St Albans (UK Parliament constituency)

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Coordinates: 51°44′24″N 0°20′13″W / 51.740°N 0.337°W / 51.740; -0.337

St Albans
County constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of St Albans in Hertfordshire.
Outline map
Location of Hertfordshire within England.
County Hertfordshire
Electorate 70,298 (December 2010)[1]
Current constituency
Created 1885
Member of Parliament Anne Main (Conservative)
Number of members One
Created from Hertfordshire
1554–1852
Number of members Two
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by Hertfordshire
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency East of England

St Albans is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Anne Main, a Conservative.[n 2]

This article also describes the parliamentary borough (1554-1852) of the same name, consisting only of the city of St Albans, which elected two MPs by the bloc vote system.

Boundaries[edit]

The seat is in Hertfordshire, England. Specifically, it comprises the cathedral city of St Albans and some of the surrounding countryside, mainly to the south of the city.

1885-1918[edit]

When the constituency was created in 1885 as the Mid or St Albans Division of Hertfordshire, it included the historic city as well as High Barnet (an area now in Greater London), Borehamwood, Elstree, Welwyn, Wheathampstead, and Harpenden.

It was defined as comprising:[2]

  • The Municipal Borough of St. Albans,
  • The Sessional Divisions of Barnet and St. Albans,
  • Parts of the Sessional Divisions of Hertford (3 parishes) and Watford (1 parish)
  • Part of the Sessional Division of Dacorum (4 entire parishes and those parts of 3 parishes that were in Hertfordshire)

The constituency contained the following civil parishes:[3]

1918-1945[edit]

The next redrawing of parliamentary constituencies was carried out prior to the 1918 general election. The Representation of the People Act 1918 redefined constituencies in terms of the urban and Rural districts created by the Local Government Act 1894. The St Albans Division of Hertfordshire was defined as comprising:[3][4]

1945-1950[edit]

The House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act 1944 allowed for the creation of new constituencies in areas where there had been a large increase in population, with the new boundaries coming into force at the next election, which was held 1945. The number of constituencies in Hertfordshire was increased from five to six. The St Albans seat, which had an electorate of over 100,000 as effectively divided into two: a new Barnet Division was formed comprising East Barnet and Barnet Urban Districts and Elstree Rural District (the former Barnet Rural District had been renamed in 1941). At the 1945 general election the St Albans Division comprised:[3][5]

1950-1974[edit]

The Representation of the People Act 1948 provided for a complete redistribution of parliamentary seats, replacing those that had created on a piecemeal basis in 1945. The Act also replaced the term "division" with "county constituency". The seats were first used at the 1950 general election and the revised St Albans County Constituency was defined as:[6]

1974-1983[edit]

Under legislation passed in 1949 and 1958 there were regular periodic reviews of parliamentary constituencies. An order redrawing boundaries was made in 1970 reflecting the creation of Greater London and the London Borough of Barnet in 1965, which had changed the boundaries of Hertfordshire. The redefined seat, which was first contested at the February 1974 general election, was as follows:[3][7]

1983-1997[edit]

Although local government was completely reorganised in April 1974, parliamentary boundaries were not changed until 1983. The constituencies created in 1983 were defined in terms of the non-metropolitan districts and their electoral wards introduced in 1974.

The local government legislation had created an enlarged City of St Albans including the old borough, most of the surrounding rural district and Harpenden Urban District.

The new St Albans County Constituency comprised 16 wards of the enlarged city: Ashley, Batchwood, Clarence, Colney Heath, Cunningham, Harpenden East, Harpenden North, Harpenden South, Harpenden West, Marshalswick North, Marshalswick South, Redbourn, St. Peters, Sandridge, Sopwell and Verulam.[8]

The constituency was not coterminous with the local government district: St Albans wards also formed parts of the new neighbouring constituencies of Hertsmere, Watford and Welwyn Hatfield.

1997-2010[edit]

The next periodic review was completed in 1996 and took effect at the 1997 general election. Hertfordshire's parliamentary representation was increased from 10 to 11 seats. The St Albans County Constituency was redrawn, with areas passing to a new Hitchin and Harpenden constituency, other areas added from the neighbouring South West Hertfordshire seat and boundary changes to the wards of the city. The seat was defined as comprising:[9]

  1. The following wards of the City of St. Albans, namely, Ashley, Batchwood, Clarence, Colney Heath, Cunningham, London Colney, Marshalswick North, Marshalswick South, Park Street, St. Peter's, St. Stephen's, Sopwell and Verulam; and
  2. The Bedmond ward of the District of Three Rivers.

2010-date[edit]

Constituencies were next redrawn in 2007, with the new boundaries first used at the 2010 general election. The Boundary Commission for England decided to retain the existing 11 seats in Hertfordshire, making relatively minor adjustments to bring the parliamentary boundaries in line with those of local government wards, which had changed since the 1995 review.[10]

The seat now comprises the following electoral wards:[11]

History[edit]

The constituency elected a borough representative for over 300 years, until it was disenfranchised as a result of electoral corruption in 1852.[12] The constituency was re-established in an enlarged form in 1885 with an alternative pseudonym, the Mid Division of Hertfordshire. Both names were used in the Redistribution of Seats Act, which dovetailed with the Third Reform Act.

1885 to date[edit]

Political history

The constituency was until 1997 held by a Conservative with the exception of five years of the Attlee ministry and early 20th century opposition of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and the first part of his premiership which was when he was in a minority.

Following boundary changes in 1997, and the founding of the New Labour movement which sought public sector reform and investment with expansion based on economic growth, the seat stood the possibility of, on the expected national swing led by Tony Blair, a win by a Labour politician, which took place when it was won for the party for the first time since the 1945 election.

Prominent members

The noble and local landowning Grimston family have produced nine members throughout the seat's history. The three first heirs to the Earldom of Verulam have won election in the seat - the latest MP from the family was John Grimston who later became the 6th Earl.

Sir Hildred Carlile was a textiles entrepreneur and generous benefactor of Bedford College, University of London.

Francis Fremantle was chairman of the Parliamentary Medical Committee from 1923 to 1943.

Peter Lilley was a frontbench minister in government from 1992 until 1997, the Secretary of State for Social Security, after two years as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry.

Constituency profile[edit]

Workless claimants (registered jobseekers) were in November 2012 significantly lower than the national average of 3.8%, at 1.9% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian.[13]

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1553–1640[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1553 (Oct) John Maynard Thomas Johnson[14]
1554 (Apr) Thomas Wendy Oliver Starkey[14]
1554 (Nov) John Maynard Oliver Starkey[14]
1555 John Astley Robert Stepneth[14]
1558 Henry Heydon Francis Southwell[14]
1559 (Jan) Christopher Smith John Dodmer[15]
1562/3 Robert Wroth[16] Roger Carew [15]
1571 William Skipwith George Ferrers[15]
1572 (Apr) Henry Cocke Charles Smythe[15]
1584 Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[15]
1586 (Oct) Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[15]
1588 (Oct) Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[15]
1593 Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[15]
1597 (Oct) Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[15]
1601 Francis Bacon, sat for Ipswich,
replaced Nov 1601 by
Henry Frowick
Adolph Carey[15]
1604 Francis Bacon, sat for Ipswich
repl. by
Tobie Matthew
Adolph Carey, died,
repl. by
Sir Thomas Parry[17]
1614 Robert Shute  ?
1621 Sir Thomas Richardson Robert Shute
1624 Robert Kirkham Sir John Jennings
1625 Sir Charles Morrison, 1st Baronet John Laken
1626 Sir Charles Morrison, 1st Baronet Sir Edward Goring
1628 Sir John Jennings Robert Kirkham
1629–1640 No Parliaments summoned

MPs 1640–1852[edit]

Year First member First party Second member Second party
April 1640 Richard Coningsby Sir John Jennings Parliamentarian
November 1640 Edward Wingate Parliamentarian
1642 Richard Jennings Parliamentarian
December 1648 Wingate and Jennings excluded in Pride's Purge - both seats vacant
1653 St Albans was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Alban Cox St Albans had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Richard Jennings
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 William Foxwist Richard Jennings
1661 Thomas Arris
1668 Samuel Grimston
February 1679 Sir Thomas Pope Blount John Gape
August 1679 Samuel Grimston
1685 Captain George Churchill[18] Thomas Docwra
1689 Sir Samuel Grimston
January 1701 Joshua Lomax
March 1701 John Gape
1705 Admiral Henry Killigrew
1708 John Gape Joshua Lomax
1710 William Grimston[19]
1713 William Hale[20]
1714 John Gape
1715 William Hale
1717 Joshua Lomax
1722 William Gore William Clayton
1727 The Viscount Grimston Caleb Lomax
1730 by-election Thomas Gape
1733 by-election John Merrill
1734 Sir Thomas Aston Thomas Ashby
1741 James West
1743 by-election Hans Stanley
1747 Sir Peter Thompson
1754 Hon. James Grimston[21]
1761 Viscount Nuneham
1768 (Sir) Richard Sutton[22] John Radcliffe
1780 William Charles Sloper
1783 by-election The Viscount Grimston
1784 Hon. William Grimston
1790 Hon. Richard Bingham[23] Tory John Calvert
1796 Thomas Skip Dyot Bucknall Tory
June 1800 by-election William Stephen Poyntz Whig
1802 Hon. James Grimston Tory
1807 Joseph Thompson Halsey Whig
1809 by-election Daniel Giles Whig
1812 Christopher Smith Tory
February 1818 by-eelction William Tierney Robarts Whig
June 1818 Lord Charles Spencer-Churchill Tory
1820 Christopher Smith Tory
1821 by-election Sir Henry Wright-Wilson Tory
1826 John Easthope Whig
1830 Viscount Grimston Tory Charles Tennant Whig
1831 Sir Francis Vincent, Bt Whig Richard Godson Whig
1832 Henry George Ward Whig
1835 Hon. Edward Harbottle Grimston Conservative
1837 George Alfred Muskett Whig
February 1841 by-election The Earl of Listowel Whig
June 1841 George Repton Conservative
1846 by-election Benjamin Bond Cabbell Conservative
1847 Alexander Raphael Whig
1850 by-election Jacob Bell Whig
1852 Constituency disfranchised for corruption

MPs since 1885[edit]

Election Member[24] Party[25][26]
1885 Viscount Grimston Conservative
1892 Vicary Gibbs Conservative
1904 by-election John Slack Liberal
1906 Sir Hildred Carlile Conservative
1919 by-election Sir Francis Fremantle Conservative
1943 by-election[27] John Grimston Conservative
1945 Cyril Dumpleton Labour
1950 John Grimston Conservative
1959 Sir Victor Goodhew Conservative
1983 Peter Lilley Conservative
1997 Kerry Pollard Labour
2005 Anne Main Conservative

Elections[edit]

Elections 1983–2010[edit]

Election Political result Candidate Party Votes % ±%
General election, May 2010 [28][29]
New boundaries
Electorate: 70,058
Turnout: 52,835 (75.4%) +5.4
Conservative hold
Majority: 2,305 (4.4%) +1.4
Swing: 3.74% from Con to Lib Dem
Anne Main Conservative 21,533 40.8 +3.5
Sandy Walkington Liberal Democrat 19,228 36.4 +11.0
Roma Mills Labour 9,288 17.6 −16.7
John Stocker UKIP 2,028 3.8 +2.2
Jack Easton Green 758 1.4 N/A
General election, May 2005 [30]
Electorate: 64,595
Turnout: 45,462 (70.0%) +3.7
Conservative gain from Labour
Majority: 1,361 (3.0%) −7.2
Swing: 6.6% from Lab to Con
Anne Main Conservative 16,953 37.3 +2.1
Kerry Pollard Labour 15,592 34.3 −11.1
Michael Green Liberal Democrat 11,561 25.4 +7.5
Richard Evans UKIP 707 1.6 +0.2
Janet Girsman St Albans Party 430 n/a N/A
Mark Reynolds Independent 219 n/a N/A
General election, June 2001 [31]
Electorate: 66,040
Turnout: 43,761 (66.3%) −11.2
Labour hold
Majority: 4,466 (10.2%) +1.4
Swing: 0.7% from Con to Lab
Kerry Pollard Labour 19,889 45.4 +3.4
Charles Elphicke Conservative 15,423 35.2 +2.0
Nick Rijke Liberal Democrat 7,847 17.9 −3.1
Chris Sherwin UKIP 602 1.4 N/A
General election, May 1997 [32]
New boundaries
Electorate: 65,560
Turnout: 50,805 (77.5%) −6.0
Labour gain from Conservative
Majority: 4,459 (8.8%) −17.7
Swing: 21.1% from Con to Lab
Kerry Pollard Labour 21,338 42.0 +22.6
David Rutley Conservative 16,879 33.2 −19.6
Anthony Rowlands Liberal Democrat 10,69 21.0 −5.3
Jim Warrilow Referendum Party 1,619 3.2 N/A
Sari Craigen Rainbow Alliance 166 0.3 n/a
Ian Docker Natural Law 111 0.2 −0.1
General election, April 1992 [33]
Electorate: 74,188
Turnout: 61,925 (83.5%) +3.3
Conservative hold
Majority: 16,404 (26.5%) +8.5
Swing: 4.3% from Con to Lib Dem
Peter Lilley Conservative 32,709 52.8 +0.3
Monica Howes Liberal Democrat 16,305 26.3 −8.2
Kerry Pollard Labour 12,016 19.4 +7.9
Craig Simmons Green 734 1.2 −0.1
David Lucas Natural Law 161 0.3 N/A
General election, June 1987 [34]
Electorate: 75,281
Turnout: 60,391 (80.2%) +2.0
Conservative hold
Majority: 10,881 (18.0%) +3.0
Swing: 1.5% from Lib to Con
Peter Lilley Conservative 31,726 52.5 +0.5
A. S. B. Walkington Liberal 20,845 34.5 −2.5
A. McWalter Labour 6,922 11.5 +0.6
E. V. Field Green 788 1.3 N/A
W. H. Pass CPRP 110 0.2 N/A
General election, June 1983 [35]
New boundaries
Electorate: 72,849
Turnout: 57,004 (78.3%) −2.1
Conservative hold
Majority: 8,561 (15.0%) −14.2
Swing: 7.1% from Con to Lib
Peter Lilley Conservative 29,676 52.1 −1.0
A. S. B. Walkington Liberal 21,115 37.0 +13.2
R. Austin Labour 6,213 10.9 −12.2

Elections 1950–1979[edit]

Election Political result Candidate Party Votes % ±%
General election, May 1979 [36]
Electorate: 73,339
Turnout: 58,996 (80.4%) +2.4
Conservative hold
Majority: 17,244 (29.2%) +12.4
Swing: 5.6% from Lib to Con
Victor Goodhew Conservative 31,301 53.1 +8.1
D. Picton Liberal 14,057 23.8 −3.1
R. J. Greaves Labour 13,638 23.1 −5.0
General election, October 1974 [37]
Electorate: 69,693
Turnout: 54,351 (78.0%) −6.6
Conservative hold
Majority: 9,135 (16.8%) +2.4
Swing: 1.8% from Con to Lab
Victor Goodhew Conservative 24,436 45.0 −0.2
E. Hudson Labour 15,301 28.2 −3.8
A. C. Shaw Liberal 14,614 26.9 +4.0
General election, February 1974 [38]
New boundaries
Electorate: 68,954
Turnout: 58,346 (84.6%) +8.4
Conservative hold
Majority: 8,421 (14.4%) −2.2
Swing: 11.8% from Con to Lib
Victor Goodhew Conservative 26,345 45.2 −6.4
A. C. Shaw Liberal 17,924 30.7 +17.2
D. L. Bernstein Labour 14,077 24.1 −10.8
General election, June 1970 [39]
Electorate: 62,417
Turnout: 47,571 (76.2%) −6.8
Conservative hold
Majority: 7,874 (16.6%) +10.5
Swing: 5.3% from Lab to Con
Victor Goodhew Conservative 24,503 51.5 +3.8
C. H. Beaumont Labour 16,629 35.0 −6.7
C. A. Shaw Liberal 6,439 13.5 +2.9
General election, March 1966 [40]
Electorate: 56,247
Turnout: 46,665 (83.0%) +0.4
Conservative hold
Majority: 2,832 (6.1%) −5.7
Swing: 2.8% from Con to Lab
Victor Goodhew Conservative 22,260 47.7 −0.3
Keith Kyle Labour 19,428 41.6 +5.4
J. J. Wates Liberal 4,977 10.7 −5.1
General election, October 1964 [41]
Electorate: 55,658
Turnout: 45,966 (82.6%) −0.2
Conservative hold
Majority: 5,391 (11.7%) −7.7
Swing: 3.9% from Con to Lab
Victor Goodhew Conservative 22,063 48.0 −4.9
Bruce Douglas-Mann Labour 16,672 36.3 +2.8
W. G. Brown Liberal 7,231 15.7 +2.1
General election, October 1959 [42]
Electorate: 52,823
Turnout: 82.8% (+3.5)
Conservative hold
Majority: 8,507 (19.4%) +4.4
Swing: 2.2% from Lab to Con
Victor Goodhew Conservative 23,157 52.9 −4.6
L. W. Carroll Labour 14,650 33.5 −9.0
W. A. N. Jones Liberal 5,948 13.6 N/A
General election, May 1955 [43]
Electorate: 47,827
Turnout: 37,935 (79.3%) −4.8
Conservative hold
Majority: 5,721 (15.1%) +6.2
Swing: 3.9% from Lab to Con
John Grimston Conservative 21,828 57.5 +3.0
Renee Short Labour 16,107 42.5 −3.0
General election, October 1951 [44]
Electorate: 62,431
Turnout: 52,513 (84.1%) −0.8
Conservative hold
Majority: 4,691 (8.9%) +4.4
Swing: 2.2% from Lab to Con
John Grimston Conservative 28,602 54.5 +7.2
J. McKnight Labour 23,911 45.5 +2.9
General election, February 1950 [45]
Electorate: 61,644
Turnout: 52,464 (85.0%) +12.4
Conservative gain from Labour
Majority: 2,382 (4.6%)
Swing: 4.1% from Lab to Con
John Grimston Conservative 24,733 47.2 +4.4
Cyril Dumpleton Labour 22,351 42.7 −3.8
Deryck Robert Endsleigh Abel Liberal 5,280 10.1 −0.6

Elections 1918–1945[edit]

Election Political result Candidate Party Votes % ±%
General election, July 1945 [26]
See footnote on changes [46]
Electorate: 71,893
Turnout: 72.6% (+10.0)
Labour gain from Conservative
Majority: 1,879 (3.7%)
Swing: 19.3% from Lab to Con
Cyril Dumpleton Labour 22,421 46.5 +14.0
John Grimston Conservative 22,362 42.8 −24.7
Enid Lakeman Liberal 5,601 10.7 n/a
By-election, October 1943 [26]
Death of Fremantle
Conservative hold John Grimston Conservative unopposed
General election, November 1935 [26]
Electorate: 79,885
Turnout: 49,976 (62.6%) −9.3
Conservative hold
Majority: 17,510 (35.0%) −21.2
Swing: 10.6% from Con to Lab
Francis Edward Fremantle Conservative 33,743 67.5 −10.6
H. A. Franklin [47] Labour 16,233 32.5 +10.6
General election, October 1931 [26]
Electorate: 65,365
Turnout: 46,979 (71.9%) −0.7
Conservative hold
Majority: 26,401 (56.2%) +35.7
Swing: 17.8% from Lab to Con
Francis Edward Fremantle Conservative 36,690 78.1 +30.0
Monica M Whately Labour 10,289 21.9 −5.7
General election, May 1929 [26]
First election with universal suffrage
Electorate: 58,418
Turnout: 41,434 (72.6%) +2.3
Conservative hold
Majority: 8,737 (20.5%) −14.5
Francis Edward Fremantle Conservative 20,436 48.1 −19.4
M. M. Whateley Labour 11,699 27.6 −4.9
George Gordon Honeyman Liberal 10,299 24.3 n/a
General election, October 1924 [26]
Electorate: 37,983
Turnout: 26,864 (70.3%) +1.5
Conservative hold
Majority: 9,322 (35.0%) +13.8
Francis Edward Fremantle Conservative 18,004 67.5 +19.8
F. Herbert Labour 8,862 32.5 +6.0
General election, December 1923 [26]
Electorate: 36,474
Turnout: 25,077 (68.8%) −2.3
Conservative hold
Majority: 5,328 (21.2%) +5.6
Francis Edward Fremantle Conservative 11,968 47.7 −10.1
C. B. Thompson [49] Labour 6,640 26.5 −15.7
H. K. Nield [48] Liberal 6,469 25.8 n/a
General election, November 1922 [26]
See footnote on changes [50]
Electorate: 35,520
Turnout: 25,256 (71.1%) +8.3
Conservative hold
Majority: 3,932 (15.6%) +12.2
Francis Edward Fremantle Conservative 14,594 57.8 +12.0
John William Brown Labour 10,662 42.2 −0.2
By-election, December 1919 [26][51]
Resignation of Sir Hildred Carlile, Bt
Electorate: 33,437
Turnout: 21,003 (62.8%)
Coalition Unionist hold
Majority: 713 (3.4%)
Francis Edward Fremantle Coalition Unionist 9,621 45.8
John William Brown Labour 8,908 42.4
Milner Gray Liberal 2,474 11.8
General election, December 1918 [26] Coalition Unionist hold Sir Hildred Carlile, Bt Coalition Unionist unopposed

Elections 1885–1910[edit]

Election Political result Candidate Party Votes % ±%
General election, December 1910 [25]
Electorate: 13,929
Turnout: 11,676 (83.8%) −6.6
Conservative hold
Majority: 2,122 (18.2%) +2.0
Hildred Carlile Conservative 6,899 59.1 +1.0
R. C. Phillimore Liberal 4,777 40.9 −1.0
General election, January 1910 [25]
Electorate: 13,929
Turnout: 12,594 (90.4%) +10.1
Conservative hold
Majority: 2,052 (16.2%) +11.2
Hildred Carlile Conservative 7,323 58.1 +5.6
H. R. Beddoes Liberal 5,271 41.9 −5.6
General election, 1906 [25]
Electorate: 12,497
Turnout: 89.3% (+7.8)
Conservative gain from Liberal
Majority: 552 (5.0%)
Swing: 3.2% from Lib to Con
Hildred Carlile Conservative 5,856 52.5 +3.2
John Slack Liberal 5,304 47.5 −3.2
By-election, February 1904 [25]
Gibbs disqualified[52]
Electorate: 11,518
Turnout: 9,382 (81.5%)
Liberal gain from Conservative
Majority: 132 (1.4%)
John Bamford Slack Liberal 4,757 50.7
Vicary Gibbs Conservative 4,635 49.3
General election, 1900 [25] Conservative hold Vicary Gibbs Conservative unopposed
General election, 1895 [25] Conservative hold Vicary Gibbs Conservative unopposed
General election, 1892 [25]
Electorate: 9,672
Turnout: 78.3%
Conservative
Majority: 11.1 (844%)
Vicary Gibbs Conservative 3,417 45.1
T. M. Harvey Liberal 2,573 34.0
W. H. Bingham-Cox Independent Conservative 1,580 20.9
General election, 1886 [25] Conservative hold Viscount Grimston Conservative unopposed
General election, 1885 [25]
Electorate: 8,741
Turnout: 7,145 (81.7%)
Conservative win (new seat)
Majority: 1,071 (15.0%)
Viscount Grimston Conservative 4,108 57.5
J. Coles Liberal 3,037 42.5

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, Schedule 7: Counties at Large. Number of Members and Names and Contents of Divisions.
  3. ^ a b c d Youngs, Frederic A, Jr. (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol.I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. pp. 735–736. ISBN 0901050679. 
  4. ^ Representation of the People Act 1918, Schedule 9: Redistribution of Seats
  5. ^ "New Electoral Divisions. Proposed Areas In Greater London, Harrow And Hendon Split". The Times. 11 January 1945. p. 2. 
  6. ^ Representation of the People Act 1948, Schedule 1: Parliamentary Constituencies
  7. ^ The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1970 (S.I. 1970/1674)
  8. ^ The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1983 (S.I. 1983/417)
  9. ^ "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1995 (S.I.1955/1626)". legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  10. ^ "Fifth Periodical Report, Volume 1". Boundary Commission for England. 2007. p. 335. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  11. ^ "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/1681)". legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  12. ^ Reform Act 1867
  13. ^ Unemployment claimants by constituency The Guardian
  14. ^ a b c d e "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  16. ^  "Wroth, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  17. ^ Sir Henry Holmes also given
  18. ^ Admiral from 1702
  19. ^ Created The Viscount Grimston (in the Peerage of Ireland), November 1719
  20. ^ On petition (in a dispute over the franchise), Hale was found not to have been duly elected
  21. ^ The 2nd Viscount Grimston (in the Peerage of Ireland) from October 1756
  22. ^ Richard Sutton was created a baronet, 1772
  23. ^ Styled Lord Bingham from October 1795, when his father was raised to an Earldom
  24. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Craig, F. W. S. (1989) [1974]. British parliamentary election results 1885–1918 (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. p. 297. ISBN 0-900178-27-2. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig, F. W. S. (1983) [1969]. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949 (3rd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. p. 375. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. 
  27. ^ New M.P. For St. Albans, The Times, October 06, 1943
  28. ^ City & District of St Albans - Statement of persons nominated
  29. ^ "UK General Election results May 2010". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  30. ^ "UK General Election results May 2005". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  31. ^ "General Election result, June 2001". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  32. ^ "General Election result, May 1997". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  33. ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  34. ^ "UK General Election results 1987". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  35. ^ "UK General Election results June 1983". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  36. ^ "UK General Election results May 1979". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  37. ^ "UK General Election results October 1974". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  38. ^ "UK General Election results February 1974". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  39. ^ "UK General Election results June 1970". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  40. ^ "UK General Election results March 1966". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  41. ^ "UK General Election results October 1964". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  42. ^ "UK General Election results October 1959". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  43. ^ "UK General Election results May 1955". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  44. ^ "UK General Election results October 1951". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  45. ^ "UK General Election results February 1950". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  46. ^ For the 1945 general election, changes are calculated relative to the 1935 general election results, not the uncontested by-election in 1943
  47. ^ 1935: The Labour party candidate, H. A. Franklin, had previously contested Hornsey in 1931
  48. ^ 1923: the Liberal Party candidate, H. K. Nield, later contested Macclesfield in 1924
  49. ^ 1923: the Labour Party candidate, C. B. Thompson, had previously contested Bristol Central in 1922
  50. ^ For the 1922 general election, changes are calculated relative to the 1919 by-election results
  51. ^ Large Labour Vote At St. Albans, Seat Held By Coalition, The Times, Wednesday 24 December 1919, page 10
  52. ^ The by-election in February 1904 was caused by the disqualification of Vicary Gibbs, who since his election in 1900 had undertaken a contract with the Commissioners of the Admiralty

Sources[edit]

  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]

External links[edit]