A spiritual successor, sometimes called a spiritual sequel, is a successor to a work of fiction which does not build upon the storyline established by a previous work as do most traditional prequels or sequels, yet features many of the same elements, themes, and styles as its source material, thereby resulting in its nevertheless being related or similar "in spirit" to its predecessor.
Reasons for creating a spiritual successor
Due to the current nature of the publisher/developer system inherent in almost all computer games, as well as the continual purchase and takeovers (which sell the entire developer including its copyrights and trademarks) by conglomerate corporations, creative teams often fail to retain the copyright and trademark rights of their creations. This often makes attempts to create sequels for a product impossible for various reasons, such as the "core" of the studio being fired or replaced after completing a project while the parent company retains control of the copyrights and trademarks. A good example of this strategy is Electronic Arts, which has closed many studios while keeping their copyrights and trademarks, such as Bullfrog Productions, Origin Systems, and Westwood Studios.
To get around this, creative teams will make a product that resembles the original game in some way, without copying or mentioning the original directly, notably omitting the title, story, and character names. For instance, the video games TimeSplitters and, more often, Perfect Dark are often considered to be the spiritual successors to the hit video game GoldenEye 007.
Other times, a spiritual successor is created when the original products were either poor commercial sellers and/or forgotten by the people that would purchase the product. By abandoning the original content's name (and perhaps its baggage as a forgotten product), the spiritual sequel can be appreciated by fresh eyes. An example of this would be BioShock, which has been referred to by its developers as the spiritual successor to System Shock 2. Despite positive critical acclaim, System Shock and System Shock 2 both failed to achieve the expected commercial success unlike BioShock which was both a critical and commercial success.
The concept of a "spiritual successor" extends beyond fictional works. The Honda CR-Z is regarded as the spiritual successor to the second generation Honda CR-X in both name and exterior design, despite a nearly two decade time difference in production. In sports, the Ravens–Steelers rivalry is considered the spiritual successor to the older Browns–Steelers rivalry due to the Cleveland Browns relocation controversy as well as the "reactivated" Cleveland Browns having a 4-20 record against the Steelers since returning to the league in 1999.
Further examples of spiritual successors
- Assassin's Creed is the spiritual successor to the Prince of Persia series. In fact, the original Assassin's Creed was originally going to be a sequel in the Prince of Persia series.
- Ikaruga is the spiritual successor to Treasure's Radiant Silvergun.
- Fallout was originally designed as a sequel to Wasteland, but it became a stand-alone game after the developers failed to acquire the Wasteland copyright and trademarks from Electronic Arts. Fallout itself nearly received a spiritual successor in the form of an untitled game by Troika, dubbed "Mystary!" by fans.
- Supreme Commander is considered the spiritual successor to Total Annihilation.
- Shadow of the Colossus was mentioned by Executive Producer Fumito Ueda as a spiritual successor to his company's sleeper hit Ico and later explained also as a prequel, taking place in the same world at an unspecified time before Ico.
- Hellgate: London has been referred to by its developer Flagship Studios as the spiritual successor to Diablo II. Key Flagship employees had previously worked on Diablo II as part of Blizzard North.
- The Sky Crawlers: Innocent Aces is considered an spiritual successor of namco's Ace Combat series.
- Bioware's Dragon Age: Origins is referred to as the spiritual successor of the Baldur's Gate series
- Valve's Portal was developed by the creators of the DigiPen project Narbacular Drop and has been officially stated as its spiritual successor.
- The Monolith videogame series Xenosaga is the spiritual successor to the Square game Xenogears; each is the product of the same creative minds. Xenogears is the fifth episode of a six-part series, but this ended prematurely when Monolith Soft was established. The Xenosaga series were also originally meant to be a six-part series as well, but plans for this were effectively cut short when the series ended prematurely with its third episode. There is no direct relation between Xenogears and the Xenosaga series, despite the claims of many.
- Bayonetta is a spiritual successor to the Devil May Cry franchise.
- Demon's Souls has been described as a spiritual successor to From Software's King's Field series.
- Dark Souls has, in turn, been referred to as a spiritual successor to Demon's Souls.
- Odin Sphere is considered to be a spiritual successor to Princess Crown.
- Paper Mario is a spiritual successor to Super Mario RPG: Legend Of The Seven Stars. In fact, Paper Mario was originally going to be called Super Mario RPG 2.
- Wrecked: Revenge Revisited is a spiritual successor to Mashed as they were both developed by Supersonic Software and with the majority of weapons and some of the tracks in Wrecked are already present in Mashed.
- Developed by key members behind the Mega Man franchise, Mighty No. 9 is considered by many as its spiritual successor, as they share many similarities in both gameplay and design. The project gained notoriety after raising over $4,000,000 via crowdfunding.
- Shroud of the Avatar is defined by its creator Richard Garriott as a spiritual successor to the Ultima series and developed by Portalarium thanks to a successful Kickstarter campaign.
- Firaxis' Civilization: Beyond Earth is a spiritual sequel to Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri.
- The Soul Edge/Calibur games are considered a successor to the earlier Namco production Weaponlord.
- The FPS pioneer game Wolfenstein 3D is a developmental precursor to the Doom series.
- Konami's early 2D-shooter Scramble is considered a predecessor to the Gradius series.
- The film MirrorMask (2005) was conceived by the Jim Henson Company and director Dave McKean as a spiritual successor to the company's previous fantasy films The Dark Crystal (1982) and Labyrinth (1986).
- Fierce Creatures (1997) is a follow-up to the comedy film A Fish Called Wanda (1988) featuring the same cast and creative team, but entirely different characters.
- The Vengeance Trilogy consists of three films, directed by Park Chan-wook, Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance (2002), Oldboy (2003), Sympathy for Lady Vengeance (2005), which had the same theme "revenge, violence and salvation".
- The Wicker Tree (2011) is a "spiritual sequel" to The Wicker Man (1973), and was identified as such in a Fantasia 2011 press release. Both are horror films directed by British filmmaker Robin Hardy, and both centre on the conflict between Christianity and paganism in a modern Scottish setting. Hardy has described The Wicker Tree as "a sort of spiritual brother" to The Wicker Man.
- Guy Ritchie's Snatch (2000) is considered by many movie critics to be a spiritual sequel to Ritchie's previous work Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels (1998), including Roger Ebert who said "What am I to say of 'Snatch', Ritchie's new film, which follows the 'Lock, Stock' formula so slavishly it could be like a new arrangement of the same song?"
- Classic Videogame Hardware Genius Guide. Imagine Publishing. pp. 535–. ISBN 978-1-908222-22-0.
- Mark J. P. Wolf (2012). Encyclopedia of Video Games: The Culture, Technology, and Art of Gaming. ABC-CLIO. p. 458. ISBN 978-0-313-37936-9. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
- "First Look: Perfect Dark". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07.
- Chi Kong Lui (2000-06-19). "Perfect Dark – Review". gamecricits.com. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
- Franklin Beans. "Achievement Highlights". Xbox.com. Retrieved 2008-01-04.[dead link]
- "BioShock Preview". GameSpy. 2006-05-10. Retrieved 2007-05-08.
- "2007 Tokyo Auto Show Preview: Honda CR-Z". Inside Line. edmunds. 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-02-22. "Honda says the name of its sporty two-passenger concept for Tokyo — CR-Z — stands for "Compact Renaissance Zero." But it's no accident that the car and its name evoke fond memories of the old Honda CRX from the late '80s and early '90s."
- Squatriglia, Chuck (2008-02-20). "Europe Gets Honda's CR-Z Hybrid Before The Rest of Us.". Autopia. Wired. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- "Treasure Talks 360, Wii, and PS3". 1UP.com. 2007-01-04. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
- "The History of Fallout". GameBanshee. 2006-06-24. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- "Game information page for FAILSAFE". RPG Codex. 2004-10-07. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- "Supreme Commander Q&A - What Makes Supreme Commander Unique?". GameSpot. 2005-09-30. Retrieved 2007-03-20.
- Jason Ocampo (2007-11-06). "Supreme Commander: Forged Alliance Review". GameSpot. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
- John 'Warrior' Keefer (2007-02-23). "Supreme Commander (PC) Review". GameSpy. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
- GameSpot site staff, ed. (2005). "The Long-Awaited Spiritual Successor to ICO Arrives Mid-February in Europe". GameSpot. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
- McNamara, Andy & Berghammer, Billy (2006). "Colossal Creation: The Kenji Kaido and Fumito Ueda Interview". Game Informer. Archived from the original on April 27, 2006. Retrieved July 9, 2006.
- "Hellgate is 'spiritual successor to Diablo II' - Roper". Eurogamer. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "E309: Dragon Age: Origins Interview - by Gamereactor".
- "Independent Games Summit: Valve's Kim Swift - 'From Narbacular Drop To Portal'". Gamasutra staff.
- Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht : PS2 at Gamepro.com - Reviews, Previews and Cheats for Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht
- Hayden, Bill (2002-04-29). "Xenosaga Episode I Preview". Gamer's Logik. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- Reiter, Chris (2005-04-05). "Xenosaga Episode II review". Gaming Target. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- "Shroud of the Avatar: Forsaken Virtues in Kickstarter". Portalarium.
- Futter, Mike (April 12, 2014). "Civilization: Beyond Earth". Game Informer. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- 1.^ Jump up to: a b c d McGarvey, Sterling (February 13, 2009). "Fighting Spirits: The Men Behind the Combos". GameSpy. IGN. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- Masters of Doom, pp. 130–131
- Masters of Doom, pp. 122–123.
- Doomworld interview with John Carmack.
- 5years interview with Romero
- Game Genres: Shmups, Professor Jim Whitehead, January 29, 2007, Accessed June 17, 2008
- Neil Gaiman, author of Anansi Boys
- Daily Llama - NEWS 1997_02_12 - Fierce Creatures - New Film Brings the Stars of 'A Fish Called Wanda' Together
- The Vengeance Trilogy DVD special features, director's audio commentary.
- Brown, Todd (27 June 2011). "Fantasia 2011 Kicks Off With Kevin Smith's RED STATE". Twitch Film. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- AintItCoolUK (27 March 2012). "THE WICKER TREE - Robin Hardy Interview Part 1/2". YouTube. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- "Snatch Movie Review and Film Summary (2001) by Roger Ebert". 19 January 2001.