Spruce

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This article is about the tree. For other uses, see Spruce (disambiguation).
Spruce
Picea abies.jpg
Norway Spruce (Picea abies)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Subfamily: Piceoideae
Frankis
Genus: Picea
Mill.
Species

About 35; see text.

A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea /pˈsə/,[1] a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20-60 metres (about 60-200 feet) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pulvinus (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth).

Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (moth and butterfly) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on spruces. They are also used by the larvae of gall adelgids (Adelges species).

In the mountains of western Sweden scientists have found a Norway Spruce tree, nicknamed Old Tjikko, which by reproducing through layering has reached an age of 9,550 years and is claimed to be the world's oldest known living tree.[2]

Classification[edit]

DNA analyses[3][4] have shown that traditional classifications based on the morphology of needle and cone are artificial. A recent study[3] found that P. breweriana had a basal position, followed by P. sitchensis, and the other species were further divided into three clades, suggesting that Picea originated in North America.

Species[edit]

There are thirty-five named species of spruce in the world.

P. glauca sapling, Kluane National Park, Canada
Immature P. mariana cones, Ouimet Canyon, Ontario, Canada
P. pungens cone and foliage

Basal species:

Basal species

  • Clade I
  • Clade II
  • Clade III

Uses[edit]

Timber[edit]

P. abies wood

Spruce is useful as a building wood, commonly referred to by several different names including North American timber, SPF (spruce, pine, fir) and whitewood. Spruce wood is used for many purposes, ranging from general construction work and crates to highly specialised uses in wooden aircraft. The Wright brothers' first aircraft, the Flyer, was built of spruce.[5]

Because this species has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only (ex. indoor drywall framing). Spruce wood, when left outside cannot be expected to last more than 12–18 months depending on the type of climate it is exposed to.

Pulpwood[edit]

Spruce is one of the most important woods for paper uses, as it has long wood fibres which bind together to make strong paper. The fibres are thin walled and collapse to thin bands upon drying. Spruces are commonly used in mechanical pulping as they are easily bleached. Together with northern pines, northern spruces are commonly used to make NBSK. Spruces are cultivated over vast areas as pulpwood.

Food and medicine[edit]

Spruce (Picea mariana) essential oil in a clear glass vial

The fresh shoots of many spruces and pines are a natural source of vitamin C.[6] Captain Cook made alcoholic sugar-based spruce beer during his sea voyages in order to prevent scurvy in his crew.[7][8] The leaves and branches, or the essential oils, can be used to brew spruce beer.

The tips from the needles can be used to make spruce tip syrup [clarification needed]. In survival situations spruce needles can be directly ingested or boiled into a tea.[9] This replaces large amounts of vitamin C. Also, water is stored in a spruce's needles, providing an alternative means of hydration [clarification needed]. Spruce can be used as a preventive measure for scurvy in an environment where meat is the only prominent food source [clarification needed].

Tonewood[edit]

Spruce is the standard material used in soundboards for many musical instruments, including guitars, mandolins, cellos, violins, and the soundboard at the heart of a piano and the harp. Wood used for this purpose is referred to as tonewood.

Spruce, along with Cedar, is often used for the soundboard/top of an acoustic guitar. The main types of spruce used for this purpose are: Sitka, Engelmann, Adirondack and European spruce.

Other uses[edit]

The resin was used in the manufacture of pitch in the past (before the use of petrochemicals); the scientific name Picea is generally thought to be derived from Latin pix, pitch (though other etymologies have been suggested).

Native Americans in North America use the thin, pliable roots of some species for weaving baskets and for sewing together pieces of birch bark for canoes. See also Kiidk'yaas for an unusual golden Sitka Spruce sacred to the Haida people.

Spruces are also popular ornamental trees in horticulture, admired for their evergreen, symmetrical narrow-conic growth habit. For the same reason, some (particularly Picea abies and P. omorika) are also extensively used as Christmas trees.

Spruce branches are also used at Aintree racecourse, Liverpool, to build several of the fences on the Grand National course. It is also used to make sculptures and Christmas trees.

Etymology[edit]

Picea used in coat-of-arms of Kuhmo, Finland

The word "spruce" entered the English language from Old French Pruce, the name of Prussia. Spruce was a generic term for commodities brought to England by Hanseatic merchants and the tree was believed to have come from Prussia.[10]

Comparison Chart[edit]

This is a Spruce Comparison Chart to help identification, ordered by Needle Length. It is drawn from Wikipedia Pages ('wiki' columns) and the needle lengths given in Collins Tree Guide ("CTG") (Paperback 2006 ISBN 978-0-00-720771-8) which differ slightly from wiki pages but CTG relates to Britain/N Europe.

Latin Needle Len mm (Wiki) Cone Len cm (Wiki) Len x Width closed/open cm English Page CTG
Picea orientalis 6-12 6-8 7 5-9 x 1.5 Oriental Spruce,Caucasian Spruce 108-1
Picea maximowiczii 10-13 7 Maximowicz Spruce 108-1b
Picea mariana 15 6-15 2-3.5 1.5-4 x 1-2 Black Spruce 104-1
Picea glehnii 10-15 6 Sakhalin Spruce,Glehn's Spruce 108-2b
Picea jezoensis var. hondoensis 15 5 Hondo Spruce 110-2
Picea purpurea 6-15 5 Purple Spruce 110-1b
Picea rubens 15 12-15 5 3-5 Red Spruce 104-2
Picea likiangensis 16 12 Likiang Spruce 110-1
Picea glauca 10-16 12-20 6 3-7 x 1.5/2.5 White Spruce 114-3
Picea wilsonii 16 8 Wilson's Spruce 106-1
Picea asperata 10-18 10-25 12 6-15 x 2-3 Dragon Spruce 112-3
Picea alcoquiana 18 12 Alcock's Spruce 108-2
Picea koyamae 18 8-16 10 4-9 x 2 Koyama's Spruce 104-3
Picea torano 20 12 12 x 5 Tiger-Tail Spruce 112-2
Picea pungens f. glauca 20 30 12 10 Blue Colorado Spruce 114-1
Picea brachytyla 20 Sargent's Spruce 110-3
Picea engelmannii f. glauca 20 30 4-8 x 1.5/3 Blue Engelmann Spruce 114-2
Picea jezoensis 15-20 4-7 x 2/3 Jezo Spruce,Jezo Spruce, Yezo Spruce
Picea koraiensis 12-22 4-8 x 2 Korean Spruce
Picea omorika 22 10-20 6 4-7 Serbian Spruce 106-3
Picea chihuahuana 17-23 7-12 x 3/4-5 Chihuahua Spruce
Picea alpestris 15-25 12-24 20 9-17 Norway Spruce,Alpine Spruce 102-1b
Picea spinulosa 25 17-32 7-11 6-12 x 2 Sikkim Spruce 112-1
Picea obovata 15-25 10-20 5-11 5-10 x 1.5-2 Siberian Spruce 102-2
Picea abies 15-25 12-24 20 9-17 Norway Spruce,European Spruce 102-1
Picea meyeri 13-25 7-11 x 3 Meyer's Spruce
Picea sitchensis 30 15-25 10 6-10 x 2/3 Sitka Spruce 106-2
Picea breweriana 30 15-35 11 8-15 x 2/3-4 Brewer Spruce, Brewer's Spruce,Weeping Spruce, Brewer's Weeping Spruce 100-2
Picea engelmannii 15-30 4-8 x 1.5/3 Engelmann Spruce,White Spruce,Mountain Spruce, Silver Spruce
Picea pungens 30 10 Colorado Spruce, Blue Spruce, Colorado Blue Spruce, Green Spruce White Spruce
Picea martinezii 23-35 8-16 x 3/6 Martinez Spruce
Picea schrenkiana 35 15-35 14 6-12 x 2/2.5-3.5 Schrenk's Spruce, Asian Spruce 100-1b
Picea smithiana 40 30-50 14 9-16 x 3/5-6 Morinda Spruce,Morinda Spruce, West Himalayan Spruce 100-1
Picea glauca var. porsildii Alaska White Spruce
Picea bicolor Alcock's Spruce
Picea farreri Burmese Spruce
Picea x lutzii Lutz's Spruce
Picea glauca var. albertiana Alberta White Spruce
Picea glauca var. densata Black Hills White Spruce
Picea glauca var. glauca White Spruce,Eastern White Spruce
Picea neoveitchii Veitch's Spruce
Picea polita : see Picea torano Tiger-Tail Spruce
Picea montigena Dragon Spruce
Picea morrisonicola Yushan Spruce

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Swedish Spruce Is World's Oldest Tree: Scientific American Podcast
  3. ^ a b Jin-Hua Ran, Xiao-Xin Wei, Xiao-Quan Wang (2006). "Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Picea (Pinaceae): implications for phylogeographical studies using cytoplasmic haplotypes" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (2): 405–419. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.039. PMID 16839785. 
  4. ^ Aðalsteinn Sigurgeirsson & Alfred E. Szmidt (1993). "Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications of chloroplast DNA variation in Picea". Nordic Journal of Botany 13 (3): 233–246. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.1993.tb00043.x. 
  5. ^ "Milestones of Flight - 1903 Wright Flyer" - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
  6. ^ "Tree Book - Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)". British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations. Retrieved July 29, 2006. 
  7. ^ Crellin, J. K. (2004). A social history of medicines in the twentieth century: to be taken three times a day. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press. p. 39. ISBN 0789018446. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  8. ^ Stubbs, Brett J. (June 2003). "Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages". Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (apjcn.nhri.org.tw) 12 (2): 129–137. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  9. ^ The healing trees / Spruce
  10. ^ Harper, Douglas. spruce. Online Etymology Dictionary. Accessed 8 May 2010.

External links[edit]