||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2011)|
|State||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Settled||3rd century BC|
|• Mayor||Salman Sagar (NC)|
|• Total||294 km2 (114 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,585 m (5,200 ft)|
|• Density||8,523/km2 (22,070/sq mi)|
|• Official||Kashmiri, Urdu|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||JK 01|
|Sex ratio||888 ♀/ 1000 ♂|
|Distance from Delhi||876 kilometres (544 mi) NW|
|Distance from Mumbai||2,275 kilometres (1,414 mi) NE (land)|
|Precipitation||710 millimetres (28 in)|
|Avg. summer temperature||24.1 °C (75.4 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||2.5 °C (36.5 °F)|
Srinagar // ( listen (help·info)) is the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated in the Kashmir Valley and lies on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus. The city is famous for its gardens, lakes and houseboats. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts and dry fruits.
Origin of names 
Etymologically Srinagar is composed of two Sanskrit words, śrī (venerable) and nagar, which means "city". One theory of the origin of the name is that a Pandava King Ashoka (not to be confused with the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka) built the city of Srinagari (Srinagar). Another theory is that Mauryan Emperor Ashoka founded the original city of Srinagar, then situated on the site of the present village of Pandrethan, 5 km to the north of the existing capital.
Ancient Srinagar 
Srinagar has a long history, dating back at least to the 3rd century BC, and has been known by different names. The city is said to have been founded by the King Pravarasena II over 2,000 years ago, named it Parvasenpur. The city was then a part of the Maurya Empire, one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent. Ashoka introduced Buddhism to the Kashmir valley, and the adjoining regions around the city became a centre of Buddhism. In the 1st century, the region was under the control of Kushans, based out of modern Pakistan and Afghanistan. Several rulers of this dynasty strengthened the Buddhist tradition. Vikramaditya (of Ujjain) and his successors probably ruled the regions just before the city fell to the control of the Huns-a nomadic tribe from central Asia in the 6th century, and Mihirkula was the most dreaded ruler of the city and the valley.
Srinagar became the capital of Kashmir around 960 CE. Some of the notable independent rulers were Lalit Aditya, Avantivarman who named his city Avantipora and Sangrama Deva.
Srinagar in 14th to 19th centuries 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2013)|
The independent Hindu and the Buddhist rule of Srinagar lasted until the 14th century when the Kashmir valley, including the city, came under the control of the several Muslim rulers, including the Mughals. It was also the capital during the reign of Yusuf Shah Chak, an Independent Kashmiri ruler who was tricked by Akbar when Akbar failed to conquer Kashmir by force. Yusuf Shah Chak remains buried in Bihar in India. Akbar established Mughal rule in Srinagar and Kashmir valley.
With the disintegration of the Mughal empire after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, infiltrations to the valley from the Pashtun tribes increased, and the Durrani Empire ruled the city for several decades. Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab province annexed a major part of the Kashmir Valley, including Srinagar, to his kingdom in the year 1814 and the city came under the influence of the Sikhs. In 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the Sikh rulers and the British in Lahore. The treaty inter alia provided British de facto suzerainty over the Kashmir Valley and installed Gulab Singh as an independent and sovereign ruler of the region. Srinagar became part of his kingdom and remained until 1947 as one of several princely states in British India. The Maharajas choose Sher Garhi Palace as their main Srinagar residence.
Post-Indian Independence 
After India and Pakistan's independence from Britain, villagers around the city of Poonch began an armed protest at continued rule of the Maharaja on August 17, 1947. In view of the Poonch uprising, certain Pashtun tribes such as Mehsud and Afridi from mountainous region of North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan and with its collusion, entered the Kashmir valley to capture it on October 22, 1947. The Maharaja, who had refused to accede to either India or Pakistan in hopes of securing his own independent state, signed the instrument of accession in exchange for refuge on 26 October 1947, as tribesmen approached the outskirts of Srinagar. The Accession was accepted by India the next day. The government of India immediately airlifted Indian troops to Srinagar and prevented the tribesmen from reaching Srinagar. The India army never left.
In 1989, Srinagar became the focus of the Kashmiri uprising against Indian rule, and continues to be a highly politicized hotbed of separatist activity with frequent spontaneous protests and strikes ("bandhs" in local parlance). On January 19th, 1990, the Gawakadal massacre of at least 50 unarmed protestors by Indian forces, and up to 280 by some estimates from eyewitness accounts, set the stage for bomblasts, shootouts, and curfews that characterized Srinagar throughout the early and mid-1990's. Further massacres in the spring of 1990 in which 51 unarmed protesters were allegedly killed by Indian security forces in Zakura and Tengpora, along with the January 6th 1993 massacre of 55 unarmed protestors allegedly by Indian security forces in the nearby town of Sopore heightened anti-Indian sentiments in Srinagar. As a result, bunkers and checkpoints are found throughout the city, although their numbers have come down in the past few years as miltancy has declined. However, frequent protests still occur against Indian rule, such as the August 22, 2008 rally in which hundreds of thousands of Kashmiri civilians protested against Indian rule in Srinagar.  Similar protests took place every summer for the next 4 years, and most recently following the execution of Afzal Guru in February 2013. Due to the uprising, and frequent targeting of the Hindu community, almost the entire Hindu population of the city fled the city en masse in 1990, and as a result, Srinagar bears a far stronger Islamic character than it did prior to 1990.
The city is located on both the sides of the Jhelum River which is called Vyath in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the dal Lake. The city is famous for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city.
Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds.
Hokersar is 14 km (8.7 mi) north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over 13.75 km2 (5.31 sq mi) including lake and marshy area. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years.season.
Birds found in Hokersar—Migratory ducks and geese which include Brahminy Duck, Tufted Duck, Gadwall, Garganey, Greylag Goose, Mallard, Common Merganser, Northern Pintail, Common Pochard, Ferruginous Pochard, Red-crested Pochard, Ruddy Shelduck, Northern Shoveler, Common Teal, and Eurasian Wigeon.
Srinagar has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with a climate much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position. The valley is surrounded by Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with a January daily mean of 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and temperature remains below freezing at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall is expected in winters and the only road that connects Srinagar with the rest of India may get blocked a few days due to avalanche. Summers are warm with a July daily maximum of 30.1 °C (86.2 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 710 millimetres (28 in). Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest.
- Highest temperature: 38.3 °C (100.9 °F); lowest −19.9 °C (−3.8 °F)
|Climate data for Srinagar (1971–1986)|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.3
|Average high °C (°F)||7.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−2
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||48
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6.6||7.3||10.2||8.8||8.1||5.7||7.9||6.8||3.5||2.8||2.8||5.1||75.6|
|Source: NOAA (1961–1990) |
In November 2011, the City Mayors Foundation – an advocacy think tank – announced that Srinagar was the 92nd fastest growing urban areas in the world in terms of economic growth, based on actual data from 2006 onwards and projections to 2020.
Srinagar is one of several places that has been called the "Venice of the East" or the "Kashmiri Venice" It is known for its lakes, which include Dal Lake – noted for its houseboats – and Nagin Lake.
Srinagar has some Mughal gardens, forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent. Those of Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chashma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies); Nishat Bagh (the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; and the Naseem Bagh. The Tulip Gardens have been recently opened to public by Sonia Gandhi.
The Sher Garhi Palace houses administrative buildings from the state government. Another palace of the Maharajas, the Gulab Bhavan, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel.
Government and politics 
The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC). The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam district forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.
Stray dog controversy 
Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs. Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods should be used to deal with the animals.
The situation has become alarming with local news reports coming up at frequent intervals highlighting people, especially children being mauled by street dogs.
As of 2011 census, Srinagar city's population was 1,192,792 and Srinagar urban agglomeration had 1,273,312 population. Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 71%, whereas the national average is 74.04%. The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population. Males constituted 53.0% and females 47.0% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1000, and nationwide value of this ratio is 940.
The population density in the city is 556 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,440 /sq mi) while the overall population density is 99 /km2 (260 /sq mi). The languages spoken are mainly Kashmiri, Urdu and English. Muslims make up more than 94% of the population, Hindus 4% and Sikhs and others 2%. Prior to the 1989 uprising against Indian rule, and associated targeting of the local Hindu community, Srinagar had a far larger Hindu population that fled en masse. As a result, Srinagar bears a far stronger Islamic character than it did in previous decades. However, the Sikh community was not targeted by militants, and have largely remained in Srinagar.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
Srinagar Airport (IATA code SXR) has regular domesitc flights to Leh, Jammu, Chandigarh and Delhi and occasional international flights. The International flights terminal was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with an Air India flight from Dubai.
Srinagar is a station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Kashmir railway that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund. The railway track was to connect to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel by 2012, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. As of Spring 2013, the rail tunnel has not been opened, and progress remains slow due to lack of funding. The railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of 5,500 crore rupees.
The station is also planned to be part of a second railway, the Srinagar-Kargil-Leh railway.
Like the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.
Places of worship 
There are many religious holy places in Srinagar. They include:
- Hazratbal Shrine,only domed mosque in the city.
- Jama Masjid, Srinagar, one of the oldest mosques in Kashmir
- Hamza Makhdum on "Hari Parbhat"
- Kheer bhawani in Ganderbal
- Hari Parbat hill hosts shrine of Sharika Mata temple
- Shankaracharya temple or Sankaracharya temple
Additional structures include the Dastgeer Sahib shrine, Hazratbal Shrine, Mazar-e-Shura, Roza Bal shrine, Khanqah of Shah Hamadan, Patthar Masjid "The Stone Mosque," tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-abidin, tomb of Pir Haji Muhammad, Akhun Mulla Shah Mosque, cemetery of Baha-ud-din Sahib, tomb and Madin Sahib Mosque at Zadibal.
Performing arts 
Performing arts of the city include:
- Bhand Pather, a form of traditional folk theatre art form of play and dance, is performed by a group of about ten to fifteen artists. They depict in a satirical style social evils. Performance is accompanied by light music.
- Chakri is a major and popular form of Kashmiri folk music.
- Another form of Kashmiri genre of music called Sufiana music is also practiced in the city. It was introduced in the valley in the 15th century from Iran. Over centuries, it has assimilated a number of Indian Ragas, and has established itself as a classical music of the region. The instruments used in the music include Santoor, Sitar, Kashmiri Saz, Tabla, and Wasool.
- Hafiz Nagma, a form of dance, is performed to the accompaniment of Sufiana music. The dancer is a female while males play different instruments used in Sufiana music.
- Rouf is also an important folk dance kashmiri women do in marriages or on the eve of IDD/EID. All women's hands on another women's shoulders moving to and fro.
- Mallinson Girls School
- National High School, Karan Nagar, Srinagar
- Burn Hall School, Sonawar, Srinagar
- Delhi Public School, Srinagar
- Dr A.G.M's City School, Nowgaam, Srinagar
- Iqbal Memorial Institute, Bemina, Srinagar
- Lal Ded Memorial School, Ganpatyar, Habba Kadal, Srinagar
- New Era Public School, Rajbagh, Srinagar
- Presentation Convent High School, Rajbagh, Srinagar
- SMD High School – Munawar-abad, Khayam Road, Srinagar
- Tiny Harts School, Tangpora, Srinagar
- Tyndale Biscoe School (Est.1880)
- Woodlands House School(Boys Wing), Srinagar
- Woodlands House School(Girls Wing), Srinagar
- Oak Hill Institute of Education), Padshahi Bagh Lasjan, Srinagar
Higher education 
Srinagar is home to one of India's premier technical institutes – The National Institute of Technology Srinagar (NIT – SRI), formerly known as Regional Engineering College (REC Srinagar). It is one of the oldest NIT among the National Institutes of Technology that were established during 2nd Five year plan. Besides this the other Institutions/Colleges and Universities in Srinagar are –
- Government Medical College, Srinagar
- University of Kashmir, Srinagar
- Islamic University of Science & Technology
- Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir (SKUAST-K)
- Sri Pratap College (Est.1905)
- Craft Development Institute(CDI), Bagh-e-Ali Mardaan ,Mill stop, Nowshera,Srinagar
Srinagar has an outdoor stadium namely Bakshi Stadium for hosting football matches. It is named after Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake, which is considered as one of the best golf courses of India.
See also 
- Kashmir Shaivism Philosophy
- Swami Lakshman Joo Raina
- Dah Hanu
- Muzaffarabad, capital of Azad Kashmir
- Gilgit, capital of Gilgit–Baltistan
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- Hussein, AijazSt (February 12, 2013). "India's hanging of Kashmiri man leads to fears of new unrest after 2 years of quiet". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 1, 2013. "In all three years, hundreds of thousands of young men took to the streets, hurling rocks and abuse at Indian forces."
- http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm Extreme Temperatures Around The World
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- The Sydney Morning Herald – Google News Archive Search
- Holloway, James (1965-06-13). "Fabled Kashmir: An Emerald Set Among Pearls". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- The Earthtimes (2007-09-24). "Can Kashmir become 'Venice of the East' again? | Earth Times News". Earthtimes.org. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- MSNBC: Indian authorities to poison 100,000 stray dogs
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- "Kashmir rail by 2017-end, cost overrun Rs 5,500 cr". The Hindu Business Line. December 6, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
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- Chapter 4 of Ancient Monuments of Kashmir by Ram Chandra Kak (1933)
- FM radio: Govt to garner Rs 84 cr
- "Records / Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, Srinagar / One-Day Internationals". ESPNCricinfo. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- "J&K stadium hosts football match after 25-year gap". Times of India. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- "India". Robert Trent Jones – Golf Architects. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Srinagar|
- Srinagar travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Srinagar district administration
- Official website of Jammu and Kashmir