Sri Aurobindo

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Aurobindo Ghose
Sri aurobindo.jpg
Aurobindo Ghose in 1916
Born Aurobindo Ghose
(1872-08-15)15 August 1872
Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now Kolkata, West Bengal, India)
Died 5 December 1950(1950-12-05) (aged 78)
Pondicherry, French India
(now in Puducherry)
Nationality Indian
Quotation The Spirit shall look out through Matter's gaze.
And Matter shall reveal the Spirit's face.[1]
Signature

Sri Aurobindo

Family
Rajnarayan Basu (Maternal grandfather) • Manmohan Ghose (Elder brother) • Barin Ghosh (Younger brother) • Krishna Kumar Mitra (Maternal uncle)
Books
Collected Works • Life Divine • Synthesis of Yoga • Savitri • Agenda
Teachings
Involution/Involution • Evolution • Integral psychology • Integral yoga • Intermediate zone • Supermind
Places
Matrimandir • Pondicherry
Communities
Sri Aurobindo Ashram • Auroville
Disciples
The Mother • Champaklal • N.K. Gupta • Amal Kiran • Nirodbaran • Pavitra • M.P. Pandit • P.K. Bhattacharya • A.B. Purani • D.K. Roy • Satprem • Indra Sen • Kapali Shastri
Journals and Forums
Arya • Mother India • Collaboration
Integral education
Auro University • The Mother's International School • CIIS • Esalen

Sri Aurobindo (Sri Ôrobindo), (15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950), born Aurobindo Ghose, was an Indian nationalist, philosopher, yogi, guru, and poet.[2][3] He joined the Indian movement for independence from British rule, for a while became one of its influential leaders and then became a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution.[4]

Aurobindo studied for the Indian Civil Service at King's College, Cambridge, England. After returning to India he took up various civil service works under the Maharaja of the princely state of Baroda and began to involve himself in politics. He was imprisoned by the British for writing articles against British rule in India. He was released when no evidence was provided. During his stay in the jail he had mystical and spiritual experiences, after which he moved to Pondicherry, leaving politics for spiritual work.[5]

During his stay in Pondicherry, Aurobindo developed a method of spiritual practice, which he called Integral Yoga. The central theme of his vision was the evolution of human life into a life divine. He believed in a spiritual realisation that not only liberated man but also transformed his nature, enabling a divine life on earth. In 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa ("The Mother"), he founded the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. He died on 5 December 1950 in Pondicherry.

His main literary works are The Life Divine, which deals with theoretical aspects of Integral Yoga; Synthesis of Yoga, which deals with practical guidance to Integral Yoga; and Savitri, an epic poem which refers to a passage in the Mahabharata, where its characters actualise integral yoga in their lives. His works also include philosophy, poetry, translations and commentaries on the Vedas, Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Aurobindo with his father K. D. Ghose, his mother Swarnalotta Devi and four siblings: From left to right: Barin Ghose, Sarojini, Aurobindo and Manmohan Ghose. In England, ca. 1879.[6]

Aurobindo Acroyd Ghose was born in Calcutta (now Kolkata), Bengal Presidency, India on 15 August 1872. His father, Krishna Dhun Ghose, was then Assistant Surgeon of Rangapur in Bengal, and a former member of the Brahmo Samaj religious reform movement who had become enamoured with the then-new idea of evolution while pursuing medical studies in Britain.[a] His mother was Swarnalotta Devi, whose father was Rajnarain Bose, a leading figure in the Samaj. She had been sent to the more salubrious surroundings of Calcutta for Aurobindo's birth. Aurobindo had two elder siblings, Benoybhusan and Manmohan, and both a younger sister, Sarojini, and a younger brother, Barindrakumar (also referred to as Barin, born Emmanuel Matthew).[7][8]

Young Aurobindo was brought up speaking English but used Hindustani to communicate with servants. Although his family were Bengali, his father believed British culture to be superior to that of his countrymen. He and his two elder siblings were sent to the English-speaking Loreto House boarding school in Darjeeling, in part to improve their language skills and in part to distance them from their mother, who had developed a mental illness soon after the birth of her first child. Darjeeling was a centre of British life in India and the school was run by Irish nuns, through which the boys would have been exposed to Christian religious teachings and symbolism.[9]

England (1879–1893)[edit]

Aurobindo's home in St Stephen's Avenue, London 1884–1887, with English Heritage blue plaque

Krishna Dhun Ghose wanted his sons to enter the Indian Civil Service (ICS), an elite organisation comprising around 1000 people. To achieve this it was necessary that they study in England and so it was there that the entire family moved in 1879.[10][b] The three brothers were placed in the care of the Reverend W. H. Drewett in Manchester.[10] Drewett was a minister of the Congregational Church whom Krishna Dhun Ghose knew through his British friends at Rangapur.[11][c]

The boys were taught Latin by Drewett and his wife. This was a prerequisite for admission to good English schools and, after two years, in 1881, the elder two siblings were enrolled at Manchester Grammar School. Aurobindo considered too young for enrolment and he continued his studies with the Drewetts, learning history, Latin, French, geography and arithmetic. Although the Drewetts were told not to teach religion, the boys inevitably were exposed to Christian teachings and events, which generally bored Aurobindo and sometimes repulsed him. There was little contact with his father, who wrote only a few letters to his sons while they were in England, but what communication there was indicated that he was becoming less endeared to the British in India than he had been, on one occasion describing the British Raj as a "heartless government".[12]

Drewett emigrated to Australia in 1884, causing the boys to be uprooted as they went to live with Drewett's mother in London. In September of that year, Auronbindo and Manmohan joined St Paul's School there.[d] He learned Greek and spent the last three years reading literature and English poetry. He also acquired some familiarity with the German and Italian languages and, exposed to the evangelical strictures of Drewett's mother, a distaste for religion. He considered himself at one point to be an atheist but later determined that he was agnostic.[16] A blue plaque unveiled in 2007 commemorates Aurobindo's residence at 49 St Stephen's Avenue in Shepherd's Bush, London, from 1884 to 1887.[17] The three brothers began living in spartan circumstances at the Liberal Club in South Kensington during 1887, their father having experienced some financial difficulties. The Club's secretary was James Cotton, brother of their father's friend in the Bengal ICS, Henry Cotton.[18]

By 1889, Manmohan had determined to pursue a literary career and Benoybhusan had proved himself unequal to the standards necessary for ICS entrance. This meant that only Aurobindo might fulfil his father's aspirations but to do so when his father lacked money required that he studied hard for a scholarship.[15] To become an ICS official, students were required to pass the competitive examination, as well as to study at an English university for two years under probation. Aurobindo secured a scholarship at King's College, Cambridge, under recommendation of Oscar Browning.[19] He passed the written ICS examination after a few months, being ranked 11th out of 250 competitors. He spent the next two years at King's College.[14] Sri Aurobindo had no interest in the ICS and came late to the horse-riding practical exam purposefully to get himself disqualified for the service.[20]

At this time, the Maharaja of Baroda, Sayajirao Gaekwad III, was travelling in England. Cotton secured for him a place in Baroda State Service and arranged for him to meet the prince.[21] He left England for India,[21] arriving there in February 1893.[22] In India, Krishna Dhun Ghose, who was waiting to receive his son, was misinformed by his agents from Bombay (now Mumbai) that the ship on which Aurobindo had been travelling had sunk off the coast of Portugal. His father died hearing this news.[23][24]

Baroda and Calcutta (1893–1910)[edit]

In Baroda, Aurobindo joined the state service in 1893, working first in the Survey and Settlements department, later moving to the Department of Revenue and then to the Secretariat, and many miscellaneous work like teaching grammar and assisted in writing speeches for the Maharaja of Gaekwad until 1897.[25] In 1897 during his work in Baroda he started working as a part-time French teacher at Baroda College (now Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda), he was later promoted to the post of Vice-Principal.[26] At Baroda, Sri Aurobindo self-studied Sanskrit and Bengali.[27]

During his stay at Baroda he contributed to many articles to Indu Prakash and spoke as a chairman of the Baroda college board.[28] He also started taking active interest in the politics of India's independence struggle against British rule, working behind the scenes as his position in the Baroda state administration barred him from overt political activity. He linked up with resistance groups in Bengal and Madhya Pradesh, while travelling to these states. He established contact with Lokmanya Tilak and Sister Nivedita. He also arranged for the military training of Jatindra Nath Banerjee (Niralamba Swami) in the Baroda army and then dispatched him to organise the resistance groups in Bengal.[29]

Aurobindo often travelled between Baroda and Bengal, at first in a bid to re-establish links with his parent's families and his other Bengali relatives, including his cousin Sarojini and brother Barin, and later increasingly in a bid to establish resistance groups across Bengal. He formally moved to Calcutta only in 1906 after the announcement of Partition of Bengal. During his visit to Calcutta in 1901 he married Mrinalini, daughter of Bhupal Chandra Bose, a senior official in government service. Aurobindo Ghose was then 28; the bride Mrinalini, 14. She died due to the influenza pandemic in December 1918.[30]

Sri Aurobindo presiding over a meeting of the Nationalists after the Surat Congress, 1907

Aurobindo was influenced by studies on rebellion and revolutions against England in medieval France and the revolts in America and Italy. In his public activity he took up non-co-operation and passive resistance in front but also took up secret revolutionary activity as a preparation for open revolt, in case that the passive revolt failed.[31]

In Bengal, with Barin's help, he established contacts with revolutionaries, inspiring radicals like Bagha Jatin, Jatin Banerjee, Surendranath Tagore. He helped establish a series of youth clubs like the Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta in 1902.[32]

Aurobindo attended the 1906 Congress meeting headed by Dadabhai Naoroji and participated as a councillor in forming the fourfold objectives of "Swaraj, Swadesh, Boycott and national education". In 1907 at the Surat session of Congress where moderates and extremists had a major showdown, he led with extremists along with Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The Congress split after this session.[33] In 1907–1908 Aurobindo travelled extensively to Pune, Bombay and Baroda to firm-up support for the nationalist cause, giving speeches and meeting various groups. He was arrested again in May 1908 in connection with the Alipore Bomb Case. He was acquitted in the ensuing trial and released after a year of isolated incarceration. Once out of the prison he started two new publications, Karmayogin in English and Dharma in Bengali. He also delivered the Uttarpara Speech hinting at the transformation of his focus to spiritual matters. The British persecution continued because of his writings in his new journals and in April 1910 Aurobindo moved to Pondicherry, where Britain's secret police monitored his activities.[34][35]

Conversion from politics to spirituality[edit]

In July 1905 then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, partitioned Bengal. This sparked an outburst of public anger against the British, leading to civil unrest and a nationalist campaign by groups of revolutionaries, who included Aurobindo. In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki attempted to kill Magistrate Kingsford, a judge known for handing down particularly severe sentences against nationalists. However, the bomb thrown at his horse carriage missed its target and instead landed in another carriage and killed two British women, the wife and daughter of barrister Pringle Kennedy. Aurobindo was also arrested on charges of planning and overseeing the attack and imprisoned in solitary confinement in Alipore Jail. The trial of the Alipore Bomb Case lasted for a year, but eventually he was acquitted. His defence counsel was Chittaranjan Das. On acquittal, Aurobindo was invited to deliver a speech at Uttarpara where he first spoke of some of his experiences in jail. Afterwards in 1909 he started two new weekly papers: the Karmayogin in English and the Dharma in Bengali.[36]

Aurobindo said he was "visited" by Vivekananda in the Alipore Jail: "It is a fact that I was hearing constantly the voice of Vivekananda speaking to me for a fortnight in the jail in my solitary meditation and felt his presence."[37] The voice spoke only on a special and limited but very important field of spiritual experience and it ceased as soon as it had finished saying all that it had to say on that subject.[citation needed]

In his autobiographical notes, Aurobindo claims to have had experiences of a vast sense of calmness when he first came back to India. He could not explain this and continued to have various such experiences from time to time. Knowing nothing of yoga at that time, he thought of these as mere experiences.[38] Aurobindo is said to have started his practise of yoga without a teacher, except for some rules that he learned from Ganganath, a friend who was a disciple of Brahmananda,[38] when Aurobindo became involved with Congress and Vande Mataram, Barin had continued to meet patriotic youngsters for recruitment for such a plan. In 1907, Barin introduced Aurobindo to Vishnu Bhaskar Lele, a Maharashtrian yogi. Aurobindo was influenced by the guidance he got from the yogi, who had instructed Aurobindo to depend on an inner guide and any kind of external guru or guidance would not be required, It is also said[who?] that he had met Naga sanyasi and was impressed by their healing powers.[39]

In 1910 Aurobindo withdrew himself from all political activities and secretly stayed at Chandannagar, where he was being searched for one of the articles which was under his name in karmayogin. Later when the warrant against him was dropped he moved to Pondicherry, then a French colony.[35]

Pondicherry (1910–1950)[edit]

In Pondicherry, Aurobindo completely dedicated himself to his spiritual and philosophical pursuits. In 1914, after four years of secluded yoga, he started a monthly philosophical magazine called Arya. This ceased publication in 1921. Many years later, he revised some of these works before they were published in book form.[40][unreliable source?] Some of the book series derived out of this publications were The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga, Essays on The Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Upanishads, The Renaissance in India, War and Self-determination, The Human Cycle, The Ideal of Human Unity and The Future Poetry were published in this magazine.[citation needed]

At the beginning of his stay at Pondicherry, there were few followers, but with time their numbers grew, resulting in the formation of the "Sri Aurobindo Ashram" in 1926.[40] He first signed his name as "Sri Aurobindo in March 1926". The use of his given name as a surname seems to have first appeared in print in articles published in Chandannagar, in 1920. Sri is a Sanskrit word usually used as an honorific meaning "holy". It did not catch on at that time. He continued to use "Sri Aurobindo Ghose" for a year or two.[41]

For some time afterwards, his main literary output was his voluminous correspondence with his disciples. His letters, most of which were written in the 1930s, numbered in the several thousands. Many were brief comments made in the margins of his disciple's notebooks in answer to their questions and reports of their spiritual practice—others extended to several pages of carefully composed explanations of practical aspects of his teachings. These were later collected and published in book form in three volumes of Letters on Yoga. In the late 1930s, he resumed work on a poem he had started earlier—he continued to expand and revise this poem for the rest of his life. It became perhaps his greatest literary achievement, Savitri, an epic spiritual poem in blank verse of approximately 24,000 lines.[42]

Aurobindo died on 5 December 1950. Around 60,000 people attended his funeral. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and President Rajendra Prasad praised him for his contribution to Yogic philosophy and the independence struggle, and both national and international newspapers commemorated his death.[40][43]

Mirra Richard and the development of the Ashram[edit]

Aurobindo's close spiritual collaborator, Mirra Richard (b. Alfassa), came to be known as The Mother simply because Aurobindo started to call her by this name.[44]

Mirra, a French national, was born in Paris, France on 21 February 1878. In her 20s she studied occultism with Max Theon. Along with her husband, Paul Richard, she went to Pondicherry on 29 March 1914,[45] finally settling there in 1920. Aurobindo considered her his spiritual equal and collaborator. After 24 November 1926, when Aurobindo retired into seclusion, he left it to her to plan, run and build the ashram, the community of disciples which had gathered around them. Some time later when families with children joined the ashram, she established and supervised the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education with its experiments in the field of education. When he died in 1950, she continued their spiritual work, directed the ashram and guided their disciples.[44][46][unreliable source?]

Philosophy and spiritual vision[edit]

The one aim of [my] yoga is an inner self-development by which each one who follows it can in time discover the One Self in all and evolve a higher consciousness than the mental, a spiritual and supramental consciousness which will transform and divinize human nature.

AurobindoSri Aurobindo’s Teaching. Written at the third person

Background[edit]

Aurobindo wrote that his philosophy "was formed first by the study of the Upanishads and the Gita", as well as "knowledge that flowed from above when I sat in meditation".[47][page needed] Peter Heehs, an American historian, writes that examination of Aurobindo's manuscripts bears out Aurobindo's statement. He says that the influence of the Indian Vedantic tradition on Aurobindo's thought was enormous. The other major component was ideas that Aurobindo encountered during his education, such as the theory of evolution.[47][page needed]

Yogic philosophy[edit]

He described his form of yoga as integral yoga. According to him, most other forms of yoga are paths to beyond of human existence and towards reaching spirit as a final objective and away from normal life. Sri Aurobindo's philosophy aims at ascending to the spirit and again descending to normal existence to transform it.[citation needed]

According to Aurobindo, mind is the highest term reached in the path of evolution till now but has not yet reached its highest potency and calls current mind as an ignorance seeking truth, but he also states that even though the human being is treading in ignorance there is in every human being a possibility of divine manifestation. He states that there is a possibility to open oneself to higher divine consciousness which would reveal one's true self, remain in constant union of divine and bring down a higher force (which he names as superamental force) which would transform mind, life and body. To realise the above has been the main objectives of his yoga.[48]

Triple transformation of the individual[edit]

He wrote that Man is born an ignorant, divided, conflicted being; a product of the original inconscience (i.e. unconsciousness) inherent in Matter that he evolved out of. As a result, he does not know the nature of Reality, including its source and purpose; his own nature, including the parts and integration of his being; what purpose he serves, and what his individual and spiritual potential is, amongst others. In addition, man experiences life through division and conflict, including his relationship with others, and his divided view of spirit and life.[48]

Influence[edit]

His influence has been wide-ranging. In India, S. K. Maitra, Anilbaran Roy and D. P. Chattopadhyaya commented on Aurobindo's work. Writers on esotericism and traditional wisdom, such as Mircea Eliade, Paul Brunton, and Rene Guenon, all saw him as an authentic representative of the Indian spiritual tradition.[49]

Haridas Chaudhuri and Frederic Spiegelberg[50] were among those who were inspired by Aurobindo, who worked on the newly formed American Academy of Asian Studies in San Francisco. Soon after, Chaudhuri and his wife Bina established the Cultural Integration Fellowship, from which later emerged the California Institute of Integral Studies.[51][unreliable source?]

Karlheinz Stockhausen became heavily inspired by the writings of Satprem about Aurobindo during a week in May 1968, a time of which the composer was undergoing a personal crisis and had found Aurobindos philosophies were relevant to his feelings at the time. After this experience, Stockhausen's music took a completely different turn, focusing on mysticism, that was to continue right up until the end of his career.[52]

William Irwin Thompson traveled to Auroville in 1972 and met "the Mother".[53] Thompson has called Aurobindo's teaching on spirituality a "radical anarchism" and a "post-religious approach" and regards their work as having "...reached back into the Goddess culture of prehistory, and, in Marshall McLuhan’s terms, 'culturally retrieved' the archetypes of the shaman and la sage femme..."[53] Thompson also writes that he experienced Shakti, or psychic power coming from the Mother on the night of her death in 1973.[53]

Sri Aurobindo's ideas about the further evolution of human capabilities influenced the thinking of Michael Murphy – and indirectly, the human potential movement, through Murphy's writings.[54]

The American philosopher Ken Wilber has called Sri Aurobindo "India's greatest modern philosopher sage"[55] and has integrated some of his ideas into his philosophical vision. Wilber's interpretation of Aurobindo has been criticised by Rod Hemsell.[56] New Age writer Andrew Harvey also looks to Sri Aurobindo as a major inspiration.[57]

Followers[edit]

The following authors, disciples and organisations trace their intellectual heritage back to, or have in some measure been influenced by, Sri Aurobindo and The Mother.

  • Nolini Kanta Gupta (1889–1983) was one of Aurobindo's senior disciples, and wrote extensively on philosophy, mysticism, and spiritual evolution in the light of Aurobindo and "The Mother"'s teachings.[citation needed]
  • Pavitra (1894–1969) was one of their early disciples. Born as Philippe Barbier Saint-Hilaire in Paris. Pavitra left some very interesting memoirs of his conversations with them in 1925 and 1926, which were published as Conversations avec Pavitra.[58][unreliable source?]
  • Indra Sen (1903–1994) was another disciple of Aurobindo who, although little-known in the West, was the first to articulate integral psychology and integral philosophy, in the 1940s and 1950s. A compilation of his papers came out under the title, Integral Psychology in 1986.[59][unreliable source?]
  • Nirodbaran (1903–2006). A doctor who obtained his medical degree from Edinburgh, his long and voluminous correspondence with Aurobindo elaborate on many aspects of Integral Yoga and fastidious record of conversations bring out Aurobindo's thought on numerous subjects.[60]
  • M. P. Pandit (1918–1993). Secretary to "The Mother" and the ashram, his copious writings and lectures cover Yoga, the Vedas, Tantra, Aubindo's epic "Savitri" and others.
  • Chinmoy (1931–2007) joined the ashram in 1944. Later, he wrote the play about the life of 'Sri Aurobindo: Descent of the Blue' and a book 'Infinite: Sri Aurobindo'.[61] An author, composer, artist and athlete, he was perhaps best known for holding public events on the theme of inner peace and world harmony (such as concerts, meditations, and races).[62][full citation needed]
  • Satprem (1923–2007) was a French author and an important disciple of "The Mother" who published Mother's Agenda (ed.1982), Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness (2000), On the Way to Supermanhood (2002) and more.[63][page needed]
A statue of Aurobindo

Critics[edit]

N. R. Malkani says Aurobindo's theory of creation is not true, as the theory talks about experiences and visions which are beyond normal human experiences. He says the theory is an intellectual response to a difficult problem and that Aurobindo uses the trait of unpredictability in theorising and discussing things not based upon truth of existence. Malkani says that awareness is already a reality and suggests there would be not need to examine the creative activity subjected to awareness.[64]

Wilber rejects the notion of different level of matter, life, mind, overmind, supermind proposed by Aurobindo in The Life Divine, and terms them as higher- or lower-nested holons and states there is only a fourfold reality.[65]

Adi Da finds that Aurobindo's contributions were merely literary and cultural and had extended his political motivation into spirituality and human evolution [66]

Osho says that Aurobindo was a great scholar but was never realised and his personal ego had made him indirectly claim that he went beyond buddha and is said to have believed himself to be enlightened due to increasing number of followers.[67]

Literary works[edit]

Aurobindo was one of the first Indians to create a literary corpus in English.[68] Most of his works include translation of Indian scriptures and also on the yoga system and philosophy he had introduced.[69][unreliable source?]

The Life Divine[edit]

The Life Divine is a combination of summarisation of the letters published in Arya and interpretation of Isha Upanishad and is one of Aurobindo's major philosophical works. It tries to decipher the process of evolution and nature of reality and to give a metaphysical interpretation of upanishads along with his own experiences. It is divided into two parts, the first explaining nature of reality and the second part on knowledge and evolution. In the first part disseminating creation and the nature of reality, analysis about human aspiration and current system of spirituality, there repercussions in understanding of reality. proposes different levels of reality and in eventuality of Humans rising to these different levels of reality. Analysis the interplay of reality and the nature of human. and the second part describes evolution and knowledge, how the knowledge has been interpreted and the reason for the way it is. Finally hints of existence of a higher consciousness which would include all in reality and make sense of everything in reality, and calls this as a possible bringing down of Divine life on earth.[70][page needed]

Savitri[edit]

Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol is his epic poem in 12 books, 24,000 lines. The poem refers to the story of 'Savitri and Satyavan' from the Mahabharata. The characters go through an evolutionary process including bringing the divinity to earth, which spiritually transforms the earth.[71]

Writings[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Aurobindo described his father as a "tremendous atheist" but Thakur calls him an agnostic and Heers believes that he followed his own coda.[7][8]
  2. ^ Krishna Dhun Ghose returned to India soon after, leaving his wife in the care of a physician in London. Barindra was born in England in January 1880.[6]
  3. ^ While in Manchester, the Ghose brothers lived first at 84 Shakespeare Street and then, by the time of the 1881 census, at 29 York Place, Chorlton-on-Medlock. Aurbindo was recorded in the census as Aravinda Ghose, as he was also by the University of Cambridge.[12][13][14]
  4. ^ Benoybhusan's education ended in Manchester.[15]

Citations

  1. ^ Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, Book XI: The Book of Everlasting Day, Canto I: The Eternal Day: The Soul's Choice and The Supreme Consummation, p 709
  2. ^ McDermott (1994), p. 11-12.
  3. ^ McDermott (1994), p. 14.
  4. ^ Heehs (2008), p. 1
  5. ^ Heehs (2008), p. 13-36
  6. ^ a b Heehs (2008), p. 10
  7. ^ a b Heehs (2008), pp. 3–7, 10
  8. ^ a b Thakur (2004), p. 3
  9. ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 8-9
  10. ^ a b Heehs (2008), pp. 9-10
  11. ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 10, 13
  12. ^ a b Heehs (2008), p. 14
  13. ^ 1881 Census
  14. ^ a b ACAD GHS890AA.
  15. ^ a b Heehs (2008), p. 19
  16. ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 14-18
  17. ^ English Heritage
  18. ^ Heehs (2008), p. 18
  19. ^ Aurobindo (2006), pp. 29–30
  20. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 31
  21. ^ a b Thakur (2004), p. 6
  22. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 34
  23. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 36
  24. ^ Thakur (2004), p. 7
  25. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 37
  26. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 42
  27. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 43
  28. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 68
  29. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 77
  30. ^ Heehs (2008), p. 53
  31. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 71
  32. ^ Heehs (2008), p. 67
  33. ^ Das (2007)
  34. ^ Lorenzo (1999), p. 70
  35. ^ a b Aurobindo (2006), p. 101
  36. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 86
  37. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 98
  38. ^ a b Aurobindo (2006), p. 110.
  39. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 109
  40. ^ a b c Sri Aurobindo: A Life Sketch, Sri Aurobindo Birth Centenary Library 30, retrieved 1 January 2013 
  41. ^ Heehs (2011), p. 347
  42. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 584
  43. ^ Heehs (2011), pp. 347, 411
  44. ^ a b Auroville Township
  45. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 102
  46. ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 103
  47. ^ a b Heehs (2011)
  48. ^ a b Aurobindo (2006), p. 10
  49. ^ Heehs (2008), p. 379
  50. ^ Haridas Chaudhuri and Frederic Spiegelberg, The integral philosophy of Sri Aurobindo: a commemorative symposium, Allen & Unwin, 1960
  51. ^ "From the American Academy of Asian Studies to the California Institute of Integral Studies"[1]
  52. ^ O'Mahony (2001)
  53. ^ a b c "Thinking otherwise – From Religion to Post-Religious Spirituality: Conclusion". Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  54. ^ Kripal (2007), pp. 60–63
  55. ^ Ken Wilber, Foreword to A. S. Dalal (ed.), A Greater Psychology – An Introduction to the Psychological Thought of Sri Aurobindo, Tarcher/Putnam, 2000.
  56. ^ Rod Hemsell, "Ken Wilber and Sri Aurobindo: A Critical Perspective" Jan. 2002.
  57. ^ "Hidden Journey: A Spiritual Awakening". Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  58. ^ http://www.searchforlight.org/lotusgroove/Pavitra/Index.htm
  59. ^ K. Satchidanandan, Who's who of Indian Writers: supplementary volume, 1990 New Delhi : Sahitya Akademi,, p. 134
  60. ^ http://intyoga.online.fr/nird12_1.htm
  61. ^ Sri Chinmoy's writings on Sri Aurobindo, retrieved 12 November 2013 
  62. ^ Shyam (), pp. 18–22
  63. ^ Satprem (1982)
  64. ^ "Sri Aurobindo's theory of evolution – a criticism by Prof. Malkani examined". Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  65. ^ "Wilber's Critique of Sri Aurobindo". Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  66. ^ "Bubba Free John in India". The Dawn Horse Magazine. 4 August 1974. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  67. ^ "Osho Beyond Enlightenment". Beyond Enlightenment. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  68. ^ Mehrotra (2003), p. 116
  69. ^ "Sri Aurobindo – his writing". Retrieved 03/01/2013. 
  70. ^ Aurobindo (1960)
  71. ^ Aurobindo (1997). Savitri a legend and a symbol. The complete works of Sri Aurobindo 1947. Pondicherry, India: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publication Department. p. Authors note. 

Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

  • Iyengar, K. R. Srinivasa (1985) [1945]. Sri Aurobindo: a biography and a history. Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education.  (2 volumes, 1945) - written in a hagiographical style
  • Kallury, Syamala (1989). Symbolism in the Poetry of Sri Aurobindo. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 9788170172574. 
  • Kitaeff, Richard. "Sri Aurobindo". Nouvelles Clés (62): 58–61. 
  • Mishra, Manoj Kumar (2004). Young Aurobindo’s Vision: The Viziers of Bassora. Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot. 
  • Mukherjee, Prithwindra (2000). Sri Aurobindo. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer. 
  • Satprem, Sri Aurobindo, or the Adventure of Consciousness 1968, Pondicherry, India: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Press. Exposition of the philosophy of Sri Aurobindo and the techniques of Integral Yoga.
  • Singh, Ramdhari (2008). Sri Aurobindo: Meri Drishti Mein. New Delhi: Lokbharti Prakashan. 
  • van Vrekhem, Georges (1999). Beyond Man – The Life and Work of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother. New Delhi: HarperCollins. ISBN 81-7223-327-2. 

External links[edit]

Official website Sri Aurobindo Ashram