A sports agent procures and negotiates employment and endorsement contracts for an athlete. Agents are responsible for communications with team owners, managers, coaches, and other individuals. Primarily, agents are used to broker and negotiate contracts for their clients. Also, they are responsible for making recommendations in regard to the athlete's options. In addition to finding income sources, agents often handle public relations matters for their clients. In some large sports agencies, such as IMG, Creative Artists Agency, and Octagon, agents deal with all aspects of a client's finances, from investment to filing taxes.
Sports agents may be relied upon by their clients for guidance in all business aspects, and sometimes even more broadly. For example, hockey agents start recruiting clients as young as 15, allowing the agent to guide the athlete's career before the NHL draft, which happens usually at 18 years of age.
Due to the length and complexity of contracts, many sports agents are lawyers or have a background in contract law. Agents are expected to be knowledgeable about finance, business management, and financial and risk analysis, as well as sports. It is important for a sports agent to follow trends in sports. Other skills an agent must possess are excellent communication and negotiation skills. Agents must be highly motivated, willing to work long hours, and have the ability to multitask. It is very common for agents to be in negotiations on behalf of several clients at one time.
Some agents are part of large companies, and some are on their own. The number of clients an individual agent can handle and how many clients his or her employing agency can handle in total are interdependent variables.
Before the 1990s, most soccer players did not use agents. In some cases, they used their fathers as agents. Because of most parents' naivete about the football business, these young footballers were often given less-than-stellar contracts by football clubs, which yielded lower salaries than they thought they deserved. In Sweden, there were only three licensed agents in 1995. As of 2002, there were 33. According to FIFA, there were 5,187 licensed association football agents world-wide, with 600 agents in Italy alone. Since 2001, agents have not been licensed by FIFA. Instead, agents are now licensed directly by each association.
Sports agents generally receive between 4 and 10% of the athlete's playing contract, and 10 to 20% of the athlete's endorsement contract, although these figures vary. NFL agents are not permitted to receive more than 3%, and NBA agents not more than 4%, of their client's playing contracts.
- 1 Media depictions
- 2 Notable sports agents
- 3 Notable former sports agents
- 4 Sports agency groups
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
The popularity of television shows such as Entourage, which stars a talent agent named Ari Gold, and Arliss, have helped glamorize the profession. Prior to that, movies such as Jerry Maguire, Two for the Money, and Any Given Sunday depicted sports agents. In England, ITV's Footballers' Wives put a new spin on sports agents by casting a no-holds-barred female agent Hazel Bailey.
Notable sports agents
- Joel Segal: president of Lagardère Unlimited Football. Clients include Eric Fisher, Reggie Bush, Santonio Holmes and Chris Johnson.
- Tom Condon: co-head of Creative Artists Agency (CAA) Football. Clients include Peyton Manning and Tony Romo.
- Bradley Cicala: head of Terra Firma Sports Management Football. Clients include Pierre Garcon and Doug Worthington.
- James "Bus" Cook: Clients include Brett Favre, Jay Cutler, and Calvin Johnson.
- Ben Dogra: co-head of CAA Football. Clients include Adrian Peterson, Patrick Willis, and Joseph Addai.
- Aaron Green: head of Elias Sports Agency.
- Jason Fletcher: former player turned agent. Clients include Antonio Cromartie, Jamar Fletcher, Clinton Portis, and Fabian Washington.
- Bob LaMonte: founder and president of Professional Sports Representation. Clients include Mike Holmgren, Brad Childress, and Josh McDaniels.
- Joe Linta: In 2013, negotiated the richest contract in NFL history for Joe Flacco, despite the fact that he's never been picked for the Pro Bowl.
- Eugene E. Parker: negotiated the highest signing bonuses in NFL history for Emmitt Smith and Deion Sanders. Real-life inspiration for flamboyant character "Rod Tidwell" in the film Jerry Maguire.
- John "JR" Rickert: Clients include Joshua Cribbs, T.J. Houshmandzadeh, Kevin Burnett, and Mike Patterson.
- Drew Rosenhaus: Clients include Plaxico Burress and Terrell Owens.
- Leigh Steinberg: Clients include Troy Aikman and Ben Roethlisberger. Real-life inspiration for fictional sports agent Jerry Maguire in the film of the same name (he has a cameo appearance in the movie).
- Barry Axelrod: Clients included Jeff Bagwell, Craig Biggio, Rick Sutcliffe, and executive Kevin Towers.
- Scott Boras: Clients include Alex Rodriguez and Prince Fielder.
- Casey Close: Clients include Derek Jeter and Ryan Howard.
- Greg Genske: Successor in sports agency formerly run by Jeff Moorad (baseball) and Leigh Steinberg (football).
- Randy Hendricks: Partnered with his brother, Allan; they sold their firm to SFX (now Live Nation), and bought it back again.
- Joe Kehoskie: Small agency; frequently quoted by media regarding Cuban defectors and baseball in Latin America.
- Bo McKinnis: Clients include David Price.
- Jim Munsey: Clients include Sam Fuld, Jarrod Saltalamacchia, and Sean Burnett.
- Matt Sosnick: Clients include Dontrelle Willis. Sosnick is subject of the book License to Deal by Jerry Crasnick.
- Arn Tellem: Clients have included Albert Belle, Mike Mussina, and Chase Utley. Also a basketball agent (see below).
- Joe Urbon: Clients include Jason Bay and Grady Sizemore.
- Jeff Austin is head of Octagon's Basketball division, and was ranked 11th in the "12 Best Sport Agents in the World" in 2010 according to Business Insider. His clients include David Robinson, Moses Malone, Kirk Hinrich, Stephen Curry, and Jimmer Fredette.
- Doug Davis: Clients include Metta World Peace and Roger Mason, Jr..
- Bill Duffy: Clients include Rajon Rondo, Joakim Noah, Greg Oden, Yao Ming, Baron Davis, and Steve Nash.
- David Falk: Currently semi-retired. Past clients have included Michael Jordan, Patrick Ewing, Allen Iverson, and Dikembe Mutombo. In the 1990s he was generally considered the most influential player agent in the NBA.
- Dan Fegan: Noted for creating several nuances in the most recently expired NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement. Clients include John Wall, Dwight Howard, and Ricky Rubio.
- Aaron Goodwin: Terminated by LeBron James, Dwight Howard, Al Horford, Jamal Crawford. Goodwin now represents Candace Parker.
- Roger Montgomery: Managed Desmond Mason, Maurice Evans, and Jeremy Lin.
- Rob Pelinka: Former basketball player at the University of Michigan. Clients include Kobe Bryant and Carlos Boozer.
- Leon Rose: Former Agent of LeBron James.
- Arn Tellem: Clients include Tracy McGrady, Jermaine O'Neal, Pau Gasol, and Joe Johnson. His clients' total salaries in 2007–08 season added up to more than $210 million.
- Neil Fairbrother: Former England cricket player, now Director of Cricket at International Sports Management. Clients include: Andrew Flintoff, Marcus Trescothick, Steve Harmison, and Graham Onions.
- Craig McKenzie: American basketball agent. Worked for Eugene E. Parker on Deion Sanders. Clients included three-sport athlete Charlie Ward, Marcus Brown, JR Bremer, and Mire Chatman.
- Miško Ražnatović: Serbian agent. Through his agency (BeoBasket), he mostly represents European basketball players and coaches as well as American players playing in Europe. His notable clients include Nikola Peković, Mirza Teletović, coach Dušan Ivković, Vassilis Spanoulis, Nenad Krstić, Dario Šarić, DeMarcus Nelson, Joffrey Lauvergne, Duško Savanović, Pero Antić, Aleksandar Ćapin, Marko Kešelj, Nihad Đedović, Novica Veličković, Milenko Tepić, Aleksandar Rašić, Raško Katić, İlkan Karaman, Emir Preldžić, Marko Simonović, Andrija Žižić, etc. Ražnatović was additionally involved in the Deron Williams' transfer to Beşiktaş during the 2011 NBA lockout and owns a basketball club KK Mega Vizura that competes in the Basketball League of Serbia.
- Aleksandar Rašković: Serbian agent. Affiliated with Casey Wasserman's Wasserman Media Group and primarily based out of Athens though also maintaining a business presence in Belgrade and Istanbul, he mostly represents European basketball players from the former Yugoslavia. The list of his notable clients includes Bogdan Bogdanović, Bojan Bogdanović, Jaka Blažič, Nikola Kalinić, Stefan Jović, Mario Hezonja, Aleks Marić, Jan Veselý, Vladimir Radmanović, Mario Kasun, Edo Murić, Blake Schilb, Nathan Jawai, Aleksej Nikolić, Klemen Prepelič, Jaka Klobučar, etc.
- Nikolaos Lotsos: Greek agent. Through his agency (Sports ProMotion), he represents Miloš Teodosić, Michael Batiste, Keith Langford, Igor Rakočević, Kostas Kaimakoglou, Ian Vougioukas, Stratos Perperoglou, Zoran Erceg, Scoonie Penn, Thanasis Antetokounmpo, etc.
- Zoran Savić: Serbian agent. Through his agency (Invictus Sports Group), Barcelona-based Savić represents coach Xavi Pascual, Milan Mačvan, coach Žan Tabak, Dalibor Bagarić, Ivan Opačak, etc.
- Jorge Mendes: Portuguese agent. Founder of GestiFute. Clients include Falcao, Anderson, Quaresma, Deco, Nani, Cristiano Ronaldo, and José Mourinho.
- Paul Stretford: English agent. Clients include Wayne Rooney. Set up Triple S Sports Entertainment Group in 2009 after leaving Proactive Sports, which he originally established.
- Pini Zahavi: Israeli agent. Handled deals involving the transfers of Tevez, Yakubu, and Rio Ferdinand.
- Mino Raiola: Dutch-based Italian agent. His notable clients are Zlatan Ibrahimović and Mario Balotelli, and previously Pavel Nedvěd.
- Milan Ćalasan: Serbian agent. His agency (Mondialvas) represented Christian Karembeu, manager Arsène Wenger, and Nikola Žigić.
- Claes Elefalk: Swedish agent. Clients include Freddie Ljungberg, Pontus Farnerud, and Nils-Eric Johansson, plus several NHL ice hockey players.
- Roger Ljung: Former Swedish International player, owns his own agency (Roger Ljung Promotion AB). Represented Freddie Ljungberg until 2006. Clients include Marcus Allbäck, Daniel Andersson, Patrik Andersson, Erik Edman, Andreas Isaksson, Kim Källström, Marcus Lantz, and Teddy Lučić.
- Martin Dahlin: Former Swedish international player; works for Roger Ljung Promotion AB
- Dan Segal: US agent. Clients include Landon Donovan, Freddy Adu, Tim Howard, and Bobby Convey.
- Dirk Hebel: Former German footballer, owns his own agency (Fussballmarkt). Has represented Mario Götze, Sunday Oliseh, Goran Sablić and Patrick Weiser.
- Jon Michail: Co-Founder of Australian-based FIA Sports Management. Clients include Josep Gombau, Osmar Barba, Albert Roca, Javier Patiño, Carmelo Gonzalez and Andrija Delibašić.
- Mark Steinberg: Clients include Tiger Woods; former head of golf division at IMG.
- Andrew 'Chubby' Chandler: Former European Tour golfer. Clients include golfers Lee Westwood, Ernie Els, Darren Clarke, Louis Oosthuizen, Charl Schwartzel, and Christina Kim. Rory McIlroy was a client of Chandler until October 2011, when he left for Dublin-based Horizon Sports Management.
- Mike Barnett (ice hockey): former agent of Wayne Gretzky, Brett Hull, Paul Coffey, Jaromir Jagr, Joe Thornton, Lanny McDonald, Sergei Fedorov, Alexander Mogilny, Owen Nolan, Mats Sundin, and Dany Heatley. Current Senior Advisor to the President-General Manager of the New York Rangers.
- Ritch Winter: over 70 clients.
- Gilles Lupien: former NHL defenceman; current Canadian ice hockey agent. Clients include Roberto Luongo.
- Don Meehan: president of Newport Sports Management. Over 100 clients in the NHL, including Jarome Iginla, Steven Stamkos, P.K. Subban and Chris Pronger.
- Tatiana Ovechkina, two-time basketball gold medalist, is her son Alexander Ovechkin's agent. She brokered a 13-year, $124 million contract.
- Allan Walsh in 2004 merged his hockey representation with Octagon Hockey. His clients include Marc-Andre Fleury, Patrik Elias, Martin Havlat, and Milan Michalek.
- Pat Brisson – agent of Sidney Crosby, among others
- Keke Rosberg: JJ Lehto and Mika Häkkinen, also managed son Nico Rosberg between 2006–2008
- Nicolas Todt: Felipe Massa
- Willi Weber: Primarily Michael Schumacher
- Peter Carlisle: Clients include Michael Phelps, Natalie Coughlin, Apolo Anton Ohno, Seth Wescott, and Chris Klug.
Notable former sports agents
- Colleen Howe (deceased): ice hockey, late president of Power Play International and Power Play Publications managing hockey careers and business interests of her husband Gordie Howe and their sons Marty and Mark Howe.
- Camilo Marin (deceased): Cuban-born horse racing agent. Clients included Laffit Pincay, Jr., Braulio Baeza, Jorge Velasquez, and Manuel Ycaza.
- Mark McCormack (deceased): American golf agent, and principal originator of modern sports agency industry. First client was Arnold Palmer. Founded IMG (originally "International Management Group").
- Jeff Moorad: Former baseball agent and former partner of Leigh Steinberg, now baseball executive and part-owner of San Diego Padres.
- Charles C. Pyle (deceased): American football; clients included Red Grange and Wildcat Wilson; founder of first American Football League (1926).
- Gary Wichard (deceased): American football, three dozen clients, the inspiration for the movie Jerry Maguire.
Sports agency groups
There have been some efforts to transform the sports agency business from an individual, entrepreneurial business, to more of a corporate structure. These experiments met with varying degrees of longevity and success.
- 360 Sports Agency: – Community based sports agencies supported by a centralized corporate office that provides certified contract advisors with resources necessary to feasibly pursue contracts with athletes.
- Creative Artists Agency: "CAA" – acquired various pieces of the sports agency business of SFX (see below), starting with football.
- Elias Sports Agency: "ESA" – Full-service sports agency, services including, contract negotiation, endorsements, marketing, draft and combine training, media relations consulting, post career counseling, personal one-on-one attention.
- FIA Sports Management – boutique football agency founded in Melbourne, Australia with offices in four continents. FIA specialise in Talent Management & Representation, Personal Brand & Image Development, Sponsorships & Endorsements, Scouting and Entrepreneurial Career Stratgies.
- IMG – International Management Group – corporate agency established by entrepreneur Mark McCormack, originally with a specialization in golf and tennis. After the death of McCormack the company was acquired by private equity group Forstmann Little.
- International Sports Management – British sports agency run by former European Tour golfer Andrew "Chubby" Chandler.
- Octagon Worldwide – Full-service sports agency and event marketing group, traded with advertising and marketing companies in the Interpublic Group.
- Priority Sports and Entertainment- Agency representing the most NBA players, run by Mark Bartelstein.
- Roc Nation Sports – sports agency founded in 2013 by Shawn Carter, better known as Jay-Z. Currently in partnership with CAA; first client signed was Robinson Canó.
- XL Sports Management- Full service agency that handles NFL players. Negotiates contracts, draft and combine training,media,post career, personal one-on-one attention to each player. Owned by Marco Marciano, and agent Frank Gaitan, and Big Irv Smith from the New Orleans Saints.
- Rosenhaus Sports- sports agency run by Drew Rosenhaus.
- International Sports Agency - Full service agency that handles football, racing, sports marketing and corporate branding.
- Sports Management Worldwide – (SMWW) – global sports agency founded by Dr. Lynn Lashbrook.
- Wasserman Media Group: acquired Arn Tellem's basketball agency from SFX, and usually represents the most players in NBA lottery draft each year.
- AthletePromotions: Sports marketing and booking agency representing Terrell Owens, Thurman Thomas, Spud Webb, Wayne Chrebet, Dan Hampton, Clinton Portis, Brendon Ayanbadejo, Daunte Culpepper, Ray Lankford, Steve Garvey and others.
Formerly active agencies
Some sports agency firms were once prominent, but are now gone or reorganized:
- Assante Corporation – Canadian public company that acquired the Steinberg, Moorad & Dunn agency, then acquired other than agencies including Dan Fegan & Associates and Maximum Sports Management in an unsuccessful effort to build multi-sport corporate agency.
- SFX Entertainment (now Live Nation, a publicly traded company) – in 1998 SFX agreed to pay up to $150 million in cash, stock, and bonuses for F.A.M.E., the sports agency run by David Falk, the agent for basketball players Michael Jordan and Patrick Ewing. SFX also acquired two other major sports agencies, Arn Tellem's agency (Tellem & Associates) and the baseball-oriented firm run by Randy Hendricks and Allan Hendricks. SFX would later reverse course, and sell off the pieces of its large sports agency business.
- Steinberg, Moorad & Dunn ("SMD") – a multi-sport agency sold in October 1999 for reported $120 million to Canadian financial firm. Defections of principals, and litigation, followed. Originally led by entrepreneurial agents Leigh Steinberg and Jeff Moorad.
- Entertainment Law
- Talent agent: discussion of the agents that represent entertainment talent and may also participate in sports agency.
- Job Profiles.org – description of roles of sports agent and some educational programs to prepare for the field
- An Industry Of Conglomerates Sports Agent Blog, July 16, 2007
- "The Big Interview: Neil Webb" Sunday Times, Nov. 28, 2004, interview with soccer/football player
- "Market Saturation of Agents", May 23, 2002, note: source can be translated into English on the website
- [ FIFA – Players' agents list – by country]
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