St. Albert, Alberta

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For the provincial electoral district, see St. Albert (provincial electoral district). For the federal electoral district, see St. Albert (federal electoral district).
St. Albert
City
City of St. Albert
Downtown clocktower St. Albert Alberta.jpg
Flag of St. Albert
Flag
Official logo of St. Albert
Logo
St. Albert is located in Edmonton
St. Albert
St. Albert
Location of St. Albert near Edmonton
Coordinates: 53°37′49″N 113°37′33″W / 53.63028°N 113.62583°W / 53.63028; -113.62583Coordinates: 53°37′49″N 113°37′33″W / 53.63028°N 113.62583°W / 53.63028; -113.62583
Country Canada
Province Alberta
Region Edmonton Region
Census division 11
Founded 1861
Incorporated [1]
 - Village 

December 7, 1899
 - Town
 - City
September 1, 1904
January 1, 1977
Government[2]
 • Mayor Nolan Crouse
 • Governing body St. Albert City Council
 • Manager Patrick Draper
 • MP Brent Rathgeber (Edmonton—St. Albert-Cons)
 • MLA Stephen Khan (St. Albert-PC)
Doug Horner (Spruce Grove-St. Albert-PC)
Area (2011)[3]
 • Total 48.27 km2 (18.64 sq mi)
Elevation[4] 689 m (2,260 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total 61,466
 • Rank 85
 • Density 1,273.4/km2 (3,298/sq mi)
 • Municipal census (2014) 63,255[5]
Postal code span T8N
Area code(s) +1-780
Website Official website

St. Albert is a city in Alberta, Canada on the Sturgeon River northwest of the City of Edmonton. It was originally settled as a Métis community, and is now the second-largest city in the Edmonton Capital Region. St. Albert first received its town status in 1904 and was reached by the Canadian Northern Railway in 1906.[6]

Originally separated from Edmonton by several miles of farmland, the 1980s expansion of Edmonton's city limits placed St. Albert immediately adjacent to the larger city on St. Albert's south and east sides.

History[edit]

St. Albert Parish atop what is now St. Albert's Mission Hill

St. Albert was founded in 1861 by Father Albert Lacombe, OMI, who built a small chapel: the Father Lacombe Chapel in the Sturgeon River valley. This chapel still stands to this day on Mission Hill in St. Albert. The original settlement was named Saint Albert by Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché O.M.I. after Lacombe's name saint; Saint Albert of Louvain. Although Lacombe had originally intended to found the mission at Lac Ste. Anne, the soil proved infertile and he moved the settlement to what would become St. Albert. The location offered several advantages, notably its easy access to supplies of wood and water, its excellent soil, it being a regular stopping point for First Nations peoples on their travels, and its proximity to Fort Edmonton, where the priests could purchase necessary supplies and minister to Catholic workers. A few years later, a group of Grey Nuns would follow Lacombe from Lac Ste. Anne.

During the late 20th and early 21st century it was mistakenly assumed that the community had been named after St. Albert the Great. This was due to incorrect information in the 1985 history of St. Albert; The Black Robe's Vision, published by the amateur historians of the St. Albert Historical Society. This led to the City of St. Albert erroneously promoting St. Albert the Great as the community's patron saint and even erecting a statue of the wrong saint in the downtown area. This misconception was not corrected until 2008.[7] The original chapel has since become an historic site staffed with historical interpreters and is open to the public in the summer season.

Also in St. Albert is the St. Albert Grain Elevator Park. There are two historic grain elevator there; one constructed in 1906 by the Brackman-Ker Milling Company, the other was built later in 1929 by The Alberta Wheat Pool company. There is also a reproduction of the original 1909 railway station housed at the Grain Elevators Park, the reproduction was constructed in 2005. On Madonna Drive stands the Little White School House which is open to the public. Arts and Heritage - St. Albert maintain this site as well as the Grain Elevators and other heritage buildings and sites under restoration in the city. In June 2009, the City Council approved a multi-staged plan for the heritage sites. The plan features the restoration of the grain elevators and the opening of both a Métis and French Canadian farm on adjacent lots by the River.


Demographics[edit]

The population of the City of St. Albert according to its 2014 municipal census is 63,255,[5] a 3.7% change from its 2012 municipal census population of 60,994.[29]

In the 2011 Census, the City of St. Albert had a population of 61,466 living in 22,513 of its 22,990 total dwellings, a 6.4% change from its 2006 adjusted population of 57,764. With a land area of 48.27 km2 (18.64 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,273.4/km2 (3,298.0/sq mi) in 2011.[3]

In 2006, St. Albert had a population of 57,719 living in 20,938 dwellings, an 8.7% increase from 2001. The city has a land area of 35.04 km2 (13.53 sq mi) and a population density of 1,647.4 /km2 (4,267 /sq mi).[30] St. Albert has placed in the top 5 of "Most Wealthy Cities in Canada" based on average net income per citizen, since 2000.

According to Statistics Canada 2001 Census,[27] St. Albert had a population of 53,081 (subsequently it grew to 54,588 in 2003 and 56,310 in 2005).[31] The growth rate from 1998 to 2003 was 10.8%. A total of 19,037 private dwellings were enumerated in the city, which has a land area of 34.61 km2 (13.36 sq mi), resulting in a population density of 1,335 people per km² (3,457.6/sq mi).


Arts and culture[edit]

Youth mural in downtown St. Albert

Located in the heart of downtown, St. Albert Place is the focal point of many community events and activities. Designed by world-renowned Canadian architect Douglas Cardinal, its sculptural symmetry mimics the curves of the Sturgeon River that runs behind it. There are no corners; only curves. Built in 1984, St. Albert Place was designed as a "people place", housing a unique combination of civic government and cultural activity. Currently it houses the St. Albert Public Library, Musée Héritage Museum, Visual Arts Studio and Arden Theatre, as well as City Hall and associated city government services. The Musée Héritage Museum celebrates and explores the story of St. Albert through a variety of programs which seek to preserve the community's history for the future. The museum houses both permanent and temporary exhibits and also contains a Children’s Discovery Room and gift shop. The archives at the museum consist of over 6,500 artifacts, 1,100 programming objects, 70 linear metres of textual record, around 3,000 pre-1948 photographs and thousands of post-1948 photographs. The museum is operated by Arts and Heritage St. Albert.[citation needed]

St. Albert has a rich arts scene. St. Albert is home to a writers' guild and painters' guild and renowned bands like Social Code and Tupelo Honey hail from St. Albert. The Arden Theatre is a popular venue for many plays and musical performances.

The St. Albert public art gallery, Art Gallery of St. Albert is a focal point of St. Albert’s downtown. The gallery is housed in the historical Banque d'Hochelaga building in the heart of downtown St. Albert. The gallery features monthly exhibitions, a variety of public programs and also runs an annual art auction in St Albert. The Art Gallery of St. Albert is one of the stops on the St. Albert ArtWalk. The gallery is operated by Arts and Heritage St. Albert.[citation needed]

St. Albert is also notable for its Aboriginal heritage. The city is home to the Michif Institute founded by former Senator Thelma Chalifoux, dedicated to preserving and spreading knowledge of the city's Métis background. The Musée Héritage Museum contains many Métis artifacts. Many of the street signs in the city's downtown core are also trilingual, written in French and Cree in addition to English, as a tribute to the city's multiracial and multilinguistic origins. A current city project is to replace English-only signs with trilingual versions as the English-only versions wear out.[citation needed]

In 2008, NBC decided to film portions of its new horror/suspense anthology series Fear Itself in St. Albert's downtown and river valley.[32]

St. Albert also has a St. Albert Children's Theatre group putting on two large musicals a year with many summer camps to participate in.

St. Albert is home to the St. Albert Community Band, whose motto is "Music is for Life!"[33]

Festivals and events[edit]

The St. Albert Place complex

The Northern Alberta International Children's Festival in St. Albert is one of the longest-running children's festivals in North America, attracting over 40,000 participants over 5 days, at the end of May. During the five days of the Festival, children experience sights and sounds of many different cultures while learning through the medium nearest and dearest to their hearts - by playing! The mainstage events feature a host of international artists from Scotland, Netherlands, USA, Mexico, Cuba, New Zealand, and (of course) Canada offering performances of puppetry, music, dance, acrobatics, clowning and theatre that will amaze and delight.[citation needed]

The Kinsmen Rainmaker Rodeo starts with a parade that winds its way through the heart of St. Albert. After the parade, the rodeo begins, with exciting rodeo events, midway, and musical performances.

The Outdoor Farmers' Market, held in downtown St. Albert, is Western Canada’s largest outdoor farmers' market, attracting 10,000 to 15,000 people every Saturday from June to October. You can find locally grown fresh produce, handmade products and crafts and listen to the music of the buskers.

As many as 6,000 participants come to St. Albert to enjoy Rock'n August, a week-long festival held to celebrate the rumbles of chrome pipes and the rim shots of classic Rock and Roll music. Hotrodders come from kilometres around with their masterpieces to show them off and look at the creations of others as well.

Other annual events include the St. Albert Rotary Music Festival, and Mambos & Mocktails, a 3 hour jazz concert played every December at Bellerose Composite High School by the jazz band and choir.

St. Albert also host an annual Harvest Festival at the St. Albert Grain Elevator Park.

The Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Festival, held at the Arden Theatre is one of the largest dance festivals of its kind in North America. It is hosted annually by the Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company and generally takes place during the second weekend in May.[34]

Library services[edit]

The St. Albert Public Library (SAPL) is located in St. Albert Place in the heart of downtown. The Library provides a wide range of services for St. Albert residents and visitors, including lending materials such as books, CDs and DVDs, providing digital resources such as downloadable eBooks and eAudiobooks, databases and streaming products, providing services such as public computing and WiFi access and presenting learning opportunities such as children's storytimes, adult programs and educational sessions including technology training.

Sports and recreation[edit]

RCAF jet mounted by Millenium Park
Historic Alberta Wheat Pool and an Alberta Grain Co. Elevator by the rail line in St. Albert, Alberta. Both saved from demolition and are now Provincial Historic Sites of Alberta. Now known as the St. Albert Grain Elevator Park[35]
Parks

The Red Willow park trail system winds its way all through St. Albert and connects many parks, schools, and residential areas, including Lacombe Lake Park.

Facilities

In September 2006, a $42.77-million multi-purpose leisure centre, Servus Credit Union Place, was built. It features a recreational aquatic centre, a kid's play area, the Troy Murray and Mark Messier hockey rinks, a 2000-seat performance rink, two soccer fields, three basketball courts, a large exercise room, and a running track among other amenities. Construction of the facility, touted as an eventual break-even operation, was approved via plebiscite during the 2004 municipal election. In December 2007, it was learned the facility would lose $2.1 million during its first year of operation,[36] losses that were eventually subsidized by local property taxpayers to the tune of $21.28 per $100,000 of assessment in spring 2008.[37] In 2011, the budgeted operating deficit was $860,800.[38]

There was some controversy in 2006 when the city announced that they were renaming the Mark Messier and Troy Murray hockey rinks, and were going to offer these rights for sale. The two rinks, which together were known as Campbell Arena, were originally named after these local hockey stars shortly after the arena opened in 1992. There was such a controversy, which included an article in Sports Illustrated that mayor Paul Chalifoux decided to repeal the decision. The Campbell twin arena has since been added onto as part of the creation of the St. Albert Multi-Purpose Leisure Centre (now Servus Credit Union Place).

There is also Fountain Park pool and Grosvenor pool, offering a variety of pools, tennis courts, racketball courts and a child play area.

Hockey

St. Albert was twice formerly home to an Alberta Junior Hockey League (AJHL) franchise. Between 1977 and 2004, it was home to the St. Albert Saints, which produced players such as Mark Messier and Mike Comrie. The team moved to Spruce Grove in 2004, becoming the Spruce Grove Saints. In 2007, the AJHL returned to St. Albert when the Fort Saskatchewan Traders relocated to the city, becoming the St. Albert Steel. Playing out of Servus Credit Union Place, the team lasted five seasons before moving to Whitecourt in 2012, become the Whitecourt Wolverines.

NHL ice hockey player Jarome Iginla, is from St. Albert. He played his entire minor hockey career in the St. Albert Minor Hockey Association, which included stints with the Bantam AAA Sabres and the Midget AAA Raiders. It was during the 1992-93 season with the Raiders that Iginla, then an under-age midget player, scored 87 points to lead the Alberta Midget AAA Hockey league in scoring. Following this season Iginla joined the Kamloops Blazers as a 16 year old.

Other hockey players that have played in St. Albert are Mark Messier, Rob Brown, Geoff Sanderson, Fernando Pisani, Paul Comrie, Mike Comrie, Troy Murray, Stu Barnes, Brian Benning, Steven Goertzen, René Bourque, Jamie Lundmark, Erik Christensen, Steve Reinprecht, Todd Ewen, Dion Phaneuf, Ryan Kinasewich, and Drew Stafford.

Football

St. Albert recently added an artificial turf field in Riel Park as the home of every minor team in the city. Former University of Calgary and current Montreal Alouettes Slot Back, Chris Dobko was born and raised in St. Albert

Government[edit]

St. Albert has traditionally elected members of the Conservative Party of Canada to the federal legislature. After the rise of the Reform Party of Canada and its subsequent change to the Canadian Alliance, John G. Williams was elected and served five terms as the city's Member of Parliament, becoming a Conservative MP after the Alliance's 2003 merger with the Progressive Conservative Party, before stepping down in 2008. Brent Rathgeber, formerly of the Conservative Party of Canada, is the current Member of Parliament. He left the Conservative Caucus in 2013 and sits as an independent MP.

Provincially, St. Albert is currently represented by the Progressive Conservative Party of Alberta in the legislature. In previous elections, however, it has alternated between Liberal and Conservative representatives.

St. Albert's governing body is composed of a mayor (currently Nolan Crouse) and six city councillors. Municipal elections are held every four years, the last was October 21, 2013.

Education[edit]

The Little White school

K-12 education[edit]

School districts

St. Albert is also home to two schools from the North Central Francophone School Board. Their schools are "École La Mission" (K-6) located in the Heritage Lakes subdivision and "École Alexandre-Taché" (7-12), located in the Mission subdivision. This school jurisdiction has minority language rights assured by the Constitution Act, 1982 (section 23).

Post-secondary education[edit]

  • Athabasca University has its Centre for Innovative Management in St. Albert.
  • NAIT has an applied research centre and business incubation space in St. Albert. NovaNAIT offers 8,600 square feet (800 square meters) of applied research lab and incubation space, with seven office suites available for early stage companies and entrepreneurs. Meeting space is available for tenants, who also have access to NAIT business consultation and technical expertise.[41]

Continuing education[edit]

St. Albert Further Education, known as "Further Ed", provides learning opportunities to the residents of St. Albert.[42]

The STAR Literacy Program matches volunteer tutors with adults who wish to improve their reading and writing skills.

Media[edit]

There are two distributed newspapers published in St. Albert, the St. Albert Gazette and the "St. Albert Leader". In 2011 a previous newspaper in St. Albert, the Saint City News, closed after 13 years of activity.[43]

Due to the city's adjacency to Edmonton, all major Edmonton media—newspapers, television, and radio—also serve St. Albert. See Media in Edmonton.

Crime[edit]

In 2011, of Canada's 100 largest municipal police service area populations, St. Albert was ranked 59th on Maclean magazine's list of the most dangerous cities in Canada.[44]

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

The nearest airport providing passenger service is the Edmonton International Airport. Local air services are provided by the St. Albert Heliport to the northwest of the city[45] and Villeneuve Airport to the west, while Sturgeon Community Hospital has a helipad to receive and transfer patients.

Public transit[edit]

The city runs St. Albert Transit (StAT) a public transport agency. It runs 21 local routes and 7 commuter routes to Edmonton.[46] Village Transit Station is located at Gate Avenue and Grange Drive. St. Albert Exchange is located at Rivercrest Crescent and St. Vital Avenue. The Metro Line in Edmonton could be extended to St. Albert with four stations within city limits.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alberta Municipal Affairs (2010-09-17). "Municipal Profile – City of St. Albert". Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  2. ^ "Municipal Officials Search". Alberta Municipal Affairs. 2014-09-05. Retrieved 2014-09-05. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  4. ^ "Alberta Private Sewage Systems 2009 Standard of Practice Handbook: Appendix A.3 Alberta Design Data (A.3.A. Alberta Climate Design Data by Town)" (PDF). Safety Codes Council. January 2012. pp. 212–215 (PDF pages 226–229). Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "2014 St. Albert census showscity continues to grow". City of St. Albert. July 21, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2014. 
  6. ^ Edmonton Bulletin, September 27, 1906.
  7. ^ Kevin Ma (November 15, 2008). "The Saints Called Albert". St. Albert Gazette. Archived from the original on June 15, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Table IX: Population of cities, towns and incorporated villages in 1906 and 1901 as classed in 1906". Census of the Northwest Provinces, 1906. Sessional Paper No. 17a. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1907. p. 100. 
  9. ^ "Table I: Area and Population of Canada by Provinces, Districts and Subdistricts in 1911 and Population in 1901". Census of Canada, 1911. Volume I. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1912. pp. 2–39. 
  10. ^ "Table I: Population of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta by Districts, Townships, Cities, Towns, and Incorporated Villages in 1916, 1911, 1906, and 1901". Census of Prairie Provinces, 1916. Population and Agriculture. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1918. pp. 77–140. 
  11. ^ "Table 8: Population by districts and sub-districts according to the Redistribution Act of 1914 and the amending act of 1915, compared for the census years 1921, 1911 and 1901". Census of Canada, 1921. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1922. pp. 169–215. 
  12. ^ "Table 7: Population of cities, towns and villages for the province of Alberta in census years 1901-26, as classed in 1926". Census of Prairie Provinces, 1926. Census of Alberta, 1926. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1927. pp. 565–567. 
  13. ^ "Table 12: Population of Canada by provinces, counties or census divisions and subdivisions, 1871-1931". Census of Canada, 1931. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1932. pp. 98–102. 
  14. ^ "Table 4: Population in incorporated cities, towns and villages, 1901-1936". Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1936. Volume I: Population and Agriculture. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1938. pp. 833–836. 
  15. ^ "Table 10: Population by census subdivisions, 1871–1941". Eighth Census of Canada, 1941. Volume II: Population by Local Subdivisions. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1944. pp. 134–141. 
  16. ^ "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1926-1946". Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1946. Volume I: Population. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1949. pp. 401–414. 
  17. ^ "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1871–1951". Ninth Census of Canada, 1951. Volume I: Population, General Characteristics. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1953. p. 6.73–6.83. 
  18. ^ "Table 6: Population by sex, for census subdivisions, 1956 and 1951". Census of Canada, 1956. Population, Counties and Subdivisions. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1957. p. 6.50–6.53. 
  19. ^ "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1901–1961". 1961 Census of Canada. Series 1.1: Historical, 1901–1961. Volume I: Population. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1963. p. 6.77-6.83. 
  20. ^ "Population by specified age groups and sex, for census subdivisions, 1966". Census of Canada, 1966. Population, Specified Age Groups and Sex for Counties and Census Subdivisions, 1966. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1968. p. 6.50-6.53. 
  21. ^ "Table 2: Population of Census Subdivisions, 1921–1971". 1971 Census of Canada. Volume I: Population, Census Subdivisions (Historical). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1973. p. 2.102-2.111. 
  22. ^ "Table 3: Population for census divisions and subdivisions, 1971 and 1976". 1976 Census of Canada. Census Divisions and Subdivisions, Western Provinces and the Territories. Volume I: Population, Geographic Distributions. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1977. p. 3.40-3.43. 
  23. ^ "Table 4: Population and Total Occupied Dwellings, for Census Divisions and Subdivisions, 1976 and 1981". 1981 Census of Canada. Volume II: Provincial series, Population, Geographic distributions (Alberta). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1982. p. 4.1-4.10. ISBN 0-660-51095-2. 
  24. ^ "Table 2: Census Divisions and Subdivisions – Population and Occupied Private Dwellings, 1981 and 1986". Census Canada 1986. Population and Dwelling Counts – Provinces and Territories (Alberta). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1987. p. 2.1-2.10. ISBN 0-660-53463-0. 
  25. ^ "Table 2: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 1986 and 1991 – 100% Data". 91 Census. Population and Dwelling Counts – Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1992. pp. 100–108. ISBN 0-660-57115-3. 
  26. ^ "Table 10: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions (Municipalities) and Designated Places, 1991 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data". 96 Census. A National Overview – Population and Dwelling Counts. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1997. pp. 136–146. ISBN 0-660-59283-5. 
  27. ^ a b "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Divisions, 2001 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  28. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. 2010-01-06. Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  29. ^ "2012 St. Albert Census". City of St. Albert. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  30. ^ Statistics Canada (Census 2006). "St. Albert - Community Profile". Retrieved 2007-06-14. 
  31. ^ Alberta Municipal Affairs (February 2007). "2006 Municipal Census". Retrieved 2007-02-15.  [dead link]
  32. ^ "NBC to film series in St. Albert". CTV Edmonton. March 7, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  33. ^ "St. Albert Community Band". St. Albert Community Band. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  34. ^ "Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Festival". Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  35. ^ "St. Albert Heritage Sites". City of St. Albert. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  36. ^ "City Council Agenda Report - The City of St. Albert Third Quarterly Report July - September 2007". City of St. Albert. December 3, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  37. ^ "City Council Agenda Report – Servus Credit Union Place - 2008 Amended Budget". City of St. Albert. April 21, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  38. ^ "City Council Agenda Report – Servus Place Business Opportunity and Budget Adjustments". City of St. Albert. 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  39. ^ Greater St. Albert Catholic Schools
  40. ^ St. Albert Public Schools
  41. ^ "NAIT - St. Albert". NAIT. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  42. ^ "General Information". St. Albert Further Education. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 
  43. ^ Cory Hare (July 2, 2011). "Saint City News shuts down | Local News | St. Albert Gazette". stalbertgazette.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  44. ^ "Canada's most dangerous cities 2011". Macleans.ca. Rogers Communication. 2011. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  45. ^ "Sturgeon County and City of St. Albert Intermunicipal Development Plan" (PDF). City of St. Albert. May 2001. p. 13 of 63. Retrieved December 1, 2013. 
  46. ^ "St. Albert Transit". City of St. Albert. 

External links[edit]