Spondias purpurea

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Jocote
Jocote.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Subfamily: Spondiadoideae
Genus: Spondias
Species: S. purpurea
Binomial name
Spondias purpurea
L.

Spondias purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae, that is native to tropical regions of the Americas. It is most commonly known as Jocote, which derives from the Nahuatl word xocotl, meaning "fruit." [1] Other common names include Red Mombin, Purple Mombin, Hog Plum, Ciruela Huesito (Venezuela), Sineguela, and Siriguela.

Description[edit]

Fruits of Spondias purpurea.
Sineguelas from the Philippines.

It is a small to medium-sized tree up to 25 feet tall. The leaves are deciduous in the short dry season, but only fall shortly before the new leaves develop; they are pinnate, with 7-23 leaflets, each leaflet 3–5 cm long and 1.5–2 cm broad. The flowers are small, reddish-purple, produced in large panicles. The fruit is an edible oval drupe, 3–5 cm long and 2-3.5 cm broad, ripening red (occasionally yellow) and containing a single large seed.

It is now widely cultivated in tropical regions throughout the world for its edible fruit, and is also naturalised in some areas, including the Philippines and Nigeria. Numerous cultivars have been selected for fruit quality. It is also abundant in Jamaica and Central America. In Florida growth is relegated to near-tropical areas of the state, and the tree is killed or greatly harmed by cold winter temperatures from Palm Beach County northward.[2]

Uses[edit]

The fruits are often eaten ripe, with or without the skin. It is sometimes eaten unripe with salt and vinegar or lime juice.

In Haiti, it is known under the name of 'siwèl' and spread throughout the mountainous areas of the country, mostly in the northern and southern mountain ranges.

One typical dish in Salvadoran cuisine consists of a syrup made of panela, jocote and mango.

The single large seed, which takes up most of the fruit, is not eaten.

"Sirgüelas" or plums in syrup, Oaxaca, México

Cultural significance[edit]

The "Pacto del Jocote", peace treaty was signed in Costa Rica on April 11, 1842 under a Jocote tree in Alajuela between Francisco Morazan and Vicente Villaseñor overturning the government of Braulio Carrillo.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary
  2. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. pp. 150–151. 

External links[edit]

  • Miller, A and Schall, B. 2005. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea. PNAS 102:12801–12806
  • Purple Mombin