||It has been suggested that Health Issues in Athletics be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2012.|
||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United Kingdom and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2011)|
||This article needs attention from an expert in Medicine. (November 2008)|
Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness, treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed Team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care.
Recent History 
In recent years Western society has increasingly recognized the dangers of Physical inactivity, and significant efforts have been made within the Public Health community to encourage the nation to become more physically active. To reflect this paradigm shift BASM has renamed itself BASEM (British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine) and the speciality itself has rebranded from Sports Medicine to Sport & Exercise Medicine. Since 2007 several deaneries across the UK have established training programmes in SEM, and recurrent funding for 50 National Training Numbers (NTN’s) is available.
Sports Medicine Team 
Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC); Certified Athletic Therapist CAT(C) (Canada)
Athletic Trainers/Therapists (ATs) are highly skilled professional specializing in the health care of physical activity. They are responsible for care & prevention of athletic injury/illness and serve as a liaison between the team physician, coach, parent, and athlete.
- Immediate on-field emergency injury assessment and management
- Making appropriate and unbiased sideline decisions regarding athletes returning to full participation
- Thorough assessment and appropriate management of sport related emergencies such as, but not limited to: concussions, heat-related emergencies, sudden cardiac death, and MRSA
- Clinical assessment of injury
- Design & implementation of contemporary rehab protocols
- Sport equipment fitting, maintenance, and emergency removal
- Applying protective/supportive techniques that allow the athlete to regain physically active lifestyle
- Inventory and purchasing of supplies
- Completing medical/accidental record form
Team Physician 
Promotes the success of the AT program, “cornerstone” of the medical team, available for emergencies.
- Supervising pre-participation physical & medical history
- Clearing of players for return to play after injury
- Work with AT and student athletic trainers/therapist in further development of AT program
- Maintain good physical condition
- Selecting, fitting, and maintaining protective equipment
- Play by the rules
- Follow the instruction of the coaches and the ATC
Parents Can assist by keeping the child healthy, if kept updated on the injury Should be informed of recommended treatment at home for injury or if they are hurt
- enforcing fair rules
- Monitoring playing conditions
- Cooperating with ATC & physician when injury occur & when environmental hazards exist
- Plan practice including: conditioning & training of the athlete & teach techniques /rules of sport
- Selecting,fitting & maintaining protective things
- Supervision of practice/ game facilities
- Update education by attending clinics that review rule changes, skill development, CPR/FA
ATS’s (athletic training students) Duties
- Assisted by the ATC to develop skills in immediate care of injury, preventative techniques and basic treatment protocol
- Maintain clean facility
- Inventory control: keeping track of supplies and equipment
- Packing FA kits
- Taping, wrapping, change dressings, minor treatment, FA procedures
Sports Medicine Organizations 
||This article may contain excessive, poor, or irrelevant examples. (March 2012)|
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
Founded in 1954, the American College of Sports Medicine is the largest and most prominent sports medicine and exercise science organization in the world. ACSM has more than 45,000 International, National and Regional Chapter members. Since its founding ACSM members have applied their knowledge, training and dedication in sports medicine and exercise science to promote healthier lifestyles for people around the globe.
American College of Sports Medicine
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine is a world leader in sports medicine education, research, communication, and fellowship. Founded in 1972, AOSSM is an international organization of orthopaedic surgeons and other allied health professionals dedicated to sports medicine. Essentially every professional and collegiate team has a team physician who is a member of the AOSSM. 
Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine The Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine (CASEM) is an organization of physicians committed to excellence in the practice of medicine as it applies to all aspects of physical activity.
Our mission is to forge a strong, collective voice for sport medicine; to be a leader in advancing the art and science of sport medicine, including health promotion and disease prevention, for the benefit of all Canadians through advocacy, education, research and service.
American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM)
Founded in 1991, AMSSM is a multi-disciplinary organization of physicians whose members are dedicated to education, research, collaboration and fellowship within the field of Sports Medicine. It now comprises over 2100 Sports Medicine Physicians whose goal is to provide a link between the rapidly expanding core of knowledge related to sports medicine and its application to patients in a clinical setting.
National Athletic Trainers' Association(NATA)
Founded in 1950
The mission of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association is to enhance the quality of health care provided by certified athletic trainers and to advance the athletic training profession.
National Athletic Trainers' Association
Canadian Athletic Therapists' Association(CATA)
Founded in 1965.
The Canadian Athletic Therapist Association (CATA) is an organization devoted to the comprehensive health care of an individual at any level of physical ability by Certified Athletic Therapists.
Canadian Athletic Therapists Association
American Medical Association(AMA)
Recognized Athletic Training(AT) as an allied health profession in 1990
American Medical Association
American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine (AAPSM)
Sports Medicine Australia (SMA)
Australasian Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine (AAPSM)
American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine (AOASM)
Future Challenges 
The challenge remains for SEM to establish itself within the UK medical community, particularly the NHS. SEM is the first medical speciality to be created ex nihilo, ‘out of nothing’. Whereas other medical specialities have emerged from others, i.e. Cardiology emerged when practicing general physicians decided to concentrate on, Heart conditions, SEM has not emerged from any other speciality, and therefore most of its practitioners do not practice within the NHS. Instead most SEM specialists work for Sports teams or Private Clinics.
In September 2009, the UK Department of Health took a SEM specialist, Dr Leon Creaney, on secondment from the London Deanery to tackle this specific issue. The specific projects include developing a business case to clearly elucidate the advantages of SEM services for the NHS, and the development of a National Centre of Excellence in Sport & Exercise Medicine.
Scope of the Speciality 
Sport and Exercise Medicine doctors are specialist physicians who have completed core medical training, residency training in a specialty, and then gone on to complete additional fellowship training in Sport and Exercise Medicine. Specialising in the treatment of athletes and other physically active individuals, they have extensive education in musculoskeletal medicine. SEM doctors treat injuries such as muscle, ligament, tendon and bone problems, but may also treat chronic illnesses that can affect physical performance, such as asthma and diabetes. SEM doctors also advise on managing and preventing injuries.
Specialists in SEM diagnose and treat any medical conditions which regular exercisers or sports persons encounter. The majority of a SEM Physicians' time is therefore spent treating musculoskeletal injuries, however other conditions include Female athlete triad, Unexplained Underperformance Syndrome, Exercise-induced asthma, screening for Cardiac Abnormalities, Diabetes in Sport. In addition Team Physicians working in Elite Sport often play a role in performance medicine, whereby an athletes’ physiology is monitored, and aberrations corrected, in order to achieve peak physical performance.
SEM consultants also deliver clinical physical activity interventions, negating the burden of disease directly attributable to physical inactivity and the compelling evidence for the effectiveness of exercise in the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of disease
Exercise Medicine 
The Foresight Report issued by the Government Office for Science, 17 October 2007, highlighted the unsustainable health and economic costs of a nation that continues to be largely sedentary. It forecasts that the incremental costs of this inactivity will be £10 billion per year by 2050 and the wider costs to society and businesses £49.9billion. Physical inactivity inevitably leads to ill-health and it forecasts the cost of paying for this impact will be unsustainable in the future. No existing group of medical specialists is equipped with the skills and training to deal with this challenge.
The concept of Exercise as Health tool or  is becoming increasingly important. SEM Physicians are able to evaluate medical patients co-morbidities, perform exercise testing and provide an exercise prescription, together with a motivational programme and exercise classes.
Public Health 
SEM Physicians are frequently involved in promoting the therapeutic benefits of Physical Activity, Exercise and Sport for the individuals and communities. SEM Physicians in the UK spend a period of their training in Public Health, and advise Public Health Physicians on matters relating to Physical Activity promotion. An example of published work includes the Royal College of  publication – 
Common sports injuries 
Concussion- caused by severe head trauma where the brain moves violently within the skull so that brain cells all fire at once, much like a seizure
Muscle Cramps- a sudden tight, intense pain caused by a muscle locked in spasm. Muscle cramps are also recognized as an involuntary and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax
ACL Sprains- The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament involved in knee stabilization. An ACL rupture can occur when the foot is planted and the knee twists to change direction.
Ankle Sprain- The ligaments that hold the ankle bones in place can easily be overstretched.
Shin Splints- The tissue that attaches the muscles of your lower leg to the shin bone may be pulling away from the bone, or it may be inflamed from overuse. 
See also 
- De Conde, C. (1990). The CATA - A Historical Perspective. The Journal of the Canadian Athletic Therapists' Association, 6-10.
- Common Sports Injuries." Common Sports Injuries. Union Memorial Hospital. Web. 10 Dec. 2009.<http://www.unionmemorial.org/npt.cfm?id=878>.