Sponge diving

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Sponge diving is the oldest known form of the original art of underwater diving, in order to retrieve natural sponges for human use.

Display of natural sponges for sale on Kalymnos in Greece

Background[edit]

Main article: Sponge

The calcium carbonate or silica spicules of most sponge genera make them too rough for most uses, but two genera, Hippospongia and Spongia, have soft, entirely fibrous skeletons.

It is unknown when exactly the sponge became an article of use. In Ancient Greek writings, Plato and Homerus mentioned the sponge as an object used for bathing. Through trading, Europeans used soft sponges for many purposes including padding for helmets, portable drinking utensils and municipal water filters. Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes and discreet contraceptives. However by the mid-20th century, over-fishing brought both the animals and the industry close to extinction.[1]

Many objects with sponge-like textures are now made of substances not derived from poriferans. Synthetic "sponges" include: personal and household cleaning tools, breast implants,[2] and contraceptive sponges.[3]

History[edit]

In Kalymnos, only 18% of the steep volcanic land could be cultivated, so the main professions were trading, boat building and sponge fishing, which perhaps was the oldest profession on the island. Diving for sponges brought social and economical development to the island where the free-diving method was used. Kalymnos was the main centre of production in the Aegean, and still now is a traditional occupation with related exhibitions, along with other local folklore, at three local museums.

The crew went out into the Mediterranean Sea in a small boat, and used a cylindrical object with a glass bottom to search the sea floor for sponges. When one was found, a diver went overboard to get it. Free diving, he was usually naked and carried a 15 kilograms (33 lb) skandalopetra, a rounded stone tied on a rope to the boat, to take him down to the bottom quickly. The diver then cut the sponge loose from the bottom and put a special net around it. Depth and bottom time depended on the diver's lung capacity. They often went down to about 30 metres (100 ft) for up to 5 minutes.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McClenachan, Loren (2008). "Social conflict, Over-fishing and Disease in the Florida Sponge Fishery, 1849-1939". In Starkey, David John; Holm, Poul; Barnard, Michaela. Oceans Past: Management Insights from the History of Marine Animal Populations. Earthscan. pp. 25–27. ISBN 1-84407-527-3. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  2. ^ Jacobson,, Nora (2000). Cleavage. Rutgers University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8135-2715-5. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  3. ^ "Sponges". Cervical Barrier Advancement Society. 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  4. ^ Hendrikse, Sandra; Merks, André (12 May 2009). "Greek sponge diving". Diving Heritage. Retrieved 6 June 2010.