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श्री गंगानगर (rajasthani)
|Founded by||Maharaja Ganga Singh|
|Named for||Gang Canal|
|• Type||State Government|
|• Body||Government of India|
|• Total||11,154.66 km2 (4,306.84 sq mi)|
|Elevation||164 m (538 ft)|
|• Total||370,768 (254,760 * 2,011)|
|• Density||179/km2 (460/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||RJ 13|
|Sex ratio||873 ♂/♀|
Sri Ganganagar (Hindi: श्री गंगानगर) is the northern-most and a planned city of the Indian state of Rajasthan situated near borders of Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab states and the international border of India and Pakistan. It is the administrative headquarters of Sri Ganganagar district. It is named after Maharaja Shri Ganga Singh Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner, it is also known as "the food basket of Rajasthan" and "Green district of Rajasthan".
- 1 History
- 2 Location and area
- 3 Transport
- 4 Topography
- 5 Climate
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Education
- 9 Culture
- 10 Religion
- 11 Tourist attractions
- 12 Tehsils and other towns
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Sri Ganganagar was established by Maharaja Ganga Singh, near Ramnagar which was named after Ram Singh Ji Saharan and now known as 'Purani aabadi'. It is situated at the point where the Sutlej waters enter Rajasthan or the erstwhile Bikaner State. It is said by the elders that this area first came under the erstwhile Bahawalpur state but due to the large open area this was unguarded and Hindu Mal one of the companions of Maharaja Ganga Singh took advantage of this opportunity and changed the boundaries or the posts along the boundary. He started his journey to change posts from Suratgarh in south till Hindumalkot City in north of this district. He informed the Maharaja about his successful sneaky invasion of the area when he reached the northern part and thereafter died giving name to the city Hindumalkot.
In 1899-1900, the Bikaner State was affected by the worst famine. In order to resolve this issue permanently, Maharaja Ganga Singh obtained the services of AWE Standley, Chief Engineer, who demonstrated the feasibility of the western area of the Bikaner State being brought under irrigation from the Sutlej waters. The plan of the Sutlej Valley Project was drawn by then Chief Engineer of Punjab, RG Kennedy, according to which the vast area of erstwhile Bikaner State could be brought under irrigation. However, the project got delayed due to objections by the erstwhile State of Bahawalpur.
Finally, with intervention of then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, in 1906, a Tripartite Conference was held and an agreement was reached and signed on 4 September 1920. The foundation stone of the Canal Head Works at Ferozepur was laid on 5 December 1925 and the work completed in 1927 by constructing 143 km (89 mi) of lined canal. The opening ceremony was performed on 26 October 1927 by Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India. The plan for the city of Sri Ganganagar was drawn at this time. Irrigated parts of Bikaner State were brought under Sri Ganganagar district and later sub-divided into Hanumangarh district.
Location and area
Sri Ganganagar District is located between Latitude 28.4 to 30.6 and Longitude 72.2 to 75.3 The total area of Sri Ganganagar is 11,154.66 km² or 1,115,466 hectares. It is surrounded on the east by Hanumangarh District, (Hanumangarh district was carved out of it on July 12, 1994) on the south by Bikaner District, and on the west by Bahawalnagar district of the Pakistani Punjab and on the north by the Punjab.
- The Sri Ganganagar city is well connected with major cities through both rail and road transport
Sri Ganganagar is well connected by railways to Bathinda 127 km, Delhi 424 km, Rewari 427 km, Kalka 397 km, Howrah 1980 km, Haridwar 485 km, Nanded 1963 km, Firozpur 184 km, Abohar 50 km and Suratgarh 60 km, Bikaner 250 km, kota 700 km, Jammu 550 km etc. Track between Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh 67 km is converted into broad gauge.
National Highway No-15 is running from Sriganganagar to Sanchore, which is well linked with all the major areas of Sriganganagar. Many roadways and private buses are frequently available to major cities of north India like Delhi 431 km, Jaipur 501 km, Ajmer, Udaipur, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Jodhpur 500 km, Kota, Haryana, Punjab. It is well connected to Mumbai 1472 km by road.
Although Ganganagar District lies in the great Thar desert, irrigation via the Gang canal and Ignp canal has changed the flora and fauna. The district can be classified into five geographical regions:
- The region irrigated by the Gang canal and the Bhakhra canal tributaries: the northern region, which is 3/4 of the district, resembles the fertile plains of Punjab, but some areas, like the area between the towns of Raisinghnagar and Vijaynagar, have desert like conditions.
- Area irrigated by the Suratgarh branch of the IGNP canal
- Area irrigated by Anoopgarh branch of IGNP canal: it comprises Anoopgarh and Gharsana tehsils. It is the southernmost region of the district, of which much has been converted into plains, but sandy dunes can still be seen.
- The Naali belt: this is a narrow basin of the Ghaggar river. It is the only major river of the district. It is a seasonal river, which flows in the rainy season. It enters the district near Suratgarh and then flows in areas of Jaitsar, Vijaynagar, Anoopgarh and then crosses the Indo-Pakistani border.
- The 'Uncha Tibba' (high sandy dunes) area of Suratgarh tehsil: large sandy dunes and lack of water predominate here. This area can be said to be a 'real desert'. People of this area face harsh conditions in the desert.
The climate of Sri Ganganagar varies to extreme limits. Summer temperature reaches 50° Celsius and winter temperature dips just around 0° Celsius. The average annual rainfall is only 200 mm (7.9 in). Average maximum temperature in summer is 41.2 °C and average minimum temperature in winter is 6 °C.
According to the 2011 census Sri Ganganagar district has a population of 1,969,520, roughly equal to the nation of Slovenia or the US state of New Mexico. This gives it a ranking of 235th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 179 inhabitants per square kilometre (460/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 10.06%. Ganganagar has a sex ratio of 873 females for every 1000 males,. Males constitute 52.99% of the population and females 47.01%. Ganganagar has an average literacy rate of 70.25%, higher than the national average of 59.8%: male literacy is 79.33%, and female literacy is 60.07%. In Ganganagar, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Majority of the population is Hindu, Jain and Sikh.
Desert land was converted to a green town by the efforts of Maharaja Ganga Singh, who brought the Gang canal. which carries the excess waters of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the region, making Ganganagar district known as "the food basket of Rajasthan". The economy of the city is based on agriculture, its main crops are wheat, mustard and cotton. Other crops are guar, bajra, sugar cane and grams. In recent years, farmers are also diverting towards horticulture. Kinnow (a citrus family fruit or a hybrid citrus fruit from "orange") is a popular horticultural product; other fruits of the citrus family are also grown.
Industries in Sri Ganganagar District are based on agriculture. Major industries are cotton ginning and pressing factories, mustard oil mills, wheat flour mills, Rajasthan State Ganganagar Sugar Mills, which is known for its Royal Heritage Liqueurs. 20 top renowned industries are Vikas WSP (P)Limited, T.C. Fresh Kinnow Waxing, Kanda Edible Oil Unit, Ruchi Soya Indusjtries etc. It also has cotton spinning and textile factories such as JCT Mills (now closed). Most of the factories are located in and around Sriganganagar City.
The city has been a center of learning since s early ages. This city has a large proportion of land which is dedicated to educational institutes. Notable educational institutions from the city include:
- B. S. F Senior Secondary School
- Nosegay Public School
- Bhopal Wala Arya Higher Sen. Sec. School
- Satya Lakshya Euro World School, Riico Agro Food Park Road, Sri Ganganagar
- Sri Guru Nanak Khalsa Higher Sen. Sec. School (Since 1939)
- Sri Guru Nanak Girls Sen. Sec. School
- Tantia University, Sri Ganganagar
- Ganganagar Public School
- Seveanth day Adventist Sr. Sec. School
- Holy Family convent school
- Govt. Sen. Sec. School(This is one of the oldest school and Popularly Known as Multi Purpose School)
- Bihani Children's Academy
- Kendriya Vidyalaya
- Guru Harkrishan Public School
- Good Shepherd Public School
- Sacred Heart Convent School
- Blooming Dales International School
- Tiny Tots Public School
- Floradale Public School
- Saraswati Public School
- Seth G. L. bihani S. D. Sen. Sec. School
- Arorvansh Public School
- Golden Rays Public School
- Nav Kiran Public School
- The Sanskriti School
- Arshiya Public School
- B.L.Memorial Senior Secondary School
- S.U.S.Convent School
- Saint Kabir Convent School
- Pragati Vidhya Niketan School, Sriganganagar
- Jai Bharat Public School,Setia Farm, SriGanganagar
- Army School, Sadhuwali Cantt, Sriganganagar
- Winter Hill Public School, Uda Ram Chowk, Purani Abadi, Sriganganagar
- Mayur School, Sriganganagar
- Gupta Bal Bharti Sr. Sec. School, Sukharia Circle, Sriganganagar
- Rajendra Public School, Tarachand Vatika, Sriganganagar
- Rajendra Children's Academy, Sriganganagar
- Saint Soldier Public School, Vill. 7-A, Sriganganagar,
- BDIS International school,Nathawali
- Dr. B.R.Ambedkar Government College
- Sri Guru Nanak Khalsa (PG) College
- Seth G.L. Bihani S.D.(PG) College
- Guru Nanak Girls College
- Maharshi Dayanand (PG) College
- CH. Ballu Ram Godara Girls College
- CH. Malu Ram Bhambu Govt. Polytechnic College
- Shri Aatam Vallabh Jain Girls College
- Tantia Group of Higher Education including Ayurvedic College and other various branches.
- Bihani Institute of Management
- Surendra Dental College and Hospital
- Government Law College
- M.D. Law (PG) College
- S.D. Law (PG) College
- S.G.N. Khalsa (PG) College
- Col Avtar Singh Cheema (1933–1989): An Arjuna Awardee who was the first Indian to climb Mount Everest. He was a part of the third mission undertaken by the Indian Army, in 1965, to climb Mt. Everest after two failed attempts. He successfully conquered the mountain on 20 May 1965. Due to his dislike for publicity he never got the acclaim he should have got. He was Captain in the Parachute regiment at that time. Later he was promoted to colonel.
- Jagjit Singh: Famous Ghazal singer, was born in Sri Ganganagar.
- Shahid Mallya: Bollywood singer.
- Ravinder Kaushik: Former Research and Analysis Wing agent.
- R.D. Singh: Indian athletics coach.He is a recipient of Dronacharya Award by the government of India. He is India's only Dronacharya awardee coach for para-sports.
The schools and colleges in Ganganagar is affiliated to Bikaner University , SMU Sikkim Manipal University, Tantia University. So the children have optional languages such as Rajasthani, Sanskrit and more languages. Punjabi music is very popular in the Sri Ganganagar. Most people can speak Punjabi due to the impact of heavier Punjabi belt in nearest tehsiles. In addition to this, youngsters following Punjabi trends and they love to speak Punjabi as a person from Punjab. The impact of the Saraiki["Multaani or bhawalpuri"] dialect can be observed in Arora, Raisikhs and Saraiki Muslim communities. Now this dialect, Saraiki is losing ground in the northern part of the district. Bagri is spoken only in Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts and in some tehsils of neighbouring Punjab and Haryana.
A number of writers of the district have made contributions to Rajasthani literature, through Bagri.
Punjabi and Bagri cultures dominate the district.
The embroidered Odhni (mostly red in colour) is a symbol of Bagri women. A long shirt and ghaghro (long frock type clothes) and borlo (a head ornament) is the traditional dress of Bagri women.
The Purdah (or veil) is mainly in vogue among Bagri women. Men mainly wear a pant-shirt, kurta-payjama and dhoti (Punjabis call it the chadara-kurta).§
Traditional Hindi music and Rajasthani devotional music is popular. Bollywood songs are listened to with same enthusiasm as in other northern Indian regions.
Most people practice the Hindu, Jain and Sikh religions. People worship folk gods such as Ramdevji and Gogaji. Many have faith in Pirs and Saints and they visit their khanghahs (shrines). Some practise Islam. Some follow Dera-culture, such as Sachcha-Sauda, Radha-Soami and Nirankari deras. Many people also follow Jainism. Many Digambar and Swetambar Jains are living here and spread across the country and the world.
Tourist attractions include
- Kalibangan which is a famous archaeological site for the Indus Valley Civilization.
- Historical Gurudwara Buddha Johad. An large gurudwara, which is 55 km from Ganganagar in the south-west. This is a place where Bhai Sukha Singh and Mehtab Singh brought the head of Massa Rangarh (guilty of sacrilege of the Amritsar Golden Temple) and hung it on a tree on August 11, 1740.
- Bror Village. The ruins of the Indus valley civilisation are found here. It is located on Anoopgarh-Ramsinghpur road.
- Dada Pamparam's Dera is at Vijayanagar town, and is the samadhi[clarification needed] (tomb) of Baba Pamparam.
- Laila-Majnu ki Mazar (tomb), Binjaur village. Laila Majnu Ki Mazar is 11 km (6.6 mi) far from Anoopgarh on the western side. Here is the so-called mazar of Laila-Majnu, actually this was built in remembrance of mutual devotion and love between a teacher and a student. A fair is held in June.
- The Suratgarh Super Critical Thermal Power Station is an electricity production project that is maintained by the Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut Utpadan Nigam Limited. It is Rajasthan’s foremost super thermal power station. This station has been successful in controlling pollution and maintaining balance of atmospheric emissions in the environment. The Union Ministry of Power has awarded this power station with the Golden Shield Award. Village 3C Chhoti 12 k.m north-west away from district headquarters. This village is first planned village in India. This village is designed by architecture Le Corbusier with the help of Meyar singh sekhon.
- Anoopgarh Fort is a ruin in the city of Anoopgarh. It was built by Anoop Singh Rathore.
- Suratgarh-Jaitsar state agriculture farm.
- The Hindumalkot Border, the Indo-Pak Border, derives its name from Hindumal, the Diwan of Bikaner. Pakistan’s Observation Post can be seen from this site.
Temples and places for worship
The landscape of Sri Ganganagar is dotted with numerous temples and religious places. The famous temples in Sri Ganganagar include
- Ram Mandir,
- The Gauri Shankar Temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. There is a Shivalinga in the sanctum of this temple. This temple is built using sandstone and has two cone shaped turrets.,
- Siddhi Jhaanki Wale Hanumaan Ji Ka Mandir,
- Hanumaan Mandir dedicated to Hanuman located in the heart of the city, in L-Block.
- Balaji Dhaam is situated on Hanumangarh Road, near the Ridhi Sidhi Enclave. This temple is devoted to Sri Balaji and is surrounded by numerous other temples,
- Durga Mandir dedicated to goddess Durga, surrounded by a crowded market, the area in the evening is crowded by youth.
- Rojhri Dham is a complex of religious sites dedicated to the worship of the Hindu deity Hanuman. Dham attracts many local worshippers throughout the year. On Chaitra Purnima and Ashvin Purnima every year, large jagrans are organized, where thousands of people assemble to pay their homage to the deity. Hanuman Sewa Samiti manages the Temple and Jagarans. The temple of Hanuman is situated on right side of Anupgarh-Bikaner road, about one kilometre from Rojhri Village.
- Chanana-Dham(Chanana shrine)A great temple of Lord Hanumanji is here, built in 1971. It is 36 km from district headquarters on the way to Padampur (Tehsil) on bifurcating road at Chunawad town along with GG canal.
In addition to this, religious centres such as Gurudwara Shri Budha Johar Shaheb and Shivpuri Kagad are common tourist destinations. Shri Jagadamba Andh-vidhyalaya. One of the largest institutes of India for the education of visually, hearing and speech impaired people is also a place worth visiting. It is situated within Sri Ganganagar city.
Tehsils and other towns
There are following nine tehsils in Ganganagar district.
- Sri Ganganagar
- Sri Karanpur
- Shri Vijaynagar
Other major towns and villages
Kesarisinghpur, Gajsinghpur, Suratgarh, Ramsinghpur, Jaitsar, Rawla Mandi are major towns, whereas Lalgarh Jatan, Rirmalsar, Rajiasar, Patroda, Sameja Kothi, Chunawadh, Hindumalkot,[zorawar singh pur], Bajuwala, Birmana KhatSajwar are small towns and villages.
Many towns and cities in Sri Ganganagar District are named after members of the royal family of the former Bikaner State.
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- INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPT
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- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison: Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
Slovenia 2,000,092 July 2011 est.
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New Mexico - 2,059,179
- Garg, Balwant (2003-07-27). "Suicide woes fill the 'food basket'". The Times of India. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Bagri: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-28.