St Agnes, Cornwall

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For other uses, see Saint Agnes (disambiguation).
St Agnes
Cornish: Breanek
Churchtown, St Agnes - geograph.org.uk - 367669.jpg
Churchtown, St Agnes
St Agnes is located in Cornwall
St Agnes
St Agnes
 St Agnes shown within Cornwall
Population Parish 7257, Village 2230
OS grid reference SW713507
Unitary authority Cornwall
Shire county Cornwall
Ceremonial county Cornwall
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town St. Agnes
Postcode district TR5
Dialling code 01872 55
Police Devon and Cornwall
Fire Cornwall
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament Truro & Falmouth
List of places
UK
England
Cornwall

Coordinates: 50°18′43″N 5°12′14″W / 50.312°N 5.204°W / 50.312; -5.204

St Agnes (Cornish: Breanek)[1] is a civil parish and a large village on the north coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village is about five miles (8 km) north of Redruth and ten miles (16 km) southwest of Newquay.[2]

The village of St Agnes, a popular coastal tourist spot, lies on a main road between Redruth and Perranporth. It was a prehistoric and modern centre for mining of copper, tin and arsenic until the 1920s. Local industry has also included farming and fishing, and more recently tourism.

The St Agnes district has a heritage of industrial archaeology and much of the landscape is of considerable geological interest. There are also stone-age remains in the parish. The manor of Tywarnhaile was one of the 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall.

Geography[edit]

Trevaunance Cove
Clearing skies over St Agnes Beacon
Domenichino, Saint Agnes, c. 1620, Royal Collection, Windsor Castle
Bawden Rocks from Trevellas Coombe
St Agnes, Trevellas Porth
Mouth of Chapel Porth

St Agnes, on Cornwall's north coast along the Bristol Channel, is in the Pydar hundred and rural deanery.[2][3] St Agnes is situated along the St Agnes Heritage Coast.[4] The St Agnes Heritage Coast has been a nationally designated protected area since 1986. The marine site protects 40 species of mammals and amphibians.[5][6] Interesting features along the coast include Trevaunance Cove, Trevellas Porth, Crams, Chapel Porth, Hanover Cove, and Porthtowan. Some of these have beaches, and there are also two beaches at Perranporth.[7]

The 627-hectare (1,550-acre) Godrevy Head to St Agnes site,[8] is situated along the north Cornwall coast of the Celtic Sea in the Atlantic Ocean. It starts at Godrevy Head (with the Godrevy Towans) in the west and continues for 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the north east, through Portreath, Porthtowan and ends just past St Agnes Head, north of the village of St Agnes.[9][10]

St Agnes Beacon overlooks the Atlantic Ocean and is considered "the most prominent feature" of the Heritage coastline, with coastal and inland views that may be enjoyed during hillside walks. The National Trust landmark's name comes from the Cornish name "Bryanick".[4][11] "Beacon" is a word of Anglo-Saxon origin referring to the use of a hill summit for a warning signal fire.[12] During the Napoleonic Wars a guard was stationed on the hill to look out for French ships and light a warning fire on seeing any.[13]

St Agnes Beacon and the surrounding cliff tops are one of the last remnants of a huge tract of heathland which once spread across Cornwall. This rare and important habitat is internationally recognised for its wealth of wildlife and from late summer onwards comes alive with colour, forming a brilliant yellow and purple patchwork of gorse and heather.

— National Trust[14]

Geology[edit]

To the northwest foot of the St Agnes Beacon is Cameron Quarry and St Agnes Beacon Pits, Sites of Special Scientific Interest noted for their geological interest.[15][16] Trevaunance Cove is also a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Geological Conservation Review site of national importance for the ″... the two principal ore-bearing mineral veins associated with the Hercynian St. Agnes-Cligga granite″.[17]

Toponymy[edit]

The original name of St Agnes was "Bryanick", a Cornish name which may mean pointed hill (i.e. St Agnes Beacon).[4] Craig Weatherhill suggests it was a compound of brea (hill) and Anek (Agnes) and gives the first recorded form as "Breanek" (1420–99).[18]

Neither Bryanick nor St Agnes, though, were established at the time of the Domesday Survey, 1086; the area was included in Perran Sand (Perranzabuloe). The St Agnes Chapel was named after the Roman martyr Saint Agnes who refused to marry a son of Sempronius, a governor of Rome and member of the Sempronia family. She was killed in 304 AD.[19]

According to Arthur G. Langdon, writing in the 1890s, the inhabitants of St Agnes pronounced its name as if it were "St Anne's" to distinguish it from St Agnes in the Isles of Scilly.[20]

History and antiquities[edit]

Antiquities[edit]

There are a number of ancient archaeological sites in the St Agnes parish.[21] The earliest found to date are mesolithic fragments which are dated from 10,000 to 4,000 BC. They were found near New Downs and West Polberro.[22]

During the Bronze Age barrows were created in many places in the area,[23][nb 1] which was probably because its rich supply of bronze-making raw materials: copper and tin.[31] During the Iron Age there were more forts and evidence of mining.[32][33][nb 2] A noteworthy Iron Age site is the Caer Dane hillfort, 3.5 km southeast of Perranporth. It had three concentric defensive walls surrounding the inner, topmost ring.[37] St Piran's enclosed round was 200 metres (660 ft) wide and may have been a "playing place" (performance area). During the Middle Ages it was converted to a "Plain-an-gwarry (theatre)". It is still used sometimes as a theatre.[38][39][nb 3]

There are other prehistoric geographic features, but the specific age or time period is unclear.[nb 4] The Bolster Bank, or Bolster & Chapel Bulwark, at Porth, is an univallate earthen boundary about 3.3 kilometres (2.1 mi) long. It was likely used for defensive purposes, protecting the heath and valuable tin resources. Located on the "land side" of St Agnes Beacon, evidence of the bulwark can be seen sporadically from Bolster Farm to Goonvrea Farm, down to Wheal Freedom and then to Chapel Coombes. Although much of the boundary has been levelled, it is presently at its highest by Bolster Farm and Goonvrea where it is about 3.3 metres (11 ft) high. It could have been constructed as early as the Iron Age or some time in the Dark Ages.[50]

Some Iron Age buildings and features were used during the Roman period from 43 to 410 AD.[nb 5]

Middle Ages[edit]

Trevellas Manor Farm

The first chapel or church in St Agnes was believed to have been build as an early Celtic church sometime between 410 and 1066 AD; At that time it also had an enclosure. The Church of St Agnes was built on the same location around 1482.[54][55] A medieval chapel with an enclosure stood at Chapel Porth, about 570 metres north west of Wheal Freedom. There was a holy well and a post-medieval (1540 to 1901) storehouse or shelter on the site. The chapel was destroyed in 1780, and the holy well remained until 1820. There are still some remains ruins of the medieval enclosure and the small building.[56]

During the Middle Ages there was tin working at a St Agnes Head tin works site with an extractive pit for openworks and lode back workings.[57] There are also ancient signs of tin works at Wheal Coates, near the Chapel Porth area cliffs. The site includes an adit, which is a tunnel or access to the mine; dam; dressing floor where the ore was processed for smelting; and an open cut where excavation occurred in a ravine on the surface. There were also prospecting pits to locate ore below the surface and a wheel pit for a water wheel. A bothy provided lodging for the miners.[58][59] [nb 6]

A manor was built in St Agnes during the Middle Ages. Between 1700 and 1800 a house was built on the site of the previous manor. It is now a convalescent home.[62][63] A Trevellas country house was built during this period. Sometime between 1540 to 1901 a new house was erected where the country house once stood.[64]

16th and 17th century[edit]

Example of another lime kiln in Cornwall (at Boscastle in the parish of Forrabury and Minster)

A chapel created between 1540 and the 1800s was located just north of Mawla. In its latter years the building was a shed for cows. By 1847 it was in ruins. The St John the Baptist church in Mount Hawke received the font from this church, although its original "Medieval" carvings were lost when the font was resculpted.[65][66]

It was during this period that the Gill family were first recorded to be living in the area. The Gill family have traced their origins to St Agnes from as early as 1565, where it is believed that they were one of the more influential yeoman families.

The area saw an emergence of a variety of industries, such as public houses. The Miners Arms Public House was constructed in Mithian in the 17th century. It saw additions and renovations in the following two centuries. The building exterior is made of granite, killas rubble, brick and elvan. It is roofed in Delabole slate.[67] Trevaunance Cove had a post medieval lime kiln that operated sometime between 1540 and 1901.[68]

18th and 19th century[edit]

Medieval mining locations began to take on modern methods of mining in the 19th century, like that at Wheal Coates.[58] Wheal Lushington is thought to have been the biggest tin mining operation in the area. Operational by 1808, smelting was also performed at Wheal Lushington.[69] Modern mining practices were employed at Blue Hills Mine about 1810 and until 1897. There had been prior mining activities in that area before 1780.[70] A number of copper, tin and arsenic mines operated during the 18th, 19th and some into the 20th century.[71]

Allen's Corn Mill operated at Porthtowan between 1752 and 1816.[72]

20th century[edit]

From 1903 until 1963 a railway station on the Perranporth line operated in St Agnes. After the railway station closed, the dismantled railway was used for the mining industry.[73]

Between 1939 and 1940, Cameron Camp, also known as the 10th Light Anti-Aircraft Practice Camp, Royal Artillery, was built on the site of a Napoleonic Wars target. The camp was named after an area landowner and served as an army camp, slit trench and anti-aircraft battery. After the war the camp was used for housing. It was levelled in 1971.[74][nb 7]

Religion[edit]

Looking up Town Hill to the church and St Agnes Hotel

There are churches and chapels in the district for three Christian denominations: Anglican, Methodist and Roman Catholic.[76]

Anglican[edit]

St Agnes Parish Church

The Church of St Agnes is believed to have been built as a chapel of ease about 1482, on the foundation of what is possibly an ancient Celtic church (410 to 1066 AD). The records of the Diocese of Exeter refer to a chapel of St Agnes in the parish of Perranzabuloe in 1374.[77] In medieval and early modern times St Agnes was part of the parish of Perranzabuloe. In 1846 it was made into a parish church and two years later the building itself, exclusive of the spire and tower, was restored by Piers St Aubyn. In 1905 the spire was rebuilt. It is a Grade II listed building.[54][78]

On the southwest side of the church by the churchyard gate is a granite wayside cross from the Middle Ages. The stone is the remains of a lych stone used for holding coffins.[79] Arthur G. Langdon notes that John Thomas Blight recorded its former use as a lych stone. The head of the stone is incomplete; both part of one side of the head and the uppermost part of the head have been cut off.[20]

Mount Hawke Parish Church
Mount Hawke church
St Peter's Church in the parish of Mithian
An old Methodist chapel on Trevellas Downs

In 1846 the Mount Hawke chapel-of-ease, dedicated to St John the Baptist, was formed from church members who had been meeting in a small building in the village; it became the parish church of the new ecclesiastical parish of Mount Hawke in 1847. The Bishop of Exeter consecrated the stone Perpendicular style building on 5 August 1878.[80]

Mithian Parish Church

Another Anglican chapel-of-ease was St Peter's Church in Mithian. The Decorated style church was built between Mithian and Blackwater at Chiverton Cross in 1847 and dedicated to St Peter. There had been two or more chapels in Mithian prior to this church. One was at Mawla was subsequently used to shelter cows. The Mithian church closed in 2008.[81]

Roman Catholic[edit]

A Roman Catholic chapel was built in 1882 on Trevellas Downs. In 1958 the church of Our Lady, Star of the Sea, was built in St Agnes to the designs of Cowell, Drewitt & Wheatly, architects.[76][82]

Methodist[edit]

There are several Methodist churches in St Agnes: the former Wesleyan Methodist church, the former United Methodist chapel and a former Primitive Methodist chapel.[76] Mithian previously had a Wesleyan Methodist chapel.[81] Mawla, Mount Hawke, Skinner's Bottom and Porthtowan all also had Wesleyan chapels. Skinner's Bottom also had a Primitive Methodist chapel. Wheal Rose had a Bible Christian chapel.[80]

Education[edit]

Mithian Primary School
St Agnes Miners and Mechanics Institute

Schools for children ages five to eleven include the Mithian School and the St Agnes School.[83][84] The Mithian school prospectus shows they also conduct classes for children from Mithian and the neighbouring area from one to six years of age.[85] The local Blackwater Community Primary School provides services for infants and children to age 11. The school facilities include a sports field, wild area and greenhouse.[86][87][88] Lastly, there is a primary school for children 4-11 at Mount Hawke.[89]

Near Blackwater is the Three Bridges Junior School for children ages 11 to 19.[90][91]

John Passmore Edwards in 1893 had built and donated the Miners and Mechanics Institute in the village of St Agnes. Individuals could attend lectures or access the library. This one story building was designed by W.J. Willis and its exterior was made of killas and granite. The gabled roof was covered with Delabole slate. Within the building there were two main rooms and other smaller rooms.[92]

Culture[edit]

Outdoor activities include beach side walks, swimming, and surfing. The area has a number of paths for coastal walks or cycling. There are also art shows, craft fayres, tea parties and coffee mornings. Music and dancing can be found in the public houses. Annual events are Carnival week, Lifeboat day, Summer plays by the St Agnes Players, Victorian Fair Day and the Bolster the Giant pageant.[93][94]

The Blue Hills area hosts the Motor Cycling Club's Lands End Trial for cars and bikes. The first run being held in 1908.[95] There are several sports clubs including rugby union, football, boxing and netball.[96]

The St Agnes Parish Museum provides information about the history of the St Agnes area. Mining and the coastal history figure prominently, including a 700-pound (320 kg) leatherback turtle.[97]

Economy[edit]

The former Wheal Lushington engine house in Porthtowan, Cornwall has been converted into a cafe.
St Agnes and surrounding farm land from St Agnes Beacon

Historically, St Agnes and the surrounding area relied on fishing, farming and mining for copper and tin.[98] There were also iron foundries and an iron works, stamps and crazing mills, a smelter, blowing houses and clay extraction.[99]

By the 1930s mining and related industries had nearly ceased and by the 1950s the area had very little industrial commerce. Instead, the area became a bedroom community for workers in the surrounding towns and cities like Newquay and Truro, a desired retirement community and a favored holiday spot. The mining history is part of the draw for tourists, like the Blue Hills Tin Streams where tourists can see tin work demonstrations.[100]

St Agnes village is relatively self-sufficient with local shops and business enterprises that support the village itself and the surrounding farming country.[100][101]

Agriculture[edit]

Prior to the mid-19th century, the moors and waste land would not support a great agricultural industry. After the land was improved, though, there was an increase in the number of farms. By the late 19th century it was the "largest single trade in the locality and parish". Maltings, a related industry operated in Peterville in the 19th century.[102]

Remains of former harbour at Trevaunance Cove

Harbour[edit]

Since the 17th century there have been many attempts to create a harbour for St Agnes. Between 1632 and 1709 the Tonkins, lords of the manor of Trevaunance, expended the family legacy as they tried to build a harbour. Three attempts were made, the last of which was assisted by Henry Winstanley, but that harbour was washed away in 1705.[103] The harbour built in 1710 by an unrelated party was levelled in 1730 by the crashing Atlantic Ocean waves. A new harbour constructed in 1798 supported a fishing industry and allowed for the export of copper ore and the import of coal from South Wales for the smelters at the mines. St Agnes remained a busy port until the collapse of the harbour wall in a storm in 1915/16. There are only remains of the old harbour in existence.[104][105][106]

In 1802, a pilchard fishing industry was established from the harbour, reaching its peak in 1829 and 1830 before declining.[104]

Mining[edit]

Towanroath engine house, Wheal Coates
Clifftop Tower. In the distance are St Agnes Head and Beacon.

Cornwall, along with its neighbouring county of Devon, was an important source of tin for Europe and the Mediterranean throughout ancient times, but began dominating the market during late Roman times in the 3rd century AD with the exhaustion of many Spanish tin mines.[107] Cornwall maintained its importance as a source of tin throughout medieval times and into the modern period.[108]

At their height about 100 mines employed 1000 miners. Mining came to an end in the 1920s and many of these mines are still on view for tourists.[98] United Hills mine produced 86,500 tons of copper ore, 1826-1906; and Wheal Towan 54,610 tons, 1800-31. Lesser quantities of black tin were produced from these mines: West Wheal Kitty 10,070 tons (1881-1915); Wheal Kitty 9,510 tons (1853-1918); Polberro 4,300 tons (1837–95); Penhalls 3,610 tons (1834–96); and Blue Hills 2,120 tons (1858–97).[109] Much of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape, a World Heritage Site, is in the parish.[110] Tin production is still worked at the Blue Hills Tin Streams [111][112]

Wheal Coates was the site of medieval mining between 1066 and 1540, and it was a modern mining producer from 1802 and into the 20th century.[58] The visible remains of Wheal Coates are the engine houses built in the 1870s to crush ore, run a Calciner, or pump water. The sites, owned by the National Trust, include the Whim Engine House, Towanroath Pumping Engine House and the Calciner. Before that the Jericho valley, where Blue Hills Tin Streams operated, had supported mining operations for centuries.[113] At Chapel Coombe a set of old Cornish stamps has been re-erected by the Trevithick Society.[114] Stippy Stappy is a row of 18th century cottages on a very steep incline.[115]

Tourism[edit]

St Agnes is a popular tourist destination. The coastal area is maintained by the National Trust and is designated part of the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB).[116] Beaches in the St Agnes Parish include Trevaunance Cove, near the village of St Agnes. It's a small sandy beach with lifeguards and adequate parking. Porthtowan village also has a sandy beach. Trevellas Porth is popular with divers and fishermen, but because it is quite rocky it is not recommended for swimming. Chapel Porth is another area beach.[117]

Demographics[edit]

The population of the St Agnes Parish is made up of the people in two St Agnes groupings, Blackwater, Mount Hawke, Porthtowan and Wheal Rose. In 2010, the population was 1,440 in St Agnes Central and 2,480 in St Agnes Fringe, Mithian and Trevellas for a total of 3,920 people.[118][119] In Blackwater and Mount Hawke there were 2,130 people[120] and in Porthtowan and Wheal Rose there were an additional 1,580 people.[121] The total of the numbers from the Neighbourhood profiles is 7,630.

St Agnes Working Aged (16-64) Summary[118][119][120][121]
Description St Agnes Central St Agnes Fringe, Mithian and Trevellas Blackwater and Mount Hawke Porthtowan and Wheal Rose Total Percentage of Total Working Aged
Working aged
852
1,506
1,232
1,028
4,618
Not claiming benefits
762
1,351
1,102
883
4,098
89%
Out of work benefits
70
120
110
120
420
9%
Other benefits, includes carers, disabled, bereaved and unknown
20
35
20
25
100
2%

The statistics above were compiled from individual municipality information. The following is an aggregate statistic of the Community Network Area that St Agnes shares with Perranporth for managing local governmental activities with Cornwall Council:

St Agnes and Perranporth Community Network Area Population 2010[122]
Community Network Area Age 0-15 Working age Age 65+ All Ages
St Agnes and Perranporth 2,700 10,600 4,100 17,400

This represents a 6% growth since 2001. With a total network area of 12,453 hectares, the population density is 1.40 acres/person.[123]

Government and politics[edit]

The St Agnes Parish wards include Blackwater, Mithian, Mount Hawke, St Agnes, and Porthtowan.[124][125] Council members manage parish business through the allotment, burial, finance, planning and staffing committees in accordance with established policies and procedures.[126][127]

Since 1 July 1837 St Agnes has been continuously registered in the Truro Registration district.[128] In 1974, local districts were created to manage local government as the result of the Local Government Act 1972.[129] Under the The District of Carrick (Electoral Changes) Order 2002, Carrick District, which had managed the parish of St Agnes and other wards, would be dissolved and St Agnes would manage its own local government with three parish councillors.[130][131] Since June 2009 it has been part of the St. Agnes and Perranporth Community Network of the Cornwall Council.[132]

Transport[edit]

There is bus service within Cornwall by a number of operators. The major operators in the Cornwall area are Western Greyhound and First Devon & Cornwall.[133][134] Service runs through the village of St Agnes and other towns.[135][136] Rail service is offered out of Newquay railway station, Redruth railway station, Truro railway station and other western Cornwall municipalities, which is connected with bus service through the Ride Cornwall and Plusbus programs.[137]

Ferry service is available to the Isles of Scilly from Penzance; Padstow to Rock; and other locations.[138] Air travel is available through Newquay Cornwall Airport.[139]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Near Carn Gowla is a Bronze Age (2600 to 700 BC) clearance cairn field, which seems to indicate a particular plan, such as the clearance of a field for agriculture.[24][25][26] The Trevellas Barrow site lies at the end of one of the Trevellas Airfield runways. Excavated in 1940 by Charles Kenneth Croft Andrew, the site is believed to be a tumulus or burial site that had a bucket urn and pottery sherds. It was defined as an "intact ritual deposit", probably from about 2000 BC. There are no sign of its former shape.[27] A larger barrow site east of St Agnes village shows evidence of cremation and up to eight barrows.[28] St Agnes Beacon is the site of several barrows or cairns from this age. It was later a beacon point sometime between 1580 and 1732 and a prospect tower between 1767 and 1799.[29] There were other Bronze Age barrows in the area.[30]
  2. ^ On St Agnes Beacon is the site of an Iron Age hillfort and oval enclosure. The enclosure follows the northern edge of the hill for 180 metres (590 ft).[32] Just south of Mount Hawke was an Iron Age round and 60 by 70 metres (200 by 230 ft) enclosure. There may have also have been mining or quarry activity on this site during the Middle Ages.[33] Northwest of Wheal Rose was an Iron Age building, a terraced field system, and an excavation pit.[34][35] On the coast, west of St Agnes Beacon, is a piece of land called Tubby's Head. It was an Iron Age (800 BC to 43 AD) promontory fort or quay about 20 by 2.3 metres (65.6 by 7.5 ft). A causeway entrance exists to the north side of the site.[36]
  3. ^ Bronze Age and Iron Age material goods that have been excavated include arrowheads, axes, stone tools and vessels, and spindle whorls.[40]
  4. ^ Caer Kief, for instance, is a prehistoric earthwork or hillfort defined as a "round", which means a small Iron Age settlement, but its dates of construction and habitation are unclear. Located south of Carnkief and west of Wheal Frances, it is a subsquare camp measuring 120 by 125 metres (394 by 410 ft). Located on the crest of a ridge, it is encircled by a stone rampart, bank and ditch; the east-west bank was 380 metres (1,250 ft) long.[41][42] There is also the prehistoric Four Burrows.[7] South of Mount Hawke was a late prehistoric settlement of unenclosed huts.[43][44] Nearby, close to the houses at Menagissey, are two late prehistoric or Roman rounds with a circular enclosure. They are "the most westerly of a series of apparently associated earthworks seen by (Charles) Thomas which ran between Menagissey and Coosewartha."[45][46] Other rounds and field systems are found in the area.[47][48][49]
  5. ^ Northwest of Wheal Rose and west of Skinners Bottom was building, a terraced field system, and an excavation pit.[34] South of Mount Hawke, near the houses at Menagissey, are rounds with a circular enclosure built during the late prehistoric period that continued to be used through this period.[45] Also in the area were other rounds and field systems used in a previous and Roman period.[33][47][48][49] Closer to the coast, just southwest of Towan Cross, was a set of rounds and circular enclosures built during the late prehistoric period that have evidence of use during the Roman occupation.[51][52] Roman Coins through the 4th century AD were found in the St Agnes Parish area.[53]
  6. ^ A medieval rabbit farm was found on St Agnes Head; It was identified by the presence of pillow mounds.[60][61]
  7. ^ Cameron Camp was built upon a Napoleonic Wars target, which was built in 1799 and operated through 1815. The target was raised when Cameron Camp was built for World War II.[74][75]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Place-names in the Standard Written Form (SWF) : List of place-names agreed by the MAGA Signage Panel. Cornish Language Partnership.
  2. ^ a b Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 203 Land's End. ISBN 978-0-319-23148-7.  and Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 200 Newquay & Bodmin. ISBN 978-0-319-22938-5. 
  3. ^ St Agnes. Vision of Britain. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  4. ^ a b c St Agnes Heritage Coast. British Express. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  5. ^ St Agnes Heritage Coast. Protected Planet. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  6. ^ Species Protected Planet: St Agnes Heritage Coast. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  7. ^ a b St Agnes Cornwall. Explore Britain. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  8. ^ "Godrevy Head to St Agnes". Natural England. 1989. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "Godrevy Head to St Agnes map". Natural England. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  10. ^ Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 203 Land's End ISBN 978-0-319-23148-7
  11. ^ St Agnes Beacon. St Agnes Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  12. ^ Macdonald, A. M., ed. (1972) Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers; p. 111.
  13. ^ Mee, Arthur (1937) Cornwall. (The King's England.) London: Hodder & Stoughton; p. 195
  14. ^ St Agnes and Chapel Porth. National Trust. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  15. ^ "Cameron Quarry". Natural England. 1996. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  16. ^ "St Agnes Beacon Pits". Natural England. 1986. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  17. ^ "Trevaunance Cove". Natural England. 1993. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  18. ^ Weatherhill, Craig. (2009) A Concise Dictionary of Cornish Place-names, Westport, Co. Mayo: Evertype; p. 62
  19. ^ Samuel Drew. The History of Cornwall: From the Earliest Records and Traditions, to the Present Time. W. Penaluna; 1824 [cited 21 September 2012]. pp. 16-17.
  20. ^ a b Langdon, Arthur G. (1896) Old Cornish Crosses. Truro: Joseph Pollard, p. 77
  21. ^ Search on: St Agnes Cornwall. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  22. ^ Monument No. 428381 - New Downs / West Polberro Monolith., Monument No. 428381 - New Downs / West Polberro Monolith - map. and Monument No. 428408 - New Downs / West Polberro Monolith. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  23. ^ Search on: St Agnes Cornwall Barrow. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  24. ^ Monument No. 1151996. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  25. ^ Clearance Cairn. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  26. ^ Map of Monument No. 1151996. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  27. ^ Trevellas Barrow. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  28. ^ Monument No. 428346 - St Agnes Barrow. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  29. ^ Monument No. 428343 - St Agnes Beacon Barrow, Beacon, and Tower. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  30. ^ Middle Barrow., Monument No. 427903 - Goonown Barrow., Mingoose Barrow., Monument No. 427915 - Mount Hawke Area Barrow., Monument No. 427924 - Skinners Bottom Area Barrow., Monument No. 427912 - Two Burrows Farm Area Barrow., and Monument No. 427942 - Mount Hawke and Two Burrows Farm Area Barrow. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  31. ^ History of St Agnes. Cornwall Tourism Magazine. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  32. ^ a b Monument No. 428361 - Agnes Beacon Iron Age Hillfort. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  33. ^ a b c Monument No. 427939 - Mount Hawke Area Iron Age round and enclosure. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  34. ^ a b Monument No. 1137598 - Wheal Rose Area Iron Age building and terraced field. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  35. ^ Monument No. 1137598 - Wheal Rose Area Iron Age building and terraced field - map. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  36. ^ Monument 426274 - Promontory fort or landing point. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  37. ^ Caer Dane. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  38. ^ St Piran's Round. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  39. ^ St Piran's Round - map. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
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  41. ^ Caer Kief. English Heritage National Monuments. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Foster, R. J. (1964) St Agnes Methodist Church.

External links and references[edit]