Speeds of sound of the elements (data page)

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Main article: Speed of sound

Speed of sound, solid phase[edit]

longitudinal, m/s transversal, m/s extensional, m/s notes
3 Li lithium
use 6000 20 °C
WEL 6000
4 Be beryllium
use 12890 8880 12870 room temperature
CRC 12890 8880 12870
WEL 13000
5 B boron
use 16200 20 °C
WEL 16200
6 C carbon
use
WEL 18350
11 Na sodium
use 3200 20 °C
WEL 3200
12 Mg magnesium
use 5770 3050 4940 room temperature, annealed
CRC 5770 3050 4940 annealed
WEL 4602
13 Al aluminium
use 6420 3040 5000 room temperature, rolled
CRC 6420 3040 5000 rolled
WEL 5100
14 Si silicon
use 8433 5843
Cij 8433 5843 from C11=165.64 GPa, C44=79.51 GPa, ro1=2.329 g/cm^3[1]
WEL 2200 20 °C - note: probably wrong (see talk)
19 K potassium
use 2000 20 °C
WEL 2000
20 Ca calcium
use 3810 20 °C
WEL 3810
22 Ti titanium
use 6070 3125 5090 room temperature
CRC 6070 3125 5090
WEL 4140
23 V vanadium
use 4560 20 °C
WEL 4560
24 Cr chromium
use 5940 20 °C
WEL 5940
25 Mn manganese
use 5150 20 °C
WEL 5150
26 Fe iron
use 5950 3240 5120 room temperature, electrolytic
CRC 4994 2809 4480 cast
CRC 5950 3240 5120 electrolytic
CRC 5960 3240 5200 Armco
WEL 4910
27 Co cobalt
use 4720 20 °C
WEL 4720
28 Ni nickel
use 6040 3000 4900 room temperature
CRC 6040 3000 4900
WEL 4970
29 Cu copper
use 4760 2325 3810 room temperature, annealed
CRC 4760 2325 3810 annealed
CRC 5010 2270 3750 rolled
WEL 3570
30 Zn zinc
use 4210 2440 3850 room temperature, rolled
CRC 4210 2440 3850 rolled
WEL 3700
31 Ga gallium
use 2740 20 °C
WEL 2740
32 Ge germanium
use 5400 20 °C
WEL 5400
34 Se selenium
use 3350 20 °C
WEL 3350
37 Rb rubidium
use 1300 20 °C
WEL 1300
39 Y yttrium
use 3300 20 °C
WEL 3300
40 Zr zirconium
use 3800 20 °C
WEL 3800
41 Nb niobium
use 3480 20 °C
WEL 3480
42 Mo molybdenum
use 6250 3350 5400 room temperature
CRC 6250 3350 5400
WEL 6190
44 Ru ruthenium
use 5970 20 °C
WEL 5970
45 Rh rhodium
use 4700 20 °C
WEL 4700
46 Pd palladium
use 3070 20 °C
WEL 3070
47 Ag silver
use 3650 1610 2680 room temperature
CRC 3650 1610 2680
WEL 2600
48 Cd cadmium
use 2310 20 °C
WEL 2310
49 In indium
use 1215 20 °C
WEL 1215
50 Sn tin
use 3320 1670 2730 room temperature, rolled
CRC 3320 1670 2730 rolled
WEL 2500
51 Sb antimony
use 3420 20 °C
WEL 3420
52 Te tellurium
use 2610 20 °C
WEL 2610
56 Ba barium
use 1620 20 °C
WEL 1620
57 La lanthanum
use 2475 20 °C
WEL 2475
58 Ce cerium
use 2100 20 °C
WEL 2100
59 Pr praseodymium
use 2280 20 °C
WEL 2280
60 Nd neodymium
use 2330 20 °C
WEL 2330
62 Sm samarium
use 2130 20 °C
WEL 2130
64 Gd gadolinium
use 2680 20 °C
WEL 2680
65 Tb terbium
use 2620 20 °C
WEL 2620
66 Dy dysprosium
use 2710 20 °C
WEL 2710
67 Ho holmium
use 2760 20 °C
WEL 2760
68 Er erbium
use 2830 20 °C
WEL 2830
70 Yb ytterbium
use 1590 20 °C
WEL 1590
72 Hf hafnium
use 3010 20 °C
WEL 3010
73 Ta tantalum
use 3400 20 °C
WEL 3400
74 W tungsten
use 5220 2890 4620 room temperature, annealed
CRC 5220 2890 4620 annealed
CRC 5410 2640 4320 drawn
WEL 5174
75 Re rhenium
use 4700 20 °C
WEL 4700
76 Os osmium
use 4940 20 °C
WEL 4940
77 Ir iridium
use 4825 20 °C
WEL 4825
78 Pt platinum
use 3260 1730 2800 room temperature
CRC 3260 1730 2800
WEL 2680
79 Au gold
use 3240 1200 2030 room temperature, hard-drawn
CRC 3240 1200 2030 hard-drawn
WEL 1740
81 Tl thallium
use 818 20 °C
WEL 818
82 Pb lead
use 2160 700 1190 room temperature, annealed
CRC 2160 700 1190 annealed
CRC 1960 690 1210 rolled
WEL 1260
83 Bi bismuth
use 1790 20 °C
WEL 1790
90 Th thorium
use 2490 20 °C
WEL 2490
92 U uranium
use 3155 20 °C
WEL 3155
94 Pu plutonium
use 2260 20 °C
WEL 2260

Speed of sound, fluid phases[edit]

m/s notes
1 H hydrogen (gas)
use 1310 27 °C
CRC 1310 27 °C
WEL 1270
CRC 890 deuterium, 0 °C
1 H hydrogen (liquid)
use 1101 −252.9 °C
CRC 1101 −252.9 °C
2 He helium (gas)
use 965 0 °C
CRC 965 0 °C
WEL 970
2 He helium (liquid)
use 180 −268.9 °C
CRC 180 −268.9 °C
7 N nitrogen (gas)
use 353 27 °C
CRC 353 27 °C
WEL 333.6
7 N nitrogen (liquid)
use 939 −195.8 °C
CRC 939 −195.8 °C
8 O oxygen (gas)
use 330 27 °C
CRC 330 27 °C
WEL 317.5
8 O oxygen (liquid)
use 906 −183.0 °C
CRC 906 −183.0 °C
10 Ne neon (gas)
use 435 0 °C
CRC 435 0 °C
WEL 936 (presumably for liquid?)
17 Cl chlorine (gas)
use 206 0 °C
CRC 206 0 °C
WEL 206
18 Ar argon (gas)
use 323 27 °C
CRC 323 27 °C
WEL 319
18 Ar argon (liquid)
use 813 −185.9 °C
CRC 813 −185.9 °C
36 Kr krypton (gas)
use (220) 23 °C
talk 220 ± 1, prelim. experimental value 23 °C, 101.3 kPa
36 Kr krypton (liquid)
use 1120
88RAB 1120
WEL 1120
54 Xe xenon (liquid)
use 1090
88RAB 1090
WEL 1090
80 Hg mercury (liquid)
use 1451.4 20 °C
CR2 1460.8 0 °C
CR2 1451.4 20 °C
CRC 1450 25 °C
WEL 1407

Notes[edit]

  • Ref. CRC: Values are "at room temperature" unless noted, and "for normal atmospheric pressure" ("at 1 atm" for gases).
  • Ref. WEL: Values refer to 293 K "where possible". Midpoint values are substituted if ranges were given in their original reference. Not specified further, it is assumed from the values that all (except fluids) are for the speed of sound in a thin rod.

References[edit]

WEL[edit]

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from this source:

  • G.V. Samsonov (Ed.) in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA, 1968.

CRC[edit]

As quoted from various sources in an online version of:

  • David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 14, Geophysics, Astronomy, and Acoustics; Speed of Sound in Various Media

CR2[edit]

As quoted from this source in an online version of: David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 6, Fluid Properties; Thermal Properties of Mercury

  • Vukalovich, M. P., et al., Thermophysical Properties of Mercury, Moscow Standard Press, 1971.

Other[edit]

  • 88RAB: V.A. Rabinovich, et al. Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon. Selover (Eng. ed.) Hemisphere, Washington DC, 1988.

Other refs[edit]

See also[edit]