|League||American Hockey League|
|Home arena||Eastern States Coliseum
Springfield Civic Center
|Colors||Usually blue, red and white; navy blue, green and white in 1994|
|Affiliates||New York Americans, New York Rangers, Hartford Whalers, New York Islanders, Los Angeles Kings, Boston Bruins, Chicago Black Hawks, Minnesota North Stars|
|Regular season titles||3 1959–60, 1960–61, 1961–62|
|Division Championships||6 1941–42 (East), 1959–60, 1960–61, 1961–62 (East), 1990–91 (North), 1991–92 (North)|
|Calder Cups||7 1959–60, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1970–71 (Kings), 1974–75, 1989–90, 1990–91|
The Springfield Indians were a minor professional ice hockey franchise, originally based in West Springfield, Massachusetts and later Springfield, Massachusetts. The Indians were founding members of the American Hockey League. They were in existence for a total of 60 seasons from 1926 to 1994, with three interruptions. The Indians had two brief hiatuses from 1933–35, and from 1942-46. The team was known as the Syracuse Warriors from 1951–54; in addition, the team was named the Springfield Kings from 1967–74. The Indians won seven Calder Cup championships, one while known as the Kings in 1971.
Early history 
The Indians had their start in the Canadian-American Hockey League in 1926. The "Can-Am," as it was called, was founded in Springfield and the Indians were one of the five initial franchises. It was run at the time by Lester Patrick and the National Hockey League's New York Rangers, and future NHL stars such as Charlie Rayner, Earl Seibert (who after his playing days were through would be the Indians' longtime coach), Cecil Dillon and Ott Heller saw their start in Springfield uniforms. The Indians played in the Can-Am League until the 1932–33 season, having to fold thirteen games into the season.  In 1935-36, Lucien Garneau transferred his Quebec Beavers franchise to Springfield, resurrecting the Indians name; the team was now associated with the NHL's Montreal Canadiens.
The Great Depression caused cutbacks all around, and the Can-Am merged with the International Hockey League to form the International-American Hockey League, which changed its name to the American Hockey League, having lost its last Canadian franchises, in 1941.
But before that time, the man who cast his shadow over the team for most of its existence, Boston Bruins's superstar defenseman Eddie Shore, purchased the team in 1939. Industriously, he split games between the Bruins and the Indians, even going so far as to provoke a trade to the Amerks to make the train commute easier. He retired from the NHL after that season, but played for Springfield for two more seasons. Shore's often-controversial but ever-colorful management style would permeate the team for the next three decades and provide generations of hockey players and fans with anecdotes.
Disaster struck in the following season. With World War II, the United States army requisitioned the Eastern States Coliseum, Springfield's home arena, for the war effort, leaving the Indians homeless. Shore loaned Indians players to the Buffalo Bisons for the duration, returning the players to Springfield for the 1946–47 season. However, on ice success continued to elude the team, and despite the presence of stars such as Harry Pidhirny and Jim Anderson the franchise failed to have a winning record for over a decade more, including a temporary franchise relocation as the Syracuse Warriors from 1951–54.
During those three seasons, Shore fielded a Springfield team in the low-minor Eastern Hockey League and later the Quebec Hockey League using the Indians name. Led by future Boston Bruins goaltender Don Simmons and scoring leader Vern Pachal, the EHL Indians finished 3rd and 1st their two seasons in the loop, but finished in last place in 1954 in the QHL, the only team in the loop ever located outside of the province of Quebec.
Meanwhile, disappointed with attendance in Syracuse, Shore moved the AHL franchise back to Springfield - disbanding the QHL team - for good for the 1955 season. The team's few superlatives for the rest of the decade included the 1955 season - during which Ross Lowe won the only league MVP award in franchise history and Anderson was named rookie of the year - and All-Star Team citations to Eldie Kobussen at center in 1948, Billy Gooden in 1951, Lowe, Gordon Tottle and Don Simmons in 1955, Gerry Ehman and Cal Gardner in 1958, and Pidhirny in 1959.
"They could have played in the NHL ... " 
Matters turned around in dramatic fashion for the 1959–60 season. Behind an affiliation with the Rangers bringing stars Bill Sweeney and goaltender Marcel Paille over from Providence, and an immensely deep team with star forwards Pidhirny, Anderson, Ken Schinkel, Bruce Cline, Brian Kilrea, and defensemen Ted Harris, Kent Douglas, Noel Price and Bob McCord, the Indians led the league in the regular season three straight years and won three straight Calder Cups, losing only five playoff games in that span. Sweeney won the league scoring title three years in a row, Paille the best goaltending record two years running, and Springfield defensemen won the best defenseman award two years running. With the most dominant team the AHL has ever seen—no team before or since won three straight regular season OR playoff championships—the stands in the old Coliseum were filled night after night, and it was said of the 1959-1962 Indians that they could have played in the NHL ... and not have finished last.
1959–60: Sweeney finished second in league scoring behind Fred Glover of Cleveland with 96 points, Floyd Smith finished third and Bruce Cline ninth. The Indians led the league with a 43-23-6 record, and defeated Rochester four games to one in the finals for the franchise's first Calder Cup. Sweeney was named to the First All-Star Team at center, Paille to the Second Team at goal, McCord to the Second Team at defense, Smith to the Second Team at left wing, and Parker McDonald to the Second Team at right wing.
1960–61: Indians led the league with a 49-22-1 record, a mark unsurpassed until the 1973 season. The magnificent offense scored 344 goals, nearly a hundred more than any other team. Sweeney led the league in scoring, while Cline placed third, Kilrea fourth, Bill McCreary Sr. fifth and Anderson seventh in a show of offensive dominance unique in the history of the AHL, while Paille led the league in goaltending. The Indians became the second team in league history to go undefeated in the playoffs, sweeping the Cleveland Barons and the Hershey Bears. Paille was named to the First All-Star Team, as was Cline at right wing, McCord was awarded the Eddie Shore Award as the league's best defenseman, and Sweeney and Anderson were named to the Second Team.
1961–62: Indians led the league with a 45-22-3 record. Sweeney defended his scoring title, while Kilrea placed fourth and Anderson tenth, and Paille led the league in goaltending once more. Springfield defeated Buffalo four games to one in the finals to win its record third Calder Cup in a row. Douglas won best defenseman honors, Sweeney and Paille repeated as First Team All-Stars, and McCord and Smith were named to the Second Team again.
The expansion era and beyond 
Although Sweeney led the league in scoring in 1963 for a third time, the party was over for the Indians. While they still had a winning record and an offense that led the league, the Rangers had moved Paille to Baltimore, and the team missed the playoffs that year in a tight divisional race. They continued to miss the playoffs for most of the rest of the Sixties.
In the meantime, Eddie Shore's oft-capricious and notoriously miserly ownership style caused increasing friction with his players, who staged wildcat strikes in 1966 and 1967. Representing them, a young lawyer named Alan Eagleson gained prominence, and went on to form the National Hockey League Players' Association (NHLPA).
In consequence, Shore sold his players and leased the franchise to the Los Angeles Kings of the NHL for the 1968 season, while retaining control of the team. The Kings renamed the franchise the Springfield Kings, and changed the team's colors from their traditional blue, white and red to a purple-and-gold scheme similar to the parent team. With Gord Labossiere, star defenseman Noel Price and goaltender Bruce Landon (a name that subsequently loomed large in Springfield hockey annals) the team had a winning record in the 1969 season, reaching the Cup finals before being swept by the Buffalo Bisons.
The following season the Kings had the benefit of a league lacking powerful teams—only Baltimore and Cleveland had winning records. The team just squeaked into the playoffs with a losing record—winning a one-game playoff with the Quebec Aces to do it—and rampaged to Springfield's fourth Calder Cup championship with a sparkling 11-1 playoff record, led by future NHL star center Butch Goring and Hockey Hall of Fame goaltender Billy Smith and sweeping a shellshocked Providence Reds squad. The 1971 Kings were, and remain, the team with the poorest regular season record ever to win the Calder Cup.
The following year Goring and Smith were gone, and the franchise spent two more years in the wilderness. But in the 1974–75 season, Eddie Shore enjoyed his final hurrah, taking full control of the team once more, changing its name midseason back to the Indians and reverting to the old blue-white-red uniforms, all to popular acclaim. With a cast of no-names, the club won its fifth Calder Cup championship (becoming only the second fourth place team ever to do so), beating the New Haven Nighthawks four games to one in the finals. An elderly Shore sold the team after the next season, ending an era inextricably linking his name to Springfield hockey.
The next fourteen years were hard ones for the once-proud franchise. Springfield went through a dizzying array of NHL affiliations, while no coach stayed longer than a single season. The revolving door did their on-ice record no good. Over that stretch, the Indians recorded only two winning seasons and only made the playoffs four times, winning but four playoff games. There were only sporadic bright spots; a scoring title from minor-league great Bruce Boudreau in 1988, quality seasons from future NHLers Charlie Simmer and Mario Lessard in 1978, and a league-leading season in goal in 1983 from Bob Janecyk.
The 1990s and the last cups 
In 1990 fortunes changed once more, in an affiliation with the New York Islanders. A gallant squad coached by ex-NHL defensive whiz Jim Roberts sneaked into the playoffs in the final week in part due to veteran minor-league goaltender Rick Knickle's (signed when injuries both in Springfield and Long Island sidelined the Indians' top three goaltenders) eight game undefeated streak, and on May 18, 1990, the team knocked off the heavily favored Rochester Americans in six games in the finals for the franchise's sixth Calder Cup. Future NHL goaltender Jeff Hackett won the playoff MVP, inspirational leader Rod Dallman provided tons of grit, while names such as Marc Bergevin, Tom Fitzgerald, team captain Rob DiMaio, Jeff Finley and Bill Berg were heard from by NHL fans for many years to come.
In the middle of a dispute over leasing at the Springfield Civic Center, the Indians' home for much of the previous two decades, the team's affiliation changed again to the Hartford Whalers. The fans were very angry at the loss of their favorites, especially since their replacements came mostly from a Binghamton Whalers team recording the worst record in league history. However, the 1990–91 new look Indians proved their naysayers wrong. Behind Roberts' veteran coaching, they rampaged to the second best record in the league behind a powerful offense led by future NHLer Terry Yake, James Black, Chris Tancill and Michel Picard (who led the league with a franchise-record 56 goals), and a rock solid defense led by captain John Stevens and Bergevin, who had been acquired by the Whalers in an early-season trade. In so doing, the team won the North Division regular season title, the Indians' first division title since the Cup-winning squad of 1962. Goaltender Kay Whitmore won the playoff MVP as Springfield defended their title against Rochester. The victory would be the Springfield franchise's seventh and final Calder Cup championship.
End of an era 
Roberts and several stars were promoted to Hartford the following fall, and while the Indians repeated for the final time as division champions in 1992 (and in winning their seventh straight playoff series in the preliminary round of the playoffs, setting a new league record , (since tied by the Hershey Bears), they never again gained the finals nor thereafter had a winning record. In 1993 the Indians made the conference finals before being devastated by eventual champion Cape Breton Oilers. The team's last game was at home in the first round of the 1994 playoffs against the Adirondack Red Wings.
In the fall of 1994, the franchise was bought by out-of-town interests and moved to Worcester, Massachusetts, to become the Worcester IceCats. With good will from an American Hockey League with central offices across the river in West Springfield and run by ex-Indians Jack Butterfield and Gordon Anziano, longtime Springfield General Manager Bruce Landon secured a new franchise from the league and started play that season (with the same Whalers'-owned players as the previous season) as the Springfield Falcons. Springfield has thus fielded a team in the AHL and its predecessors for all but seven years since 1926, and continuously since 1954. The only city with a longer unbroken run in the AHL is Hershey, where the Bears have played continuously since joining the AHL in 1938.
The original franchise moved to Peoria, Illinois for the 2005–06 AHL season, where it now plays as the Peoria Rivermen and is the oldest minor league franchise still in existence. The only professional hockey franchises older are the Montreal Canadiens, Toronto Maple Leafs and Boston Bruins of the NHL.
The final Springfield Indian playing any significant time with the franchise active in the NHL was Rob DiMaio, who last played in the 2006 preseason with the Dallas Stars; the final Indians playing significant time with the franchise active in professional hockey were Michel Picard and Terry Yake, active respectively in the Ligue Nord-Américaine de Hockey and the Swiss Nationalliga B through the end of the 2009 season. The last active player who ever wore an Indians jersey is Michael Nylander, who played seven games in Springfield between the 1993 and 1994 seasons, active as of 2012 with the ZSC Lions of the Swiss National League.
- The market was subsequently home to: Springfield Falcons (1994–present)
Hockey Hall of Famers 
List of Springfield Indians alumni later inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.
Notable NHL/WHA alumni 
List of Springfield Indians alumni that played more than 100 games in Springfield, and also played at least a hundred games in the National Hockey League and/or World Hockey Association or were otherwise notable hockey executives.
Team records 
- Goals in a season: Michel Picard, 56, 1990–91
- Assists in a season: Bruce Boudreau, 74, 1987–88
- Points in a season: Boudreau, 116, 1987–88
- Penalty minutes in a season: Mick Vukota, 372, 1987–88
- Shutouts in a season: Marcel Paille, 8, 1960–61
- Career games: Jim Anderson, 943
- Career goals: Anderson, 422
- Career assists: Brian Kilrea, 442
- Career points: Anderson, 813
- Career penalty minutes: Rod Dallman, 844
These are the top-ten point-scorers in franchise history.
Note: Pos = Position; GP = Games Played; G = Goals; A = Assists; Pts = Points
Season-by-season results 
- Springfield Indians 1926–1933 (Canadian-American Hockey League)
- Springfield Indians 1935–1936 (Canadian-American Hockey League)
- Springfield Indians 1936–1940 (International-American Hockey League)
- Springfield Indians 1940–1942
- Springfield Indians 1946–1951
- Syracuse Warriors 1951–1954 (shaded red)
- Springfield Indians 1954–1967
- Springfield Kings 1967–1974 (shaded gold)
- Springfield Indians 1974–1994
Regular season 
First place finishes in bold.
|1970–71 †||72||29||35||8||—||66||244||281||3rd, East|
†Defeated Quebec Aces 4-3 in a single tiebreaker game to determine final playoff position.
Playoff champions in bold.
|Season||1st round||2nd round||3rd round||Finals|
|1926–27||??||—||—||W, 9-5, New Haven|
|1927–28||??||—||—||W, 11-7, Quebec|
|1930–31||??||—||—||W, 3-2-2, Boston|
|1940–41||L, 1-2, Pittsburgh||—||—||—|
|1941–42||L, 2-3, Indianapolis||—||—||—|
|1946–47||L, 0-2, Buffalo||—||—||—|
|1947–48||Out of playoffs.|
|1948–49||L, 1-2, Cleveland||—||—||—|
|1949–50||L, 0-2, Providence||—||—||—|
|1950–51||L, 0-3, Pittsburgh||—||—||—|
|1951–52||Out of playoffs.|
|1952–53||L, 1-3, Cleveland||—||—||—|
|1953–54||Out of playoffs.|
|1954–55||L, 1-3, Pittsburgh||—||—||—|
|1955–56||Out of playoffs.|
|1956–57||Out of playoffs.|
|1957–58||W, 4-3, Cleveland||—||—||L, 2-4, Hershey|
|1958–59||Out of playoffs.|
|1959–60||W, 4-1, Providence||—||—||W, 4-1, Rochester|
|1960–61||W, 4-0, Cleveland||—||—||W, 4-0, Hershey|
|1961–62||W, 4-2, Cleveland||bye||—||W, 4-1, Buffalo|
|1962–63||Out of playoffs.|
|1963–64||Out of playoffs.|
|1964–65||Out of playoffs.|
|1965–66||W, 3-0, Hershey||L, 0-3, Cleveland||—||—|
|1966–67||Out of playoffs.|
|1967–68||L, 1-3, Providence||—||—||—|
|1968–69||Out of playoffs.|
|1969–70||W, 4-3, Hershey||2nd, R-R vs.BUF & MTL||—||L, 0-4, Buffalo|
|1970–71 †||W, 3-0, Montreal||W, 3-1, Cleveland||—||W, 4-0, Providence|
|1971–72||L, 1-4, Nova Scotia||—||—||—|
|1972–73||Out of playoffs.|
|1973–74||Out of playoffs.|
|1974–75||W, 4-2, Providence||W, 4-1, Rochester||—||W, 4-1, New Haven|
|1975–76||Out of playoffs.|
|1976–77||Out of playoffs.|
|1977–78||L, 1-3, Nova Scotia||—||—||—|
|1978–79||Out of playoffs.|
|1979–80||Out of playoffs.|
|1980–81||L, 3-4, Maine||—||—||—|
|1981–82||Out of playoffs.|
|1982–83||Out of playoffs.|
|1983–84||L, 0-4, Baltimore||—||—||—|
|1984–85||L, 0-4, Binghamton||—||—||—|
|1985–86||Out of playoffs.|
|1986–87||Out of playoffs.|
|1987–88||Out of playoffs.|
|1988–89||Out of playoffs.|
|1989–90||W, 4-2, Cape Breton||W, 4-2, Sherbrooke||—||W, 4-2, Rochester|
|1990–91||W, 4-3, Fredericton||W, 4-1, Moncton||—||W, 4-2, Rochester|
|1991–92||W, 4-3, Capital District||L, 0-4, Adirondack||—||—|
|1992–93||W, 4-2, Providence||W, 4-3, Adirondack||L, 0-2, Cape Breton||—|
|1993–94||L, 2-4, Adirondack||—||—||—|
†Defeated Quebec Aces 4-3 in a single tiebreaker game to determine final playoff position.
- Total Hockey, ed. Dan Diamond, Andrew McMeel Publishing, 1999.
- American Hockey League Official Guide and Record Book, ed. Gordon Anziano, AHL, 1989 through 1995 editions.
- Springfield Union-News, ed. Larry McDermott, Springfield, MA.