St Albans

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St Albans
StAlbansCathedral-PS02.JPG
View of the west end of St Albans Abbey Church
St Albans is located in Hertfordshire
St Albans
St Albans
 St Albans shown within Hertfordshire
Area  6.99 sq mi (18.1 km2)
Population 57,795 (2011)[1]
   – density  8,268 /sq mi (3,192 /km2)
OS grid reference TQ116931
   – London 19 mi (31 km)  SSE
District St Albans
Shire county Hertfordshire
Region East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ST. ALBANS
Postcode district AL1, AL2, AL3, AL4
Dialling code 01727
Police Hertfordshire
Fire Hertfordshire
Ambulance East of England
EU Parliament East of England
UK Parliament St Albans
List of places
UK
England
Hertfordshire

Coordinates: 51°45′18″N 0°20′10″W / 51.755°N 0.336°W / 51.755; -0.336

St Albans /snt ˈɔːlbənz/ (Lat. Villa Sancti Albani or Villa Albani) is a city and unparished area in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 19 miles (31 km) north of central London. It forms the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans. It was the first major town on the old Roman road of Watling Street for travellers heading north and became the Roman city of Verulamium. It is a historic market town and is now a dormitory town within the London commuter belt.

Toponymy[edit]

Saint Alban, the first British Christian martyr, was possibly beheaded in AD 308 by Maximian on the orders of Emperor Diocletian, who denounced Christianity and had ordered the deaths of all subjects and allies of the Roman Empire who refused to give up the faith.[2] Saint Alban consequently gave the town its modern name.

St Albans has two official demonyms: Verulamian and Albanian. St Albans was a settlement of pre-Roman origin named Verlamion (or Verulam) by the Ancient British, Catuvellauni tribe.

History[edit]

Main article: History of St Albans
The early 15th century Clock Tower

The St Albans area has a long history of settlement. The Celtic Catuvellauni tribe had a settlement at Prae Hill a mile or so to the west. The Roman city of Verulamium, second-largest town in Roman Britain after Londinium, was built alongside this in the valley of the River Ver a little nearer to the present city centre.

After the Roman withdrawal the town became the centre of the territory or regio of the Anglo-Saxon Waeclingas tribe, being called Verlamchester or Wæclingacaester.[3]

The mediaeval town grew up on the hill to the east of this around the Benedictine foundation of St Albans Abbey. This is the spot where tradition has it that St Alban, the first British Christian martyr, was beheaded some time before AD 324. It was at one time the principal abbey in England and the first draft of Magna Carta was drawn up there, reflecting its political importance. The Abbey Church, now St Albans Cathedral (formally the Cathedral & Abbey Church of St Alban but still known locally as The Abbey) became the parish church when it was bought by the local people in 1553, soon after the priory was dissolved in 1539. It was made a cathedral in 1877 when the City Charter was granted. There is evidence that the original site was somewhat higher up the hill than the present building and there had certainly been successive abbeys before the current building was started in 1077.

St Albans School, a public school which, since 1871, occupies a site to the west of the Abbey and which includes the 14th century Abbey Gateway, was founded in AD 948 and is the only school in the English-speaking world to have educated a Pope (Adrian IV). It numbered amongst its buildings until comparatively recently a converted former hat factory, a link with the city's industrial past. Nearby Luton was also a notable centre for the hat making industry.

St Albans: French Row (to the left), Market Place (to the right), St Peter's Street and the tower of St Peter's Church (centre)

The road between the Abbey and the school, running down to the River Ver and Verulamium Park (on part of the site of Roman Verulamium), is called Abbey Mill Lane. On this road are the palaces of the Bishops of St Albans and Hertford. The Fighting Cocks, one of the oldest public houses in England, is at the Verulamium Park end of this road. Also on the River Ver, at the St Michael's Village end of the park, is Kingsbury Watermill, which is now maintained as a museum with a waffle house attached.

Two battles of the Wars of the Roses took place in or near the town. The First Battle of St Albans was fought on 22 May 1455 within the town of St Albans itself, and the Second Battle of St Albans was fought on 17 February 1461, just to the north.[4]

The growth of St Albans was generally slow before the 20th century, reflecting its status as a rural market town, a Christian pilgrimage site, and the first coaching stop of the route to and from London - a fact which also accounts for its numerous inns, many dating from Tudor times. In the inter-war years it became a popular centre for the electronics industry. In the post-World War II years it was expanded significantly as part of the post-War redistribution of population out of Greater London that also saw the creation of new towns.

The city today shows evidence of building and excavation from all periods of its history and is a tourist destination. Notable buildings include the Abbey and the early 15th century Clock Tower (pictured). The clock tower is one of only two similar towers in England; it is also the site of an Eleanor cross, which was pulled down in 1703, it had suffered years of neglect, and had been struck and badly damaged by a carriage, it was replaced by the town pump. A fountain was erected in its place in 1874, now relocated to Victoria Place.

Running into St Albans from the south is Holywell Hill (generally pronounced "holly-well hill"), its name taken from the story of St Alban. Legend has it that the Romans were looking for a traitor that had been injured and Alban found the traitor and helped him to recover; somehow, after the traitor had recovered and left, the Romans found out that Alban had helped the traitor to escape and had him beheaded. The severed head rolled down the hill from the execution site and into a well at the bottom, thus Holy-well Hill.

Remains of Roman wall

The mixed character of St Albans and proximity to London has made it a popular filming location. The Abbey and Fishpool Street areas were used for the pilot episode of the 1960s' ecclesiastical TV comedy All Gas and Gaiters. The area of Romeland, directly north of the Abbey Gateway and the walls of the Abbey and school grounds, can be seen masquerading as part of an Oxford college in some episodes of Inspector Morse (and several local pubs also appear). Fishpool Street, running from Romeland to St Michael's village, stood in for Hastings in some episodes of Foyle's War. Life Begins was filmed largely in and around St Albans. The Lady Chapel in the Abbey itself was used as a location for at least one scene in Sean Connery's 1995 film First Knight, whilst the nave of the Abbey was used during a coronation scene as a substitute for Westminster Abbey in Johnny English starring Rowan Atkinson. The 19th century gatehouse of the former prison near the mainline station appeared in the title sequence of the TV series Porridge, starring Ronnie Barker. The 2001 film Birthday Girl starring Ben Chaplin and Nicole Kidman was also partly filmed in St Albans.

More recently, several scenes from the film Incendiary, starring Michelle Williams, Ewan McGregor and Matthew Macfadyen, were filmed in St Albans, focusing in particular on the Abbey and the Abbey Gateway.

The Clock Tower[edit]

Between 1403 and 1412 Thomas Wolvey, formerly the Royal Mason, was engaged to build "Le Clokkehouse" in the Market Place. It is the only extant mediaeval town belfry in England. The tower's design was based on the Clock House at Westminster Palace that the architect Henry Yevele (Wolvey's master) built in 1365. The Clock Tower was used to sound the curfew until 1863. The Tower was also used as a semaphore station from 1808 to 1814 during the Napoleonic Wars. The architect George Gilbert Scott restored the structure of the tower in 1865-6; he also added the gothic spire and parapets.

The original bell, named for the Archangel Gabriel (cast round the bell is the Latin rhyme "From Heaven I come/Gabriel my name"), is still in use, though chimed rather than rung; it last rang out for Queen Victoria's funeral in 1901. It sounds F-natural and weighs one ton.

Gabriel sounded at 4 am for the Angelus and at 8 or 9 pm for the curfew. A small bell, dated 1729, was moved in the Clock Tower from the market place nearby, where it opened business until 1855.

The ground floor of the tower was a shop until the 20th century. The first- and second-floor rooms were designed as living chambers. The shop and the first floor were connected by a flight of spiral stairs. Another flight rises the whole height of the tower by 93 narrow steps and gave access to the living chamber, the clock and the bell without disturbing the tenant of the shop.

The old clock may have been removed in the 18th century and replaced by a pendulum clock. The present clock incorporates a four-legged gravity escapement invented by Lord Grimthorpe, the local horologist and restorer of the Abbey who designed Big Ben's mechanism.

Borough of St Albans[edit]

St Albans was an ancient borough created following the dissolution of the monastery in 1539.[5] It consisted of the ancient parish of St Albans (also known as the Abbey parish) and parts of St Michael and St Peter.[6] The municipal corporation was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 and the boundary was adjusted to additionally include part of the parish of St Stephen. In 1887 the borough gained city status, following the elevation of St Albans Abbey to cathedral, and the boundary was adjusted to include part of the parish of Sandridge.

The Local Government Act 1894 divided parishes that were partly within municipal boroughs. The parts of St Michael, St Peter and Sandridge within the borough became the new parishes of St Michael Urban, St Peter Urban and Sandridge Urban. The part of St Stephen within the borough was absorbed by the parish of St Albans. The parishes that were formed outside the borough, that is St Michael Rural, St Peter Rural, Sandridge Rural and the reduced St Stephen, became part of St Albans Rural District in 1894.

In 1898 the parish of St Albans absorbed St Michael Urban, St Peter Urban and Sandridge Urban so the parish and borough occupied the same area. In 1901 the population of the borough was 16,019, growing to 18,133 in 1911. St Albans expanded in 1913 by gaining parts of Sandridge Rural (241 acres), St Michael Rural (138 acres), St Peter Rural (992 acres) and St Stephen (335 acres). In 1921 the population of the enlarged borough was 25,593, growing to 28,624 in 1931. It expanded again in 1935 as part of a county review order gaining more of St Michael Rural (890 acres), St Peter Rural (436 acres) and St Stephen (712 acres).[7] The population of the borough was 44,098 in 1951 and 50,293 in 1961.[8]

The borough was abolished on 1 April 1974. It became an unparished area within the City of St Albans non-metropolitan district. City status transferred to the entire new district by letters patent dated 9 July 1974.[9]

Governance[edit]

Local government[edit]

The unparished area of St Albans consists of the eight wards of Ashley, Batchwood, Clarence, Cunningham, Marshalswick South, St Peters, Sopwell and Verulam. As the only unparished part of the wider City of St Albans, it does not have a parish council. Since June 2013 the City Neighbourhood Committee has functioned in place of a parish council, a role previously provided by the City Forum.[10] The neighbourood committee has a budget and decision making powers for small parks, playgrounds, open spaces, war memorials, allotments and public conveniences.[11]

St Albans is located in the middle of the City and District of St Albans. The local authority for the whole district is St Albans City Council, which also calls itself St Albans City and District Council and St Albans District Council. The irregular sounding name reflects the diverse nature of the area covered, consisting of eight civil parishes including two main urban areas and several villages. Typically districts with the status of cities covering large areas are known simply as Cities, for example the City of Canterbury and the City of Carlisle.

Some local government services are provided by Hertfordshire County Council.

UK Parliament[edit]

St Albans is a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Established in 1885, it is a county constituency in Hertfordshire, and elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

St Albans experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom.

Climate data for St Albans
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
8
(46)
12
(54)
14
(57)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
22
(72)
16
(61)
12
(54)
8
(46)
7
(45)
15
(59)
Average low °C (°F) 5
(41)
5
(41)
6
(43)
8
(46)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(59)
16
(61)
13
(55)
11
(52)
8
(46)
2
(36)
10
(50)
Precipitation mm (inches) 50.7
(1.996)
39.9
(1.571)
31.7
(1.248)
46.2
(1.819)
38.9
(1.531)
46.4
(1.827)
33.1
(1.303)
43.6
(1.717)
49.7
(1.957)
70.7
(2.783)
58.1
(2.287)
56.9
(2.24)
565.9
(22.28)
Source: [12]

Neighbourhoods[edit]

  • Bernards Heath
  • Fleetville
  • New Greens
  • Sopwell
  • Marshalswick (also extends into Sandridge parish)
  • St Julians
  • St Stephens (not to be confused with St Stephen)
  • The Camp
  • Townsend

Nearby towns and villages[edit]

Transport[edit]

Two railway stations serve the town, the St Albans City station which is situated 0.5 miles east of the city centre, and the St Albans Abbey station, which is situated approximately 0.6 miles south of the city station.

The City station is part of the main Bedford to Brighton line, and the Abbey station is a single track line to Watford Junction station.

Culture[edit]

St Albans has a thriving cultural life, with regular concerts and theatre productions held at venues including Trestle Arts Base,[13] St Albans Abbey, Maltings Arts Theatre,[14] the Alban Arena, the Abbey Theatre,[15] St Peter's Church and St Saviour's Church, given by numerous organisations including St Albans Bach Choir,[16] St Albans Cathedral Choir, St Albans Abbey Girls' Choir, St Albans Symphony Orchestra,[17] St Albans Chamber Choir,[18] St Albans Chamber Opera,[19] The Company of Ten,[20] St Albans Choral Society,[21] and St Albans Organ Theatre.[22] St Albans is also home to Trestle Theatre Company,[23] who have been creating professional, innovative and inspirational physical storytelling theatre since 1981. Originally known for their work with masks, Trestle collaborates with UK and international artists to unify movement, music and text into a compelling theatrical experience. The Sandpit Theatre is a theatre attached to Sandringham School which hosts a wide variety of plays throughout the year, mainly performances put on by the pupils of Sandringham School. The school also hosts Best Theatre Arts,[24] a part-time theatre school for children aged 4 to 16.

The Maltings Shopping Centre in St Albans

The St Albans Museum service runs two museums: Verulamium Museum, which tells the story of everyday life in Roman Britain using objects from the excavations of the important Roman Town; and the Museum of St Albans, which focuses on the history of the town and of Saint Alban.[25] The Watercress nature reserve is by the River Ver and is run by the Watercress Wildlife Association.[26]

Sport[edit]

In December 2007, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of St Albans were the 10th most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 30.8% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 90 minutes.[27]

Cricket[edit]

Clarence Park also plays host to St Albans Cricket Club.[28] The club currently runs four Saturday sides, playing in the Saracens Hertfordshire Cricket League and also two Sunday sides in the Chess Valley Cricket League. In 2008 the club's 1st XI won the Hertfordshire League Title. In the previous two seasons, the first XI came 5th (2011) and 4th (2012) in division one.

Football[edit]

The local football team is St Albans City F.C.: its stadium is on the edge of Clarence Park and the team won promotion from the Conference South League in 2005-06. It played in the Nationwide Conference Division of the Football Conference for the 2006-07 season, but finished at the bottom of the table and was relegated.[29]

Gymnastics[edit]

St Albans Gymnastics Club, founded in 2005, provides the St Albans area with fun and effectively structured recreational classes as well as a professionally managed competitive squad.[30]

Hockey[edit]

St Albans is also home to St Albans Hockey Club,[31] based in Clarence Park. The club is represented at National league level by both women's and men's teams, as well as other local league competitions. The club's nickname is The Tangerines.

Rugby League[edit]

St Albans Centurions Rugby League Club have their ground at Toulmin Drive, St Albans. They play in the London Premier League. In 2007 and again in 2010 'The Cents', as they are known, won 'the triple' - topping the league, and becoming the Regional and National Champions of the Rugby League Conference Premier Divisions.

Rugby Union[edit]

Old Albanian RFC is a rugby union club that plays at the Old Albanian sports complex. They play in National League 1 the third tier of the English rugby union system. Saracens A team and OA Saints Women's Rugby team also play here. This complex hosts the offices of the Aviva Premiership club Saracens (and have recently moved their home ground to Barnet). St Albans RFC play at Boggymead Spring in Smallford. Verulamians RFC (formerly Old Verulamians) play at Cotlandswick in London Colney.

Skateboarding[edit]

St Albans is home to one of the country's oldest and finest indoor skateparks, the Pioneer Skatepark in Heathlands Drive, next to the former fire station. Its ramps are available to all skateboarders and inliners. A new outside mini ramp was built in March 2005. A second outdoor mini ramp was opened at Easter 2009.

Links with other sports[edit]

St Albans is additionally home to a community of traceurs from around Hertfordshire.[32]

St Albans was once home to the then most prestigious steeplechase in England. The Great St Albans chase attracted the best horses and riders from across Britain and Ireland in the 1830s and was held in such high esteem that when it clashed with the 1837 Grand National the top horses and riders chose to bypass Aintree. Without warning the race was discontinued in 1839 and was quickly forgotten.

St Albans was once home to Samuel Ryder, the founder of the Ryder cup. He ran a very successful packet seeds business in the 1890s which at one time he ran from a packing warehouse on Holywell Hill (now Café Rouge). His interest in golf and sponsorship led to his donation of the now famous Ryder Cup. He is buried in Hatfield Road Cemetery, where in July 2012 the Olympic Torch Relay passed by to honour him.

Education[edit]

The Abbey Gateway, now part of St Albans School

St Albans has many state primary and secondary schools, and number of independent schools.

The Law School of the University of Hertfordshire used to be based in Hatfield Road in St Albans until it moved to the university's De Havilland campus in Hatfield in 2011. Hertfordshire County Council purchased the site. The interior of the former Law School building has since been refurbished and now forms part of Alban City School, a state-funded Free School for primary aged children, which started taking reception class children in September 2012.

State Schools[edit]

Primary Schools
School Gender Age Range Religious Affiliation Location School website
The Abbey CE VA Primary School Mixed 4-11 Church of England AL1 http://www.abbey.herts.sch.uk/
Aboyne Lodge Primary and Nursery School Mixed 3-11 Does not apply AL3 http://www.aboyne.herts.sch.uk/
Alban City School Mixed 4-11 Does not apply AL1 http://albancityschool.org.uk/
Bernards Heath Infant School Mixed 3-7 Does not apply AL1 http://www.bernardsheath.herts.sch.uk/
Bernards Heath Junior School Mixed 7-11 Does not apply AL3 http://www.bernardsheathjnr.herts.sch.uk/
Camp Primary and Nursery School Mixed 3-11 Does not apply AL1 http://www.camp.herts.sch.uk/
Cunningham Hill Infant School Mixed 4-7 Does not apply AL1 http://cunninghaminfants.herts.sch.uk/
Cunningham Hill Junior School Mixed 7-11 Does not apply AL1 http://www.cunninghamhill-jun.herts.sch.uk/
Fleetville Infant and Nursery School Mixed 3-7 Does not apply AL1 http://www.fleetvilleinfants.herts.sch.uk/
Fleetville Junior School Mixed 7-11 Does not apply AL1 http://www.fleetvillejm.herts.sch.uk/
Garden Fields JMI Mixed 5-11 Does not apply AL3 http://www.gardenfields.herts.sch.uk/
Killigrew Primary and Nursery School Mixed 3-11 Does not apply AL2 http://www.killigrew.herts.sch.uk/
Mandeville Primary School Mixed 3-11 Does not apply AL1 http://www.mandeville.herts.sch.uk/
Maple School Mixed 4-11 Does not apply AL1 http://www.maple.herts.sch.uk/
Margaret Wix Primary Mixed 3-11 Does not apply AL3 http://www.margaretwix.herts.sch.uk/
St Adrian Roman Catholic Primary School Mixed 3-11 Roman Catholic AL1 http://www.stadrians.herts.sch.uk/
St Alban and St Stephen RC Infant & Nursery School Mixed 3-7 Roman Catholic AL1 http://www.ssasinfants.herts.sch.uk/
St Alban and St Stephen Catholic Junior School Mixed 7-11 Roman Catholic AL1 http://www.ssasjm.herts.sch.uk/
St Michael's C of E VA Primary School Mixed 4-11 Church of England AL3 http://www.stmichaels.herts.sch.uk/
St John Fisher Primary School Mixed 4-11 Roman Catholic AL4 http://www.sjfisher.herts.sch.uk/
St Peter's School Mixed 3-11 Does not apply AL1 http://www.stpeters.herts.sch.uk/
Wheatfields Infants' and Nursery School Mixed 3-7 Does not apply AL4 http://www.wheatfieldsinfants.herts.sch.uk/
Wheatfields Junior School Mixed 7-11 Does not apply AL4 http://www.wheatfieldsjm.herts.sch.uk/
Windermere Primary School Mixed 5-11 Does not apply AL1 http://www.windermere.herts.sch.uk/
Secondary Schools
School Gender Age Range Religious Affiliation Location School website
Beaumont School Mixed 11-18 Does not apply AL4 http://www.beaumontschool.com/
Loreto College Girls 11-18 Roman Catholic AL1 http://www.loreto.herts.sch.uk/
Marlborough Science Academy Mixed 11-18 Does not apply AL1 http://www.marlborough.herts.sch.uk/
Nicholas Breakspear Catholic School Mixed 11-18 Roman Catholic AL4 http://www.nicholasbreakspearschool.co.uk/
Sandringham School Mixed 11-18 Does not apply AL4 http://www.sandringham.herts.sch.uk
St Albans Girls' School Girls 11-18 Does not apply AL3 http://www.stags.herts.sch.uk/
Samuel Ryder Academy Mixed 4-19 Does not apply AL1 http://www.samuelryderacademy.co.uk/
Townsend School Mixed 11-18 Church of England AL3 http://www.townsend.herts.sch.uk/
Verulam School Boys[1] 11-18 Does not apply AL1 http://www.verulamschool.co.uk

Independent Schools[edit]

School Gender Age Range Religious Affiliation Location School website
St Albans School Boys[2] 11-18 Christian AL3 http://www.st-albans.herts.sch.uk/
St Albans High School for Girls Girls 4-18 Christian AL1 http://www.stahs.org.uk/
St Columba's College Boys 4-18 Roman Catholic AL3 http://stcolumbascollege.org/
  • ^1 Verulam School takes girls 16-18
  • ^2 St Albans School takes girls 16-18

Notable people[edit]

Nicholas Bacon (1510–1579)
Francis Bacon (1561–1626)
Sarah Churchill (1660–1744)
William Cowper ( 1665–1723)
Thomas S. Wells ( 1818–1897)
Stephen Hawking (b.  1942)
Alan Smith (b.  1957)
Peter Mensah (b.  1959)
Nigel Marven (b.  1960)
Helen Wyman (b.  1980)

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 1957 April Fool's Day spoof edition of BBC documentary series Panorama, which dealt with the fictitious Swiss spaghetti harvest, was filmed partly at the (now closed) Pasta Foods factory on London Road, St Albans.
  • The 2001 film Birthday Girl, featuring Nicole Kidman and Ben Chaplin, is set in St Albans.
  • A number of places across the world are named after the City of St Albans, most notably in Australia, New Zealand and the United States.
  • St Albans was the name of a planet in the cult science-fiction television series Firefly.
  • In September 2007, St Albans replaced Mayfair as the most expensive square on a special UK Here and Now Edition Monopoly board, having won an internet vote.
  • Enter Shikari's song "All eyes on the Saint" (B-side of "Juggernauts" single) tells the story of St Alban.[37]
  • The BBC used the Main Gate House of the former St Albans Prison in Victoria Street as the main gate of "Slade Prison" in the sitcom Porridge.[38]

Photo gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics, 2011 Census, Table PP04. Published 23 November 2012.
  2. ^ Legendary Tales of the Ancient Britons, 1864, L. Menzies, adapted from the Latin Chronicles of Geoffrey of Monmouth.
  3. ^ Williamson, Tom (2000). The Origins of Hertfordshire. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 64. ISBN 071904491X. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  4. ^ History of Verulam and St. Alban's S. G. Shaw, 1815 pages 64-66. Accessed April 2011
  5. ^ Kate Morris. "Other publications | Research papers | Places | St Peter's in the Borough | A lecture given by Kate Morris on 26 November 2010". St Albans History. 
  6. ^ "St Albans Borough through time | Census tables with data for the Ancient District". Visionofbritain.org.uk. 
  7. ^ "St Albans AP/CP through time | Census tables with data for the Parish-level Unit". Visionofbritain.org.uk. 
  8. ^ "St Albans AP/CP through time | Population Statistics | Total Population". Visionofbritain.org.uk. 
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 46352. p. 7920. 24 September 1974. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  10. ^ "St Albans City & District Council - City Neighbourhood Committee takes on local agenda". Stalbans.gov.uk. 1 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "St Albans City & District Council - Proposed City Neighbourhoods Committee under scrutiny". Stalbans.gov.uk. 1 March 2013. 
  12. ^ "Averages for St Albans". June 2011. 
  13. ^ "Trestle Theatre Company, St Albans". trestle.org.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  14. ^ "The Maltings Arts Theatre, St Albans". Stalbans.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  15. ^ "Abbey Theatre, Trestle Arts Base, St Albans". Abbeytheatre.org.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  16. ^ "St Albans Bach Choir". St Albans Bach Choir. 10 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  17. ^ "St Albans Symphony Orchestra". Saso.org.uk. 11 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  18. ^ "St Albans Chamber Choir". St Albans Chamber Choir. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  19. ^ "St Albans Chamber Opera". Hertsdirect.org. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  20. ^ "The Company of Ten, St Albans". Hertsdirect.org. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  21. ^ "St Albans Choral Society". Choralsociety.com. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  22. ^ "St Albans Organ Theatre". St Albans Organ Theatre. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  23. ^ "Trestle Theatre Company History". trestle.org.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Best Theatre Arts". Best Theatre Arts. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  25. ^ "St Albans Museums". St Albans Museums. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  26. ^ "Watercress Wildlife Association, St Albans". Watercress Wildlife Association. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  27. ^ "Sport England—Active People Survey". Sportengland.org. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  28. ^ "St Albans Cricket Club". Stalbanscc.com. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  29. ^ Football Conference—Blue Square Premier Table[dead link]
  30. ^ "St Albans Gymnastics Club". stalbansgymclub.com. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  31. ^ "St Albans Hockey Club". Stalbanshc.co.uk. 17 April 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  32. ^ "Hertfordshire Parkour". Hertsparkour.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  33. ^ William of Wallingford Berkshire History. Final paragraph. Accessed March 2013
  34. ^ "Papers of David Munrow". The National Archive. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  35. ^ "Private 7602 Edward Warner, V.C.". bedfordregiment.org.uk. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  36. ^ ""The muddiest, funnest sport of attrition": an interview with Helen Wyman on her life in Cyclo-Cross". 25 October 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  37. ^ "Enter Shikari - "All eyes on the Saint" lyrics". Songmeanings.net. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  38. ^ "The British Comedy Guide - Porridge - location details". Retrieved 22 July 2012. 

External links[edit]