Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction
|Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction|
|Classification and external resources|
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction refers to two motility conditions affecting the Sphincter of Oddi; papillary stenosis and sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia (also known as biliary dyskinesia). The sphincter of Oddi is a sphincter muscle, a circular band of muscle at the bottom of the biliary tree which controls the flow of pancreatic juices and bile into the second part of the duodenum. Both types of dysfunction can obstruct flow through the sphincter of Oddi and can therefore cause retention of bile in the biliary tree and pancreatic juice in the pancreatic duct.
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a rare condition. However, as with most conditions, certain factors make it more likely, such as patients with biliary-pancreatic disease. Attacks can be precipitated by opioid analgesics, particularly in patients having undergone cholecystectomy (gall bladder removal) or who have had bariatric surgery (Gastric Bypass or weight loss surgery).
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction may be suggested by pain which seems to come from a biliary origin, which may or may not be associated with transient increases of liver or pancreatic enzymes. Common bile duct dilation and episodes of pancreatitis are also signs.
For diagnosis, measures of liver biochemistry and pancreatic enzymes are performed. Along with ruling out structural abnormalities, normally by performing an abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Measurements of bile transit when performing ERCP are taken to help evaluate different treatment options. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is best diagnosed using manometry-an internal test done to measure the pressures within surrounding ducts to determine whether or not the muscle is functioning normally.
Medication (to prevent spasms) or Sphincterotomy (surgical procedure to cut the muscle) are the standard treatments for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. One or the other may be better based on the classification of the condition.
Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia
Also known as Biliary dyskinesia
- Rodrigues, R.; Libera, E.; Guimaraes, A.; Ferrari, A.; Geocze, S. (2004). "High Prevalence of Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction in Patients with Biliary-Pancreatic Disease Referred to Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography". Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 59 (5): P192–P195. doi:10.1016/S0016-5107(04)00894-6.
- Corazziari, E. (2003). "Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction". Digestive and Liver Disease 35: 26–23. doi:10.1016/S1590-8658(03)00090-2.
- Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Introduction at Johns Hopkins Medicine Gastroenterology and Hepatology
- Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction at Medical University of South Carolina: Public Information
- Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction By: Ronen Arai at yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com