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Spetsnaz (Russian: Войска специального назначения, (спецназ, pronounced [spʲɪtsˈnas]) tr: Voyska spetsialnogo naznacheniya; pronounced [vɐjsˈka spʲɪtsɨˈalʲnəvə nəznɐˈtɕenʲɪjə]) is an umbrella term for any special forces in Russian, literally "special purpose forces". Historically, the term referred to the military special units controlled by the military intelligence service GRU, the Spetsnaz GRU. Currently, the term is also used to describe any special purpose units or task forces of other ministries (even the Ministry of Emergency Situations special rescue unit), also in some other post-Soviet countries.
The Russian acronyms "SPETSNAZ" (spetsialnovo naznacheniya) and "OSNAZ" (osobovo naznacheniya), both short for "special purpose", are general terms used for a variety of special operations forces or regular forces assigned to special tasks. They are syllabic abbreviations typical for the Russian language of the early Soviet era, although many Cheka and Internal Troops units such as OMSDON used a osobovo naznacheniya designation in their full names.
Modern terminology mostly uses "spetsnaz" abbreviation to refer to special purpose forces or just special operation forces. However, the widespread use of this word is actually a relatively recent, post-perestroika development in the Russian language. The Soviet general public knew very little about the special operation forces. In a way, this became yet another state secret that was disclosed due the glasnost ("openness") policy of the Mikhail Gorbachev era during the late 1980s. The stories about the spetsnaz and their allegedly incredible prowess, from the more serious to the highly questionable, have captivated imaginations of the more patriotic part of the public, particularly being set against the background of decay in the military and security forces during the perestroika and in the post-Soviet era. Meanwhile, a number of books were written about the Soviet Spetsnaz GRU such as 1987's Spetsnaz. The Story Behind the Soviet SAS by a defected GRU agent Viktor Suvorov helped to introduce the term to the western public. In the post-Soviet Russia, "spetsnaz" has become a colloquial term as special operations (spetsoperatsiya) became much more commonplace, be it a police raid or a military operation. Extensive media coverage of such events and the continued celebrity status of the special operation forces in state-controlled media allowed the public to identify and address many of these forces by name: SOBR, Alpha, Vityaz and so forth. The term spetsnaz continues to be used in several other post-Soviet states in a reference to their own special operations forces as well. Foreign special operartions forces are also commonly referred to as "spetsnaz" in Russia (for example, the United States special operations forces might be referred to as "amerikanskiy spetsnaz").
Timeline of spetsnaz units 
The concept of using special tactics and strategies was originally proposed by the Russian military theorist Michael Svechnykov (executed during the Great Purge in 1938), who envisaged the development of unconventional warfare capabilities in order to overcome disadvantages that conventional forces may face in the field. Practical implementation was begun by the "grandfather of the spetsnaz" Ilya Starinov. During World War II, reconnaissance and sabotage forces were formed under the supervision of the Second Department of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces. These forces were subordinate to the commanders of Fronts.
In 1950, Georgy Zhukov advocated the creation of 46 military spetsnaz companies (each company consisted of 120 servicemen). It was the first time after World War II, when the term "spetsnaz" appeared as an original name of the separate military branch. Later, these companies were expanded to battalions, and then to brigades, respectively. However, certain separate companies (orSpN) and detachments (ooSpN) existed along with brigades until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Military spetsnaz included 14 army and two naval brigades, together with numerous separate detachments and companies, which operated under the guidance of the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), and collectively are known as Spetsnaz GRU. These units and formations existed under the highest possible secrecy and were disguised as Soviet paratroopers, bearing their uniform and insignia (army spetsnaz), or as naval infantrymen (naval spetsnaz).
24 years after the origin of military Spetsnaz, the first counter-terrorist unit was established by Yuri Andropov, the head of KGB. In the late 1970s and through the 1980s various special purpose units were created within the KGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).
In the 1990s, special detachments were established within the Federal Penitentiary Service (FSIN) and the Airborne Troops (VDV), respectively. Today, even some civil agencies with non-police functions have created their own special units, which are also called "spetsnaz", such as "Leader" special centre within the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS).
Nomenclature in the USSR and Russia 
- Soviet/Russian Ministry of Defence special forces:
- State security (KGB/FSB) special forces:
- Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) special forces:
Soviet and Russian military special forces 
The elite units of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation were mostly formerly controlled by the military intelligence GRU (Spetsnaz GRU). They were heavily involved in the wars in Afghanistan in the 1980s and in Chechnya in the 1990s and 2000s, as well as in the training of pro-Soviet forces and various secret operations during the Cold War. The Russian Airborne Troops (VDV, a separate branch of the Russian Armed Forces) have the 45th Independent Guards Spetsnaz Regiment. Since 2010, as a result of the 2008 military reforms, GRU special forces come under the control of the Ground Forces.
Most units of the military Spetsnaz have no official names and are generally referred to by the type of its formation (company, battalion and brigade) and a number, much like any other Soviet or Russian military unit. An exception was given to the ethnic Chechen Special Battalions Vostok and Zapad ("east" and "west") during the 2000s.
- Russian Ground Forces
- Western Military District
- 2nd Independent Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- 16th Independent Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- Southern Military District
- 10th Independent Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- 22nd Independent Guards Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- 346th Independent Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- 25th Independent Spetsnaz Regiment (opSpN)
- Central Military District
- 3rd Independent Guards Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- 24th Independent Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- Eastern Military District
- 14th Independent Spetsnaz Brigade (obrSpN)
- Western Military District
- Russian Airborne Troops
- 45th Independent Guards Spetsnaz Regiment (opSpN VDV)
- Russian Navy
- 42nd Independent Naval Reconnaissance Spetsnaz Point (omrpSpN - Pacific Fleet)
- 420th Independent Naval Reconnaissance Spetsnaz Point (omrpSpN - Northern Fleet)
- 431st Independent Naval Reconnaissance Spetsnaz Point (omrpSpN - Black Sea Fleet)
- 561st Independent Naval Reconnaissance Spetsnaz Point (omrpSpN - Baltic Fleet)
KGB and FSB special purpose forces 
The Center of Special Operations of the FSB (CSN FSB, центр специального назначения ФСБ) is officially tasked with combating terrorism and protecting the constitutional order of the Russian Federation. The CSN FSB consists of three different "operative" divisions: Department A (also known as Spetsgruppa Alfa), Department V (also known as Spetsgruppa Vympel) and the Special Purpose Service. The headquarters of CSN FSB is an enormous complex of buildings and training areas, with dozens of hectares of land and scores of training facilities. The average training of a CSN officer lasts about five years.
- "A" or Alpha (Alfa) is a well-known counter-terrorist unit created in 1974. Today Alpha is a highly professional unit, which consists of roughly 700 operators and support personnel in five operational detachments. The majority of them are stationed at Moscow, the rest of the unit is located in three other cities – Krasnodar, Yekaterinburg and Khabarovsk. All the Alpha operators undergo special airborne training, special mountain training, and special counter-sabotage dive training. It also was used in operations in other countries, the most known being Operation Storm-333, during which detachments from Alpha and Zenith supported the 154th Independent Spetsnaz Detachment (also referred to as the "Muslim Battalion") of the GRU on a mission to overthrow and kill the Afghan President Hafizullah Amin.
- "B" or Vympel (or Vega, also known under other names) was formed in 1981 from a merge of two elite Cold War-era KGB special units Cascade (Kaskad) and Zenith (Zenit) that were similar to the CIA's Special Activities Division (responsible for covert operations involving sabotage, assassination, etc. in other countries), re-designated for counter-terrorist and counter-sabotage operations. Currently they are tasked with protection of strategic installations such as key factories and transportation centers. They are also heavily used in missions in the North Caucasus, along with their counterparts from Alpha. Vympel has four operative units stationed in Moscow, but it also has multiple branch offices in virtually every city where there is a nuclear power plant.
- Special Purpose Service – Not much information about it can be obtained, but it is known that they also participate in FSB special operations in the North Caucasus and also act as bodyguards for government officials.
Together with Center of Special Operations and its elite units, there are many FSB special forces units of regional significance. Such operative detachments are usually called ROSN (Regional Department of Special Designation). The strongest ROSNs are said to be stationed at Saint Petersburg (ROSN Grad) and Nizhny Novgorod.
The foreign intelligence service SVR also has its own paramilitary special force, known as Barrier and estimated to be about 300-strong.
Soviet and Russian MVD paramilitary and police special forces 
Spetsnaz of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) includes numerous Internal Troops (VV) paramilitary units intended for use to combat internal threats to the government, such as insurgencies and mutinies. These units usually have a unique name and official OSN number. The following is a list of Internal Troops OSNs (отряд специального назначения, "special purpose detachment") in 2012:
- 7th OSN Rosich (Novocherkassk)
- 12th OSN Ural (Nizhny Tagil)
- 15th OSN Vyatich (Armavir)
- 17th OSN Edelveys (Mineralnye Vody)
- 19th OSN Ermak (Novosibirsk)
- 20th OSN (Saratov)
- 21st OSN Tayfun (Sosnovka)
- 23rd OSN Mechel (Chelyabinsk)
- 25th OSN Merkuriy (Zhornovka)
- 26th OSN Bars (Kazan)
- 27th OSN Kuzbass (Kemerovo)
- 28th OSN Ratnik (Arkhangelsk)
- 29th OSN Bulat (Ufa)
- 33rd OSN Peresvet (Moscow)
- 34th OSN (Grozny)
- 604th OSN Center (Moscow - former 1st OSN Vityaz and OSN Rus)
Aside from the Internal Troops special forces, the MVD has numerous Politsiya (former Militsiya) police special forces, which are stationed in virtually every Russian city. The majority of Russia's special police officers belong to OMON units, but these are mostly used as riot police and are not considered an elite force, unlike the SOBR (officially called OMSN in 2002-2011) rapid-response units that are consisting of experienced officers who are better trained and equipped than those of OMON.
Maroon beret 
MVD Spetsnaz servicemen from the VV and police (including special units of the FSIN and FSKN) can compete for the distinction to wear the krapovyi beret maroon beret (RU), which is awarded to "most professional, physically and morally fit" sergeants and officers. The competitions are arranged twice a year and are handled by ex-Vityaz instructors. The competitors must first pass various physical fitness test and shooting exercises to be qualified for main course. The main competition includes 12 km cross-country running in full combat uniform, a 100 m sprint, urban assault exercises with wall climbing, acrobatic exercises, and a 12 minute free-style sparring match against three separate opponents. Due to harsh conditions, less than 10% of the applicants pass the tests and are granted the right to wear the maroon beret.
- The Degradation of Russia's Special Forces, by Stanislav Lunev, The Jamestown Foundation
- Carey Schofield, The Russian Elite: Inside Spetsnaz and the Airborne Forces, Greenhill, London, 1993, p.34-37
- "ГРУ (Главное Разведывательное Управление) ГШ ВС РФ". Russian Military Analysis (in Russian). Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- "Военно-Морской Флот". Russian Military Analysis (in Russian). Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "FSB Special forces: 1998-2010". Agentura.ru. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- "The Take-Down of Kabul: An Effective Coup de Main". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- "Министерство Внутренних Дел (МВД)". Russian Military Analysis (in Russian). Retrieved January 1, 2013.
- Viktor Suvorov, Spetsnaz: The Story Behind the Soviet SAS, Hamish Hamilton, London 1987
- David C. Isby, Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army, Jane's Publishing Company Limited, London, 1988
- Carey Schofield, The Russian Elite: Inside Spetsnaz and the Airborne Forces, Greenhill, London, 1993
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