Sphaerotheca fuliginea

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Sphaerotheca fuliginea
Powderymildewwatermelon.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Class: Leotiomycetes
Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
Order: Erysiphales
Family: Erysiphaceae
Genus: Sphaerotheca
Species: S. fuliginea
Binomial name
Sphaerotheca fuliginea
(Schltdl.) Pollacci, (1913)
Synonyms

Acrosporium erysiphoides (Fr.) Subram., (1971)
Alphitomorpha fuliginea Schltdl., (1819)
Erysiphe fuliginea (Schltdl.) Fr., (1829)
Euoidium erysiphoides (Fr.) Y.S. Paul & J.N. Kapoor, (1986)
Oidium erysiphoides Fr., (1832)
Podosphaera fuliginea (Schltdl.) U. Braun & S. Takam., (2000)
Sphaerotheca fuliginea f. fuliginea (Schltdl.) Pollacci, (1911)
Sphaerotheca fuliginea var. fuliginea (Schltdl.) Pollacci, (1911)
Sphaerotheca humuli var. fuliginea (Schltdl.) E.S. Salmon, (1900)
Sphaerotheca macularis var. fuliginea (Schltdl.) W.B. Cooke, (1952)

Sphaerotheca fuliginea is a plant pathogen that causes powdery mildew on cucurbits. Sphaerotheca fuliginea and Erysiphe cichoracearum are the two most commonly recorded fungi causing cucurbit powdery mildew. In the past, Erysiphe cichoracearum was considered to be the primary causal organism throughout most of the world. Today, Sphaerotheca fuliginea is more commonly reported.[1][2]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Powdery mildew is manifest on the plant by white powdery fungal growth on the surface of the leaf, usually both sides of the leaf show fungal growth.[1] The host tissue is frequently stunted, distorted, discolored, and scarred.[3] The fruit of infected plants are usually smaller and the flavor is affected negatively, as fewer sugars and solids are stored in the fruit.[1][4]

Disease cycle[edit]

Sphaerotheca fuliginea uses haustoria to gain access to the leaf epidermal cells. The fungus is usually spread during the spring through mycelium from infected plant, or through ascocarps. Signs appear after 3–7 days of infection if conditions are favorable. The mycelium grows rapidly during the warm summer months with an optimum temperature of about 50-90 degrees F.[1][5] The leaves are most susceptible 16–23 days after unfolding.[1][6] High humidity favors the development of disease, but infection can occur at relative humidity as low a 50%.[1] The conidia of the fungus are spread through the air and thus can travel over great distances.[7] The mycelium can also overwinter in the buds of infected plants.

Control[edit]

The most common way to control the spread of Sphaerotheca fuliginea is with the use of fungicides. Usually sulphur or demethylation inhibitor fungicides are applied.[6] Fungicides are usually applied once a week. Plants should also be kept physically separated to control spread because older plants can be a source of conidia.[1]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g McGrath, M.T., 1997. Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits. http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/factsheets/Cucurbits_PM.htm
  2. ^ Tetteh, A, et al. Watermelon Crop Information. http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmhndbk/wmpm.html
  3. ^ Glawe, D.A., Grove, G.G., 2010. Powdery Mildew Diseases. http://plant-disease.ippc.orst.edu/articles.cfm?article_id=30
  4. ^ Trigiano, R.N., Windham, M.T., Windham, A.S., 2008. Plant Pathology: Concepts and Laboratory Exercises 2nd Edition. CRC Press.
  5. ^ Doubrava, N, et al. 2007. Cucumber, Squash, Melon & Other Cucurbit Diseases. http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/pests/plant_pests/veg_fruit/hgic2206.html
  6. ^ a b Cheah, L.H., et al. 1996. Epidemiology of Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) of Squash. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/49/nzpp_491470.pdf
  7. ^ Webster, J., Weber, R.W.S., 2007. Introduction to Fungi 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press. 401-413