Scotch whisky

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Scotch whisky
A glass of whisky
Type Whisky
Country of origin Scotland
Alcohol by volume 40–94.8%

Scotch whisky, often simply called Scotch, is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland. Scotch whisky must be made in a manner specified by law.[1]

All Scotch whisky was originally made from malted barley. Commercial distilleries began introducing whisky made from wheat and rye in the late 18th century.[2] Scotch whisky is divided into five distinct categories: single malt Scotch whisky, single grain Scotch whisky, blended malt Scotch whisky (formerly called "vatted malt" or "pure malt"), blended grain Scotch whisky, and blended Scotch whisky.[1][3]

All Scotch whisky must be aged in oak barrels for at least three years.[1][3] Any age statement on a bottle of Scotch whisky, expressed in numerical form, must reflect the age of the youngest whisky used to produce that product. A whisky with an age statement is known as guaranteed-age whisky.

The first written mention of Scotch whisky is in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, 1495. A friar named John Cor was the distiller at Lindores Abbey in the Kingdom of Fife.[4][5]

Many Scotch whisky drinkers will refer to a unit for drinking as a dram.[6]

Regulations and labelling[edit]

Legal definition[edit]

As of 23 November 2009, the Scotch Whisky Regulations 2009 (SWR) define and regulate the production, labelling, packaging as well as the advertising of Scotch whisky in the United Kingdom. They replace previous regulations that focused solely on production. International trade agreements have the effect of making some provisions of the SWR apply in various other countries as well as in the UK. The SWR define "Scotch whisky" as whisky that is:[1][3]

  • Produced at a distillery in Scotland from water and malted barley (to which only whole grains of other cereals may be added) all of which have been:
    • Processed at that distillery into a mash
    • Converted at that distillery to a fermentable substrate only by endogenous enzyme systems
    • Fermented at that distillery only by adding yeast
    • Distilled at an alcoholic strength by volume of less than 94.8% (190 US proof)
  • Wholly matured in an excise warehouse in Scotland in oak casks of a capacity not exceeding 700 litres (185 US gal; 154 imp gal) for at least three years
  • Retaining the colour, aroma, and taste of the raw materials used in, and the method of, its production and maturation
  • Containing no added substances, other than water and plain (E150A) caramel colouring
  • Comprising a minimum alcoholic strength by volume of 40% (80 US proof)

Labelling[edit]

A Scotch whisky label comprises several elements that indicate aspects of production, age, bottling, and ownership. Some of these elements are regulated by the SWR,[7] and some reflect tradition and marketing.[8] The spelling of the term "whisky" is often debated by journalists and consumers. Scottish, Australian and Canadian whiskies use "whisky", Irish whiskies use "whiskey", while American and other styles vary in their spelling of the term.[9]

The label always features a declaration of the malt or grain whiskies used. A single malt Scotch whisky is one that is entirely produced from malt in one distillery. One may also encounter the term "single cask", signifying the bottling comes entirely from one cask.[9] The term "blended malt" signifies that single malt whisky from different distilleries are blended in the bottle.[10] The Cardhu distillery also began using the term "pure malt" for the same purpose, causing a controversy in the process over clarity in labelling[11][12] – the Glenfiddich distillery was using the term to describe some single malt bottlings. As a result, the Scotch Whisky Association declared that a mixture of single malt whiskies must be labelled a "blended malt". The use of the former terms "vatted malt" and "pure malt" is prohibited. The term "blended malt" is still debated, as some bottlers maintain that consumers confuse the term with "blended Scotch whisky", which contains some proportion of grain whisky.[13]

The brand name featured on the label is usually the same as the distillery name (for example, the Talisker Distillery labels its whiskies with the Talisker name). Indeed, the SWR prohibit bottlers from using a distillery name when the whisky was not made there. A bottler name may also be listed, sometimes independent of the distillery. In addition to requiring that Scotch whisky be distilled in Scotland, the SWR require that it also be bottled and labeled in Scotland. Labels may also indicate the region of the distillery (for example, Islay or Speyside).[14]

Alcoholic strength is expressed on the label with "Alcohol By Volume" ("ABV") or sometimes simply "Vol".[14] Typically, bottled whisky is between 40% and 46% ABV.[15] Whisky is considerably stronger when first emerging from the cask—normally 60–63% ABV.[14][15] Water is then added to create the desired bottling strength. If the whisky is not diluted before bottling, it can be labelled as cask strength.[15]

A whisky's age may be listed on the bottle providing a guarantee of the youngest whisky used. An age statement on the bottle, in the form of a number, must reflect the age of the youngest whisky used to produce that product. A whisky with an age statement is known as guaranteed age whisky.[16] Scotch whisky without an age statement may, by law, be as young as three years old.[1] In the early 21st century, such "No age statement" whiskies became more common, as distilleries responded to the depletion of aged stocks caused by improved sales. [17] A label may carry a distillation date or a bottling date. Whisky does not mature once bottled, so if no age statement is provided, one may calculate the age of the whisky if both the distillation date and bottling date are given.[14]

Labels may also carry various declarations of filtration techniques or final maturation processes. A Scotch whisky labelled as "natural" or "non-chill-filtered" has not been through a filtration process during bottling that removes compounds that some consumers see as desirable. Some whiskies are placed in different casks—often sherry or port casks—during a portion of maturation. Since this takes place at the end of the maturation process, these whiskies may be labelled as "wood finished", "sherry/port finished", and so on.[14]

Types[edit]

Various Scotch whiskies

There are two basic types of Scotch whisky, from which all blends are made:

  • Single malt Scotch whisky means a Scotch whisky produced from only water and malted barley at a single distillery by batch distillation in pot stills.[3]
  • Single grain Scotch whisky means a Scotch whisky distilled at a single distillery but, in addition to water and malted barley, may involve whole grains of other malted or unmalted cereals. "Single grain" does not mean that only a single type of grain was used to produce the whisky—rather, the adjective "single" refers only to the use of a single distillery (and making a "single grain" requires using a mixture of grains, as barley is a type of grain and some malted barley must be used in all Scotch whisky).

Excluded from the definition of “single grain Scotch whisky” is any spirit that qualifies as a single malt Scotch whisky or as a blended Scotch whisky. The latter exclusion is to ensure that a blended Scotch whisky produced from single malt(s) and single grain(s) distilled at the same distillery does not also qualify as single grain Scotch whisky.

Three types of blends are defined for Scotch whisky:

  • Blended malt Scotch whisky means a blend of two or more single malt Scotch whiskies from different distilleries.
  • Blended grain Scotch whisky means a blend of two or more single grain Scotch whiskies from different distilleries.
  • Blended Scotch whisky means a blend of one or more single malt Scotch whiskies with one or more single grain Scotch whiskies.

The five Scotch whisky definitions are structured in such a way that the categories are mutually exclusive. The 2009 regulations changed the formal definition of blended Scotch whisky to achieve this result, but in a way that reflected traditional and current practice: before the 2009 SWR, any combination of Scotch whiskies qualified as a blended Scotch whisky, including for example a blend of single malt Scotch whiskies.

As was the case under the Scotch Whisky Act 1988, regulation 5 of the SWR 2009 stipulates that the only whisky that may be manufactured in Scotland is Scotch whisky. The definition of manufacture is "keeping for the purpose of maturation; and keeping, or using, for the purpose of blending, except for domestic blending for domestic consumption." This provision prevents the existence of two ‘grades’ of whisky originating from Scotland, one “Scotch whisky” and the other, a “whisky – product of Scotland” that complies with the generic EU standard for whisky. According to the Scotch Whisky Association, allowing non-Scotch whisky production in Scotland would make it difficult to protect Scotch whisky as a distinctive product.[3]

Single grain[edit]

The majority of grain whisky produced in Scotland goes to make blended Scotch whisky. The average blended whisky is 60%–85% grain whisky. Some higher-quality grain whisky from a single distillery is bottled as single grain whisky.

Blended malt[edit]

Blended malt whisky—formerly called vatted malt or pure malt (terms that are now prohibited in the SWR 2009)—is one of the least common types of Scotch: a blend of single malts from more than one distillery (possibly with differing ages). Blended malts contain only malt whiskies—no grain whiskies—and are usually distinguished from other types of whisky by the absence of the word 'single' before 'malt' on the bottle, and the absence of a distillery name. The age of the vat is that of the youngest of the original ingredients. For example, a blended malt marked "8 years old" may include older whiskies, with the youngest constituent being eight years old. Johnnie Walker Green Label and Monkey Shoulder are examples of blended malt whisky. Starting from November 2011 no Scotch whisky could be labelled as a vatted malt or pure malt, the SWR requiring them to be labelled blended malt instead.[18]

Blended[edit]

Blended Scotch whisky constitutes about 90% of the whisky produced in Scotland.[19] Blended Scotch whiskies contain both malt whisky and grain whisky. Producers combine the various malts and grain whiskies to produce a consistent brand style. Notable blended Scotch whisky brands include Bells, Dewar's, Johnnie Walker, Whyte and Mackay, Cutty Sark, J&B, The Famous Grouse, Ballantine's and Chivas Regal.

Independent bottlers[edit]

Main article: Independent bottler

Most malt distilleries sell a significant amount of whisky by the cask for blending, and sometimes to private buyers as well. Whisky from such casks is sometimes bottled as a single malt by independent bottling firms such as Duncan Taylor, Master of Malt,[20] Gordon & MacPhail, Cadenhead's, The Scotch Malt Whisky Society, Murray McDavid, Berry Brothers & Rudd, Douglas Laing, and others. These are usually labelled with the distillery's name, but not using the distillery's trademarked logos or typefaces. An "official bottling" (or "proprietary bottling"), by comparison, is from the distillery (or its owner). Many independent bottlings are from single casks, and they may sometimes be very different from an official bottling.

For a variety of reasons, some independent brands do not identify which facility distilled the whisky in the bottle. They may instead identify only the general geographical area of the source, or they simply market the product using their own brand name without identifying their source. This may, in some cases, be simply to give the independent bottling company the flexibility to purchase from multiple distillers without changing their labels.

History[edit]

Greybeard Heather Dew Scotch whisky jug

To Friar John Cor, by order of the King, to make aqua vitae, VIII bolls of malt.

—Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, 1 June 1495.

According to the Scotch Whisky Association, Scotch whisky evolved from a Scottish drink called uisge beatha, which means "lively water" or "water of life". The earliest record of distillation in Scotland occurred as long ago as 1494, as documented in the Exchequer Rolls, which were records of royal income and expenditure.[21] The quote above records eight bolls of malt given to Friar John Cor wherewith to make aqua vitae over the previous year. This would be enough for 1,500 bottles, which suggests that distillation was well-established by the late 15th century.[22]

Whisky production was first taxed in 1644, causing a rise in illicit whisky distilling in the country. Around 1780, there were about eight legal distilleries and 400 illegal ones. In 1823, Parliament eased restrictions on licensed distilleries with the "Excise Act", while at the same time making it harder for the illegal stills to operate, thereby ushering in the modern era of Scotch production. Two events helped to increase whisky's popularity: first, the introduction in 1831 of the column still; the whisky produced with this process was generally less expensive to produce and also less intense and smoother, because a column still can perform the equivalent of multiple distillation steps in a continuous distillation process. Second, the phylloxera bug destroyed wine and cognac production in France in 1880.

Regions[edit]

The regions of Scotch whisky

Scotland was traditionally divided into four regions: The Highlands, Lowland, Islay, and Campbeltown.[23]

Speyside, encompassing the Spey river valley in north-east Scotland, once considered part of the Highlands, has almost half of the total number (approx. 105 as of 2013) of distilleries in Scotland within its geographic boundaries; consequently it is officially recognized as a distinct region.

The Islands is not recognised as a region by the Scotch Whisky Association (SWA)[24] and is considered part of the Highlands region.

Although only five regions are specifically described, any Scottish locale may be used to describe a whisky if it is distilled entirely within that place; for example a single malt whisky distilled on Orkney could be described as Orkney Single Malt Scotch Whisky[26] instead of as a Highland whisky.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Scotch Whisky Regulations 2009.
  2. ^ MacLean 2010, p. 10.
  3. ^ a b c d e Scotch Whisky Association 2009.
  4. ^ Bender 2005, p. 556.
  5. ^ "Lindores Abbey – The Home of Scotch Whisky". 1 October 2011. 
  6. ^ Simpson, John A.; Weiner, Edmund S.C., eds. (1989, online version 2012). "dram, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861186-8. OCLC 50959346. Retrieved 2 July 2012.  Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1897.
  7. ^ MacLean 2010, p. 20.
  8. ^ MacLean 2010, p. 23.
  9. ^ a b Jackson 2010, p. 22.
  10. ^ Jackson 2010, p. 23.
  11. ^ Whisky branding deal reached, BBC News, December 4, 2003. Accessed May 2, 2012.
  12. ^ Tran, Mark (4 December 2003). "Whisky industry settles on strict malt definitions". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  13. ^ Jackson 2010, pp. 419–420.
  14. ^ a b c d e MacLean 2010, p. 21.
  15. ^ a b c Jackson 2010, p. 25.
  16. ^ Hansell 2010.
  17. ^ Mure Dickie (9 December 2013). "Hopes soar for spirited revival" ((registration required)). Financial Times. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  18. ^ Scotch Whisky Association 2009, Chapter 11.
  19. ^ "Statistical Report 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  20. ^ Master of Malt
  21. ^ Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, 1494–95, vol 10, p. 487, "Et per liberacionem factam fratri Johanni Cor per perceptum compotorum rotulatoris, ut asserit, de mandato domini regis ad faciendum aquavite infra hoc compotum viij bolle brasii.": See also Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, vol 1, (Edinburgh 1877), pp. ccxiii-iv, 373, December 1497, "Item, to the barbour that brocht acqua vitae to the King in Dundee, by the King's command, xxxi shillings."
  22. ^ "History". Scotch Whisky Association. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  23. ^ The Scotch Whisky Regulations 2009 – Chapter 8 section 1
  24. ^ a b "Whisky Regions & Tours". Scotch Whisky Association. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  25. ^ http://www.whiskiesofscotland.com/distillery/daftmill
  26. ^ Scotch Whisky Regulations Guidance 2009

Cited sources

Other sources

  • Broom, Dave (1998). Whiskey – A Connoisseur's Guide. London. Carleton Books Limited. ISBN 1-85868-706-3
  • Broom, Dave (2000). Handbook of Whisky. London. Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-59846-2
  • Erskine, Kevin (2006). The Instant Expert's Guide to Single Malt Scotch – Second Edition. Richmond, VA. Doceon Press. ISBN 0-9771991-1-8
  • MacLean, Charles (2003) Scotch Whisky: A Liquid History. Cassell Illustrated. ISBN 1-84403-078-4
  • Wishart, David (2006). Whisky Classified – Second Edition. London. Pavilion Books. ISBN 1-86205-716-8

Further reading

External links[edit]