliitto". Uimaliitto.fi (in Finnish). Suomen Uimaliitto. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  60. ^ "Special thanks to the sponsors in supporting our events". HKASA.org (in Spanish). Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  61. ^ "Samstarssamningur við Speedo" [Cooperation Agreement with Speedo] (Press release) (in Icelandic). Icelandic Swimming Association. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  62. ^ "Support for Japanese national swimming caps swimwear suppliers". Japan Swim 2011. Japan Swimming Federation. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  63. ^ "FMN". FMN.org (in Spanish). Federacion Mexicana de Natacion A.C. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  64. ^ "Sponsori şi parteneri" (in Romanian). Federatia Romana de Polo. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  65. ^ "Speedo firma con la Federación Española de Natación" [Spanish Swimming Federation signs with Speedo] (Press release) (in Spanish). Speedo International Limited. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  66. ^ Adam Fraser (March 2009). "Speedo makes a splash with British Swimming". SportsPro. SportsProMedia Ltd. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  67. ^ "Marketing Partners". USA Swimming.org. USA Swimming. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  68. ^ "U.S. Masters Swimming Corporate Partners". USMS.org. United States Masters Swimming. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  69. ^ "Promotional Discount Structure Summary" (pdf) (Press release). Speedo,Pure Blue Swimming. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  70. ^ "Our Athletes". speedo.com. Speedo International. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 

External links[edit]