The parish was founded in 1871 by the French-Canadian population that was growing in the area. It is located at 50 West Hollis Street. The original church of 1873 was built in the American Gothic Revival style with a chancel terminated by a polygonal apse. The structure was dedicated on June 8, 1873. St Louis is the oldest remaining Catholic parish in Nashua.
In 1920 the parish completed a renovation and expanded the church to include a transept. The extended chancel terminated with a straight wall punctuated with a perpendicular style stained glass window. In the early morning hours of July 20, 1976, a fire consumed the roof of the old church. The parish decided to raze the building except for one of two steeples. The shorter of the two steeples remains as a memorial to the original structure. The new structure was dedicated in 1979. The interior of the church has many items save from the previous building, including the stained glass windows from 1887, doors, sanctuary seating, sanctuary light and other items. The parish is home to the former parishioner of the now closed St. Stanislaus and St. Francis Xavier churches, also in Nashua.
The former St Francis Xavier Catholic church is now home to St. Mary and Archangel Michael Church Coptic Orthodox Church. St Stanislaus Catholic church is now part of St Louis parish and is called Corpus Christi Chapel.