|Cultural origins||17th century: UK|
|Features||Follows the believer from a state of damnation to a state of grace|
Spiritual autobiography is a genre of non-fiction prose that dominated Protestant writing during the seventeenth century, particularly in England, particularly that of dissenters. The narrative follows the believer from a state of damnation to a state of grace; the most famous example is perhaps John Bunyan's Grace Abounding (1666).
Because so many autobiographies were written, they began to fall into a predictable pattern. The "formula" began with a sinful youth, "followed by a gradual awakening of spiritual feelings and a sense of anxiety about the prospects for one's soul." The person would repent, fall again into sin, repent, and sin again; such cycles could last for years. The Bible was often a source of comfort or fear during this time. Finally, the person had a conversion experience, an "epiphany, often of an emotionally shattering character, by which individuals came to realise that they had been singled out by God for salvation." Life was not necessarily easy after this, but it was a good deal less traumatic. These overarching narratives were seen to be not only relevant to human life, but also to human history. Those who practiced this type of spiritual autobiography believed that "history repeats itself not only in man's outward, group existence, but in the spiritual life of individuals."
The spiritual autobiography's intense focus on the individual has led scholars to see it as a precursor to the novel, with later writers such as Daniel Defoe writing fictionalized accounts of a character's spiritual journey, such as Robinson Crusoe. Moreover, because, as G. A. Starr argues, English Protestantism had rejected the "otherworldliness" of Catholicism "and insisted on the compatibility of earthly and spiritual callings," the "utterly mundane activities could be drawn upon to illustrate and enforce religious duties." This also contributed to the growth of what we now know as the novel.
Selection of spiritual autobiographies
- John Bunyan's Grace Abounding
- Richard Norwood's Confessions
- A Short History of the Life of John Crook
- Lawrence Clarkson's The Lost Sheep Found
- The Narrative of the Persecution of Agnes Beaumont
- William Apess' "A Son of the Forest"
- Play of Consciousness: A Spiritual Autobiography by Swami Muktananda
- Spiritual Autobiography. The Literary Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 8 June 2007.
- Starr, G.A. Defoe and Spiritual Autobiography. New York : Gordian Press (1979), 13.
- Starr, 11.
- Caldwell, Patricia. The Puritan Conversion Narrative. Cambridge (1983).
- Damrosch, Leopold, Jr. God's Plot and Man's Stories. Chicago (1985).
- Delany, Paul. British Autobiography in the Seventeenth Century. London (1969).
- Ebner, Dean. Autobiography in Seventeenth-Century England. The Hague (1971).
- Hindmarsh, D. Bruce. The Evangelical Conversion Narrative: Spiritual Autobiography in Early Modern England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
- Spacks, Patricia Meyer. Imagining a Self: Autobiography and Novel in Eighteenth-Century England. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.
- Starr, G. A. Defoe and Spiritual Autobiography. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.