The parish was established in 1847 as St. Benedict's. This came after years of local Catholics having to fight Protestant opposition to establish a parish. A former Baptist church was bought by the congregation and used as its first church building. For the first five years they had no pastor when the Rev. Michael P. Gallagher was assigned to serve the parish. It was under his direction that the current church building was constructed. Located on State Street in Springfield, Massachusetts, the church was built in the 1860s, based on plans from noted architect Patrick Keely of Brooklyn, New York. The parish name was changed to St. Michael at this time. It became a cathedral in 1870 when the Diocese of Springfield was established.
It was extended in 1996, with the Bishop Marshall Center. The addition includes a chapel that seats 60 people, a TV studio for daily broadcast of the Mass, a parish hall that can seat 120 people and a kitchen. It is now handicap accessible.