Sprint hurdles at the Olympics

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Sprint hurdles
at the Olympic Games
2008 Summer Olympics - Men's 110m Hurdles - Semifinal 1.jpg
The 2008 Olympic men's 110 m hurdles semi-final
Overview
Sport Athletics
Gender Men and women
Years held Men 110 m: 18962012
Men 200 m: 19001904
Women 80 m: 19321968
Women 100 m: 19722012
Olympic record
Men 12.91 Liu Xiang (2004)
Women 12.35 Sally Pearson (2012)
Reigning champion
Men  Aries Merritt (USA)
Women  Sally Pearson (AUS)

The sprint hurdles at the Summer Olympics have been contested over a variety of distances at the multi-sport event. The men's 110 metres hurdles has been present on the Olympic athletics programme since the first edition in 1896. A men's 200 metres hurdles was also briefly held, from 1900 to 1904. The first women's sprint hurdling event was added to the programme at the 1932 Olympics in the form of the 80 metres hurdles. At the 1972 Games the women's distance was extended to the 100 metres hurdles, which is the current international standard.

The Olympic records are 12.91 seconds for the men's 110 m hurdles, set by Liu Xiang in 2004, and 12.35 seconds for the women's 100 m hurdles, set by Sally Pearson in 2012. The fastest time recorded at the Olympics for the men's 200 m hurdles was 24.6 seconds by 1904 winner Harry Hillman. Maureen Caird won the last women's Olympic 80 m hurdles race in 1968 with a record of 10.39 seconds. The men's 110 m hurdles world record has been broken at the Olympics on six occasions: 1908, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1972 and 2004. The women's 100 m hurdles world record has been broken only once, by Annelie Ehrhardt at the inaugural 1972 Olympic final.[1] In contrast the 80 m hurdles world record was set at the Olympics in 1932 (four times), 1936, and 1952 (twice).[2]

Only three athletes have won two Olympic sprint hurdles gold medals: on the men's side, Lee Calhoun and Roger Kingdom, and on the women's side Shirley Strickland. Strickland is also the only athlete to win three such Olympic medals, having won a bronze medal before her victories. Alvin Kraenzlein is the only athlete to have won two hurdles medals at the same Olympics, having taken the 110 m and 200 m titles. Historically, hurdlers also competed in other individual sprinting events (Harrison Dillard and Fanny Blankers-Koen were also 100 metres Olympic champions), but this became rare after the 1950s.

The United States has dominated the men's event: with 19 gold medals and 56 medals in total, the nation won over half the available medals in the history of the competition. The United States has swept the medals on eight occasions and an American man has been on the podium every edition except the 1980 Moscow Olympics, which it boycotted. Though less dominant in the women's events, it shares the most number of women's gold medals with Australia, having four each.

Medal summary[edit]

Men's 110 metres hurdles[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Thomas Curtis (USA)  Grantley Goulding (GBR) none awarded
1900 Paris
details
 Alvin Kraenzlein (USA)  John McLean (USA)  Fred Moloney (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Fred Schule (USA)  Thaddeus Shideler (USA)  Lesley Ashburner (USA)
1908 London
details
 Forrest Smithson (USA)  John Garrels (USA)  Arthur Shaw (USA)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Fred Kelly (USA)  James Wendell (USA)  Martin Hawkins (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Earl Thomson (CAN)  Harold Barron (USA)  Feg Murray (USA)
1924 Paris
details
 Daniel Kinsey (USA)  Sydney Atkinson (RSA)  Sten Pettersson (SWE)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Sydney Atkinson (RSA)  Steve Anderson (USA)  John Collier (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 George Saling (USA)  Percy Beard (USA)  Don Finlay (GBR)
1936 Berlin
details
 Forrest Towns (USA)  Don Finlay (GBR)  Fritz Pollard (USA)
1948 London
details
 William Porter (USA)  Clyde Scott (USA)  Craig Dixon (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Harrison Dillard (USA)  Jack Davis (USA)  Arthur Barnard (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Lee Calhoun (USA)  Jack Davis (USA)  Joel Shankle (USA)
1960 Rome
details
 Lee Calhoun (USA)  Willie May (USA)  Hayes Jones (USA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Hayes Jones (USA)  Blaine Lindgren (USA)  Anatoly Mikhailov (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Willie Davenport (USA)  Ervin Hall (USA)  Eddy Ottoz (ITA)
1972 Munich
details
 Rod Milburn (USA)  Guy Drut (FRA)  Thomas Hill (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Guy Drut (FRA)  Alejandro Casañas (CUB)  Willie Davenport (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
 Thomas Munkelt (GDR)  Alejandro Casañas (CUB)  Aleksandr Puchkov (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Roger Kingdom (USA)  Greg Foster (USA)  Arto Bryggare (FIN)
1988 Seoul
details
 Roger Kingdom (USA)  Colin Jackson (GBR)  Tonie Campbell (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Mark McKoy (CAN)  Tony Dees (USA)  Jack Pierce (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Allen Johnson (USA)  Mark Crear (USA)  Florian Schwarthoff (GER)
2000 Sydney
details
 Anier García (CUB)  Terrence Trammell (USA)  Mark Crear (USA)
2004 Athens
details
 Liu Xiang (CHN)  Terrence Trammell (USA)  Anier García (CUB)
2008 Beijing
details
 Dayron Robles (CUB)  David Payne (USA)  David Oliver (USA)
2012 London
details
 Aries Merritt (USA)  Jason Richardson (USA)  Hansle Parchment (JAM)

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
1= Calhoun, LeeLee Calhoun  United States (USA) 1952–1956 2 0 0 2
1= Kingdom, RogerRoger Kingdom  United States (USA) 1984–1988 2 0 0 2
3= Atkinson, SydneySydney Atkinson  South Africa (RSA) 1924–1928 1 1 0 2
3= Drut, GuyGuy Drut  France (FRA) 1972–1976 1 1 0 2
5= Jones, HayesHayes Jones  United States (USA) 1960–1964 1 0 1 2
5= Davenport, WillieWillie Davenport  United States (USA) 1968–1976 1 0 1 2
5= Garcia, AnierAnier Garcia  Cuba (CUB) 2000–2004 1 0 1 2
8= Davis, JackJack Davis  United States (USA) 1952–1956 0 2 0 2
8= Casanas, AlejandroAlejandro Casanas  Cuba (CUB) 1976–1980 0 2 0 2
8= Trammell, TerrenceTerrence Trammell  United States (USA) 2000–2004 0 2 0 2
11= Finlay, DonDon Finlay  Great Britain (GBR) 1932–1936 0 1 1 2
11= Crear, MarkMark Crear  United States (USA) 1996–2000 0 1 1 2

Medals by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 19 20 17 56
2  Cuba (CUB) 2 2 1 5
3  Canada (CAN) 2 0 0 2
4=  France (FRA) 1 1 0 2
4=  South Africa (RSA) 1 1 0 2
6=  China (CHN) 1 0 0 1
6=  East Germany (GDR) 1 0 0 1
8  Great Britain (GBR) 0 3 1 4
9  Soviet Union (URS) 0 0 2 2
10=  Finland (FIN) 0 0 1 1
10=  Germany (GER) 0 0 1 1
10=  Italy (ITA) 0 0 1 1
10=  Jamaica (JAM) 0 0 1 1
10=  Sweden (SWE) 0 0 1 1

Women's 80 metres hurdles[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Babe Didrikson (USA)  Evelyne Hall (USA)  Marjorie Clark (RSA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Ondina Valla (ITA)  Anni Steuer (GER)  Elizabeth Taylor (CAN)
1948 London
details
 Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)  Maureen Gardner (GBR)  Shirley Strickland (AUS)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)  Maria Golubnichaya (URS)  Maria Sander (GER)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)  Gisela Köhler (EUA)  Norma Thrower (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Irina Press (URS)  Carole Quinton (GBR)  Gisela Birkemeyer (EUA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Karin Balzer (EUA)  Teresa Ciepły (POL)  Pam Kilborn (AUS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Maureen Caird (AUS)  Pam Kilborn (AUS)  Chi Cheng (ROC)

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Strickland, ShirleyShirley Strickland  Australia (AUS) 1948–1956 2 0 1 3
2= Birkemeyer, GiselaGisela Birkemeyer  Unified Team of Germany (EUA) 1956–1960 0 1 1 2
2= Kilborn, PamPam Kilborn  Australia (AUS) 1964–1968 0 1 1 2

Medalists by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Australia (AUS) 3 1 3 7
2  Germany (GER)[nb] 1 2 2 5
3=  Soviet Union (URS) 1 1 0 2
3=  United States (USA) 1 1 0 2
5=  Italy (ITA) 1 0 0 1
5=  Netherlands (NED) 1 0 0 1
7  Great Britain (GBR) 0 2 0 2
8  Poland (POL) 0 1 0 1
9=  Canada (CAN) 0 0 1 1
9=  Republic of China (ROC) 0 0 1 1
9=  South Africa (RSA) 0 0 1 1

Women's 100 metres hurdles[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1972 Munich
details
 Annelie Ehrhardt (GDR)  Valeria Bufanu (ROU)  Karin Balzer (GDR)
1976 Montreal
details
 Johanna Schaller-Klier (GDR)  Tatyana Anisimova (URS)  Natalya Lebedeva (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Vera Komisova (URS)  Johanna Schaller-Klier (GDR)  Lucyna Langer (POL)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Benita Fitzgerald (USA)  Shirley Strong (GBR)  Michèle Chardonnet (FRA)
 Kim Turner (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Yordanka Donkova (BUL)  Gloria Siebert (GDR)  Claudia Zackiewicz (FRG)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Voula Patoulidou (GRE)  LaVonna Martin (USA)  Yordanka Donkova (BUL)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Ludmila Engquist (SWE)  Brigita Bukovec (SLO)  Patricia Girard (FRA)
2000 Sydney
details
 Olga Shishigina (KAZ)  Glory Alozie (NGR)  Melissa Morrison (USA)
2004 Athens
details
 Joanna Hayes (USA)  Olena Krasovska (UKR)  Melissa Morrison (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
 Dawn Harper (USA)  Sally McLellan (AUS)  Priscilla Lopes-Schliep (CAN)
2012 London
details
 Sally Pearson (AUS)  Dawn Harper (USA)  Kellie Wells (USA)

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
1= Schaller, JohannaJohanna Schaller  East Germany (GDR) 1976–1980 1 1 0 2
1= Pearson, SallySally Pearson  Australia (AUS) 2008–2012 1 1 0 2
1= Harper, DawnDawn Harper  United States (USA) 2008–2012 1 1 0 2
4 Donkova, YordankaYordanka Donkova  Bulgaria (BUL) 1988–1992 1 0 1 2
5 Morrison, MelissaMelissa Morrison  United States (USA) 2000–2004 0 1 1 2

Medalists by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 3 2 4 9
2  East Germany (GDR) 2 2 1 5
3  Soviet Union (URS) 1 1 1 3
4  Australia (AUS) 1 1 0 2
5  Bulgaria (BUL) 1 0 1 2
6=  Greece (GRE) 1 0 0 1
6=  Kazakhstan (KAZ) 1 0 0 1
6=  Sweden (SWE) 1 0 0 1
9=  Great Britain (GBR) 0 1 0 1
9=  Nigeria (NGR) 0 1 0 1
9=  Romania (ROU) 0 1 0 1
9=  Slovenia (SLO) 0 1 0 1
9=  Ukraine (UKR) 0 1 0 1
14  France (FRA) 0 0 2 2
15=  Canada (CAN) 0 0 1 1
15=  Poland (POL) 0 0 1 1

200 metres hurdles[edit]

For a brief period, a men's Olympic 200 metres low hurdles race was held. It was a relatively common event in the early 1900s. With only two appearances in 1900 and 1904, the event's removal as an Olympic event marked the beginning of a steady decline of its popularity over the course of the 20th century and it is now a rarity. The 1900 event was won by Alvin Kraenzlein, who won four gold medals that year, including the 110 m hurdles title.[3] The second and final 200 m hurdles champion, Harry Hillman, was again a multiple gold medallist, as the American won the 400 metres sprint and 400 metres hurdles Olympic titles at that games.[4]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
 Alvin Kraenzlein (USA)  Norman Pritchard (IND)  Walter Tewksbury (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Harry Hillman (USA)  Frank Castleman (USA)  George Poage (USA)

Intercalated Games[edit]

The 1906 Intercalated Games were held in Athens and at the time were officially recognised as part of the Olympic Games series, with the intention being to hold a games in Greece in two-year intervals between the internationally held Olympics. However, this plan never came to fruition and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) later decided not to recognise these games as part of the official Olympic series. Some sports historians continue to treat the results of these games as part of the Olympic canon.[5]

At this event a men's 110 m hurdles race was held. For the top two finishers, American hurdler Robert Leavitt and British athlete Alfred Healey, this was the peak of their respective careers.[6] Bronze medalist Vincent Duncker of Germany was the joint 100 metres world record holder at the time.[7]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1906 Athens
details
 Robert Leavitt (USA)  Alfred Healey (GBR)  Vincent Duncker (GER)

References[edit]

Participation and athlete data
Olympic record progressions
Specific
  1. ^ "13th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Daegu 2011. (Part 5 of 5)" (pdf). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2011. pp. 546, 553, 595, 697, 698. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  2. ^ Women, 80 m Hurdles > World Records Progression. Brinkster. Retrieved on 2014-06-28.
  3. ^ Al Kraenzlein. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-02-08.
  4. ^ Harry Hillman. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-02-08.
  5. ^ 1906 Athina Summer Games. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-02-07.
  6. ^ Athletics at the 1906 Athina Summer Games: Men's 110 metres Hurdles. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-02-07.
  7. ^ Men, 100 m > World Records Progression. Brinkster Track and Field. Retrieved on 2014-02-02.

External links[edit]