St. Simons Island Light
|Location||600 Beachview Dr., Saint Simons Island, Georgia|
|Year first constructed||1810|
|Year first lit||1872|
|Construction||Iron and brick|
|Tower shape||Frustum of a cone|
|Markings / pattern||White tower attached to a two-story brick dwelling with red roof|
|Height||104 feet (32 m)|
|Original lens||Third-order Fresnel lens|
|Characteristic||continuous white light with a more intense flash every 60 s|
St. Simons Lighthouse and Lighthouse Keepers' Building
|Area||3.6 acres (1.5 ha)|
|Architect||Poe, Bvt. Gen. O.M.; Cluskey, C.B.|
|Architectural style||Gothic, Other, Eclectic|
|NRHP Reference #||72000386|
|Added to NRHP||April 13, 1972|
The original St. Simons Island lighthouse, which was built in 1810, was a 75-foot-tall (23 m) early federal octagonal lighthouse topped by a 10-foot (3.0 m) oil-burning lamp. During the American Civil War, U.S. military forces employed a Naval blockade of the coast. An invasion by Union troops in 1862 forced Confederate soldiers to abandon the area. The retreating troops destroyed the lighthouse to prevent it from being an aid to the navigation of Union warships.
The U.S. government constructed a new lighthouse to replace the original, building it to the west of the original's location. It is a 104-foot (32 m) brick structure completed in 1872 and was outfitted with a third-order, biconvex Fresnel lens. The lens is one of 70 such lenses that remain operational in the United States. Sixteen of those are in use on the Great Lakes, of which eight are in Michigan. The rotating lens projects four beams of light, with one strong flash every 60 seconds. A cast iron spiral stairway with 129 steps leads to the galley (or watch/service room). In 1876, the lighthouse was overhauled.
The Lighthouse is reputed to be haunted by the ghost of lightkeeper Frederick Osborne, who was killed in a duel with assistant keeper John Stephens in early March 1880. One account had Osborne, apparently a chronic faultfinder, making an inappropriate remark to Stephens's wife, the other had Stephens making unwanted advances on Osborne's wife. At any rate, standing 98 feet apart, Osborne had a pistol and Stephen a shotgun loaded with buckshot. Stephen fatally wounded Osborne and was later acquitted of any charges. Stephens later reported hearing footsteps ascending and descending the tower steps and blamed it on Osborne's ghost. There's an account of keeper Svendsen's family dog Jinx being constantly harassed by the ghost. Multiple witnesses have reporting hearing the sounds on the steps, including Coast Guardsmen while doing routine maintenance of the light mechanism. The belief is the fastidious Fred Osborne is coming back to check and make sure that the light is properly cared for. On November 30, 2013 a paranormal investigation group called LDLParanormal, claims to have identified electronic voice phenomenon (EVP) and recorded them on video with the alleged actual voice of Frederick Osborne. The Video was posted December 3, 2013 and also indicates evidence about Lisa Register who allegedly committed suicide August 19, 1999 by jumping from the top of the lighthouse.
In 1934, the kerosene-burning lamp was replaced by a 1000-watt electrical light. On July 1, 1939, the United States Lighthouse Service was placed under the jurisdiction of the US Coast Guard. In 1953 the lighthouse was fully automated.
Head Keepers: James Gould (1811–1837), Lachlan McIntosh (1837–1852), Alexander D. McIntosh (1852–1855), John F. Carmon (1855–1861), Bradford B. Brunt (1872 – 1874), Frederick Osborne (1874 – 1880), George W. Ashbell (1880 – 1883), Isaac L. Peckham (1883 – 1892), Joseph Champagne (1892 – 1907), Carl O. Svendsen (1907 – 1935), Arthur F. Hodge (1936 – 1945), David O’Hagan (1945 - 1953).
In 1972, the Coast Guard placed rear range lights on two towers at the entrance to the Frederica River off of St. Simons Sound. Entering the entrance channel at sea and proceeding inward, by keeping the lighthouse centered between the two rear range lights, keeps one in the center of the entrance channel. The lighthouse is therefore still an active navigational aid.
In 1972, the light-keepers' cottage was leased to Glynn County. The Coastal Georgia Historical Society spent three years restoring the two-story Victorian light keepers' cottage, located at the base of the lighthouse, which was then converted into a museum. In 1984, they leased the historic lighthouse structure. For a fee, the public can tour the museum, and climb the 129 steps to the top of the lighthouse for a view of St. Simons Sound and the surrounding area.
The tower underwent restoration in 1989–91 and again in 1997–98.
In 2010, the St. Simons Island lighthouse underwent a major renovation. It was closed to the public for several months while all interior and exterior paint was sandblasted off, and then repainted. Eight iron handrail posts at the top of the tower were replaced, having been recast from one of the originals. All ironwork was sandblasted and repaired as needed. Great lengths were taken to protect the valuable Fresnel lens during the restoration. It was bubble wrapped, shrink wrapped, and then finally enclosed in a plywood box. A temporary spotlight attached to the galley of the lighthouse continued to guide ships into the Sound while the main light was out of operation.
- Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society, St. Simons Island (New) Light ARLHS USA-805.
- Amateur Radio Light House Society, World List of Lights (WLOL).
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- United States Coast Guard, Fresnel Lenses Still in Operation.
- Coastal Georgia Historical Society-St. Simons Lighthouse History: http://www.saintsimonslighthouse.org/lhh.html
- Information compiled from "Ghost Stories and Superstitions of Old Saint Simons" collected by Burnette Vanstory; various websites(Coastal Georgia Historical Society-St. Simons Lighthouse History: http://www.saintsimonslighthouse.org/lhh.html,; Explore Southern History.com-Ghost of the St. Simons Lighthouse: http://www.exploresouthernhistory.com/gastsimons2.html; stsimonsisland.com-History of the St. Simons Lighthouse; Coastal Living-Haunted Spots on the Coast-Top 15 Haunted Lighthouses-St. Simons Lighthouse, St. Simons Island, Georgia: http://www.coastalliving.com/travel/top-15-haunted-lighthouses-00414000072092/page5.html; About.com-Paranormal Phenomenal-St. Simons Lighthouse: http://paranormal.about.com/od/hauntedplaces/ig/Haunted-Lighthouses/St--Simons-Lighthouse.htm; Haunted Lighthouses-St. Simons Island Light House by T Duplain: http://www.angelsghosts.com/haunted_light_houses_st_simons_island_lighthouse.html; Haunted Hovel-The old lighthouse, St. Simons Island: http://www.hauntedhovel.com/oldlighthouse.html; Lighthouse Friends.com-St. Simons, GA: http://www.lighthousefriends.com/light.asp?ID=328; Georgia’s Ghostly Getaways: http://www.katywalls.com/ggg.html; PBS-Legendary Lighthouses-Jinx and the Ghost at St. Simons Island/Shrimpers: http://www.pbs.org/legendarylighthouses/html/satlgs.html#ghost); and personal experiences by former BM2 George Harwood, USCG, and at one time in charge of maintaining the lighthouse
- United States Lighthouse Service
- Former BM2 George Harwood, USCG, who installed the range lights
- Coastal Georgia Historical Society website
- Coast Guard Auxiliary-Keepers of the Light: http://www.cgauxssi.us/html/ssi_lighthouse_.html
- Bansemer, R.L., Painting of St. Simons Island Light.
- Jones, Ray, (1988) Southeastern Lighthouses.
- McCarthy, Kevin (1988) Georgia's Lighthouses and Historic Coastal Sites.
- Sullivan, Buddy, The Lighthouses of Georgia, The Keeper's Log, Spring 1988.