Spirochaete

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This article is about the bacterial phylum. For spiral-shaped bacteria in general, see spiral bacteria.
Spirochaetes
20100905 211652 Spirochetes.jpg
Spirochaetes.  Numbered ticks are 10 µm apart.  Gram-stained.
Treponema pallidum 01.png
Treponema pallidum spirochaetes.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Spirochaetae Cavalier-Smith 2002
Class: Spirochaetes Cavalier-Smith 2002
Order: Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917
Families & Genera
Cross section of a spirochaete cell

Spirochaetes (also spelled spirochetes) belong to a phylum of distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped) cells.[1] Spirochaetes are chemoheterotrophic in nature, with lengths between 5 and 250 µm and diameters around 0.1–0.6 µm.[citation needed]

Spirochaetes are distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the location of their flagella, sometimes called axial filaments, which run lengthwise between the bacterial inner membrane and outer membrane in periplasmic space. These cause a twisting motion which allows the spirochaete to move about. When reproducing, a spirochaete will undergo asexual transverse binary fission.

Most spirochaetes are free-living and anaerobic, but there are numerous exceptions.

Classification[edit]

The spirochaetes are divided into three families (Brachyspiraceae, Leptospiraceae, and Spirochaetaceae), all placed within a single order (Spirochaetales). Disease-causing members of this phylum include the following:

Cavalier-Smith has postulated that the Spirochaetes belong in a larger clade called Gracilicutes.[5]

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)[6] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[7] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project.[8]


Leptospiraceae

Turneriella parva (Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982) Levett et al. 2005




Leptonema illini Hovind-Hougen 1983



Leptospira Noguchi 1917 emend. Faine and Stallman 1982







Brevinema andersonii Defosse et al. 1995



Brachyspira Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982





Exilispira thermophila Imachi et al. 2008


Spirochaetaceae

?Clevelandina reticulitermitidisBermudes et al. 1988



?Cristispira pectinisGross 1910



?Diplocalyx calotermitidis(ex Gharagozlou 1968) Bermudes et al. 1988



?Hollandina pterotermitidis(ex To et al. 1978) Bermudes et al. 1988



?Pillotina calotermitidis(ex Hollande and Gharagozlou 1967) Bermudes et al. 1988



Spironema culicisTurk et al. 1999



Spirochaeta [paraphyletic incl. Borrelia, Sphaerochaeta and Treponema]






Notes:
♦ Type strain lost or not available
♪ Prokaryotes where no pure (axenic) cultures are isolated or available, i. e. not cultivated or can not be sustained in culture for more than a few serial passages
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)

Historical[edit]

Salvarsan, the first partially organic synthetic antimicrobial drug in medical history, was effective against spirochaetes only and was primarily used to cure syphilis.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. ^ McBride A, Athanazio D, Reis M, Ko A (2005). "Leptospirosis". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 18 (5): 376–86. doi:10.1097/01.qco.0000178824.05715.2c. PMID 16148523. 
  3. ^ Schwan T (1996). "Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod interactions". Infect Agents Dis 5 (3): 167–81. PMID 8805079. 
  4. ^ Amat Villegas I, Borobio Aguilar E, Beloqui Perez R, de Llano Varela P, Oquiñena Legaz S, Martínez-Peñuela Virseda JM (January 2004). "[Colonic spirochetes: an infrequent cause of adult diarrhea]". Gastroenterol Hepatol (in Spanish; Castilian) 27 (1): 21–3. PMID 14718105. 
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (2006). "Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses". Biology Direct 1 (19): 19. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-19. PMC 1586193. PMID 16834776. 
  6. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Spirochaetes". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  7. ^ Sayers et al. "Spirochaetes". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  8. ^ 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 (full tree)". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database [3]. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 

External links[edit]