St Andrews

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Coordinates: 56°20′25″N 2°47′44″W / 56.3404°N 2.7955°W / 56.3404; -2.7955

St Andrews
Scottish Gaelic: Cill Rìmhinn
Scots: Saunt Aundraes
St Andrews from Regulus tower - geograph.org.uk - 254003.jpg
St Andrews, seen from the top of St Rules Tower
St Andrews is located in Fife
St Andrews
St Andrews
 St Andrews shown within Fife
Population 16,680 [1]
OS grid reference NO507168
Council area Fife
Lieutenancy area Fife
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ST ANDREWS
Postcode district KY16
Dialling code 01334
Police Scottish
Fire Scottish
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament North East Fife
Scottish Parliament North East Fife
List of places
UK
Scotland

St Andrews (Scots: Saunt Aundraes[2] Scottish Gaelic: Cill Rìmhinn)[3] is a former royal burgh on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. The town is home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world and the oldest in Scotland. The University is an integral part of the burgh, and during term time students make up approximately one third of the town's population. St Andrews has a population of 16,680, making this the fifth largest settlement in Fife.

There has been an important church in St Andrews since at least the 8th century, and a bishopric since at least the 11th century. The settlement grew to the west of St Andrews cathedral with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness burn to the south. The burgh soon became the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, a position which was held until the Scottish Reformation. The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins.

St Andrews is also known worldwide as the "home of golf". This is in part because the Royal and Ancient Golf Club, founded in 1754, exercises legislative authority over the game worldwide (except in the United States and Mexico), and also because the famous links (acquired by the town in 1894) is the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches.

The Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, and other martyrs of the Reformation epoch, stands at the west end of the Scores on a cliff overlooking the sea.

Name[edit]

The earliest recorded name of the area is Muckross (from Scottish Gaelic Mucrois, meaning "Boar's head/peninsula").[4] After the founding of a religious settlement in Muckross in around 370 AD, the name changed to Cennrígmonaid. This is Old Gaelic and composed of the elements cenn (head, peninsula), ríg (king) and monaid (moor). This became Cell Rígmonaid (cell meaning church) and was anglicised Kilrymont. The modern Gaelic spelling is Cill Rìmhinn. The name St Andrews derives from the town's claim to be the resting place of bones of the apostle Andrew. According to legend, St Regulus (or Rule) brought the relics to Kilrymont, where a shrine was established for their safekeeping and veneration while Kilrymont was renamed in honour of the saint.[5]

History[edit]

St Andrews Cathedral in 1845

The first inhabitants who settled on the estuary fringes of the rivers Tay and Eden during the mesolithic (middle stone age) came from the plains in Northern Europe between 10,000 to 5,000 BC.[6] This was followed by the nomadic people who settled around the modern town around 4,500 BC as farmers clearing the area of woodland and building monuments.[6]

In the mid-eighth century a monastery was established by the Pictish king Oengus I, traditionally associated with the relics of Saint Andrew, a number of bones supposed to be the saints's arm, kneecap, three fingers and a tooth believed to have been brought to the town by St Regulus.[7] In AD 877, king Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I or II) built a new church for the Culdees at St Andrews and later the same year was captured and executed (or perhaps killed in battle) after defending against Viking raiders.[8]

In AD 906, the town became the seat of the bishop of Alba, with the boundaries of the see being extended to include land between the River Forth and River Tweed.[9] In 940 Constantine III abdicated and took the position of abbot of the monastery of St Andrews.[10]

The Martyrs Memorial

The establishment of the present town began around 1140 by Bishop Robert on an L-shaped vill, possibly on the site of the ruined St Andrews Castle.[11] According to a charter of 1170, the new burgh was built to the west of the Cathedral precinct, along Castle Street and possibly as far as what is now known as North Street.[7] This means that the lay-out may have led to the creation of two new streets (North Street and South Street) from the foundations of the new St Andrews Cathedral filling the area inside a two-sided triangle at its apex.[7] The northern boundary of the burgh was the southern side of the Scores (the street between North Street and the sea) with the southern by the Kinness Burn and the western by the West Port.[12] The burgh of St Andrews was first represented at the great council at Scone Palace in 1357.[12]

St Andrews, in particular the large cathedral built in 1160, was the most important centre of pilgrimage in medieval Scotland and one of the most important in Europe. Pilgrims from all over Scotland came in large numbers hoping to be blessed, and in many cases to be cured, at the shrine of Saint Andrew. The presence of the pilgrims brought about increased trade and development.[13] Recognised as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, the town now had vast economic and political influence within Europe as a cosmopolitan town.[14] In 1559, the town fell into decay after the violent Scottish Reformation and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms losing the status of ecclesiastical capital of Scotland.[15] Even St Andrews University was considerating relocating to Perth around 1697 and 1698.[14] Under the authorisation of the bishop of St Andrews, the town was made a burgh of barony in 1614. Royal Burgh was then granted as a charter by King James VI in 1620.[16][17] In the 18th century, the town was still in decline, but despite this the town was becoming known for having links 'well known to golfers'.[14] By the 19th century, the town began to expand beyond the original medieval boundaries with streets of new houses and town villas being built.[14] Today, St Andrews is served by education, golf and the tourist and conference industry.[14]

Governance[edit]

St Andrews Town Hall

St Andrews is represented by several tiers of elected government. St Andrews Community Council form the lowest tier of governance whose statutory role is to communicate local opinion to local and central government. Fife Council, the unitary local authority for St Andrews, based in Glenrothes is the executive, deliberative and legislative body responsible for local governance.[18] The Scottish Parliament is responsible for devolved matters such as education, health and justice while reserved matters are dealt with by the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[18]

The first parliament to take place in the town was in 1304, when King Edward I came to be received by Bishop William de Lamberton as overlordship of Scotland. As many as 130 landowners turned up to witness the event ranging from Sir John of Combo to Sir William Murray of Fort.[19] In the early days of the union of 1707, St Andrews elected one member of parliament along with Cupar, Perth, Dundee and Forfar.[20] The first elected parliament was introduced on 17 November 1713 as St Andrews Burgh, which merged with Anstruther, the result of a reform bill in 1832.[20] The act of reformation seats in 1855, would find one MP sitting for St Andrews Burgh (which would include Anstruther Easter, Anstruther Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny and Pittenweem).[20] Prior to 1975 the town was governed by a council, provost and baillies. In 1975, St Andrews came under Fife Regional Council and North East Fife District Council. The latter was abolished when a single-tier authority was introduced in 1996 as Fife Council based in Glenrothes.

St Andrews forms part of the North East Fife constituency, electing one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first past the post system. The constituency is represented by Sir Menzies Campbell, MP of the Liberal Democrats.[21] For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament, St Andrews forms part of the North East Fife constituency. The North East Fife Scottish Parliament (or Holyrood) constituency created in 1999 is one of nine within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation. The seat was won at the 2011 Scottish Parliament elections by Roderick Campbell, for the SNP.[22][23]

At EU level, St Andrews is part of the pan-Scotland European Parliament constituency which elects seven Members of the European Parliament (MEP)s using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.[24] Scotland returns two Labour MEPs, two SNP MEPs, one Conservative and Unionist MEP and one Liberal Democrat MEP, to the European Parliament.[24]

Demography[edit]

St Andrews compared according to UK Census 2001[25][26][27][28]
St Andrews Fife Scotland
Total population 14,209 349,429 5,062,011
Foreign born 11.60% 1.18% 1.10%
Over 75 years old 10.51% 7.46% 7.09%
Unemployed 1.94% 3.97% 4.0%

According to the 2001 census, St Andrews had had a total population of 14,209.[25] The population of St Andrews has since increased to around 16,680 in 2008.[1] The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 16 to 29 forms the largest portion of the population (37%).[25] The median age of males and females living in St Andrews was 29 and 34 years respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.[25]

The place of birth of the town's residents was 87.78% United Kingdom (including 61.80% from Scotland), 0.63% Republic of Ireland, 4.18% from other European Union countries, and 7.42% from elsewhere in the world.[25] The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 23.94% in full-time employment, 8.52% in part-time employment, 4.73% self-employed, 1.94% unemployed, 31.14% students with jobs, 9.08% students without jobs, 13.24% retired, 2.91% looking after home or family, 2.84% permanently sick or disabled, and 1.67% economically inactive for other reasons.[27]

Weather and climate[edit]

View from St Salvator's Tower

St Andrews has a temperate maritime climate, which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. Winters are not as cold as one might expect, considering that Moscow and Labrador in Newfoundland lie on the same latitude. Daytime temperatures can fall below freezing and average around 4 °C. However, the town is subject to strong winds. Night-time frosts are common; however, snowfall is more rare. The nearest official Met Office weather station for which data are available is at Leuchars, about 3.3 miles North West of St Andrews town centre.

The absolute maximum temperature is 30.8 °C (87.4 °F), recorded in August 1990.[29] In a typical year, the warmest day[30] should reach 26.1 °C (79.0 °F) and a total of 2 days[31] should record a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above. The warmest calendar month (since 1960) was July 2006,[32] with a mean temperature of 16.8 °C (62.2 °F) (mean maximum of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F), mean minimum of 11.9 °C (53.4 °F))

The absolute minimum temperature (since 1960) stands at −14.5 °C (5.9 °F) recorded during February 1972,[33] although in an 'average' year, the coldest night should only fall to −8.3 °C (17.1 °F).[34] Typically, just short of 60 nights a year will experience an air frost. The coldest calendar month (since 1960) was December 2010,[35] with a mean temperature of −0.8 °C (30.6 °F) (mean maximum 1.9 °C (35.4 °F), mean minimum −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) )

Rainfall, at little more than 650 mm per year makes St Andrews one of the driest parts of Scotland, shielded from Atlantic weather systems by several mountain ranges. Over 1 mm of rain is recorded on just under 117 days of the year.

Sunshine, averaging in excess of 1,500 hours a year is amongst the highest for Scotland, and comparable to inland parts of Southern England. St Andrews is about the furthest north annual levels of above 1500 hours are encountered.

All averages refer to the 1971–2000 observation period.

Climate data for Leuchars, elevation 10 m, 1971–2000, extremes 1960-
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
15.2
(59.4)
21.4
(70.5)
23.1
(73.6)
24.1
(75.4)
29.1
(84.4)
29.1
(84.4)
30.8
(87.4)
26.6
(79.9)
23.2
(73.8)
17.1
(62.8)
14.9
(58.8)
30.84
(87.51)
Average high °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
6.9
(44.4)
9.0
(48.2)
11.0
(51.8)
13.6
(56.5)
16.8
(62.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.9
(66)
16.2
(61.2)
12.8
(55)
9.0
(48.2)
7.0
(44.6)
12.2
(54)
Average low °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
0.6
(33.1)
1.8
(35.2)
3.2
(37.8)
5.6
(42.1)
8.4
(47.1)
10.5
(50.9)
10.3
(50.5)
8.4
(47.1)
5.7
(42.3)
2.4
(36.3)
1.1
(34)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −13.7
(7.3)
−14.5
(5.9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
−3
(27)
0.0
(32)
2.4
(36.3)
2.2
(36)
−0.9
(30.4)
−3.8
(25.2)
−10.2
(13.6)
−13.1
(8.4)
−14.5
(5.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 68.6
(2.701)
45.8
(1.803)
49.5
(1.949)
43.9
(1.728)
49.5
(1.949)
51.1
(2.012)
46.8
(1.843)
47.2
(1.858)
61.7
(2.429)
66.4
(2.614)
57.3
(2.256)
66.2
(2.606)
653.9
(25.744)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 76.6 119.0 152.1 195.0 191.1 190.7 173.9 133.2 105.4 77.4 49.9 1,523.2
Source: Met Office[36]

Transport[edit]

The St Andrews Railway provided a connection to the main Edinburgh to Aberdeen Line at Leuchars railway station. This service was ended in 1969. The St Andrews Rail Link project aims at imagining a reopening of the line, although most infrastructures have been dismantled.

Nowadays, the only way to reach trains at Leuchars or to connect other towns in Fife is the Stagecoach bus station located near the town centre. Route 99 (and its alternate routes 99A, 99B, 99C, 99D) connects St Andrews to Dundee via Leuchars with buses up to every ten minutes.

Landmarks[edit]

West Port

St Andrews was once bounded by several "ports" (the Lowland Scots word for a town gate). Two are still extant: So'gait port (South Street, now called West Port) and the Sea Yett (as The Pends terminates to the harbour). The Category A listed [37] West Port is one of few surviving town 'Ports' in Scotland.[38] The towers were influenced by those seen at the base of the Netherbow Port in Edinburgh.[39] The central archway which displays semi-octagonal 'rownds' and 'battling' is supported by corbelling and neatly moulded passageways. Side arches and relief panels were added to the port, during the reconstruction between 1843–1845.[39]

The tower of Holy Trinity

The Category A listed [40] Holy Trinity (also known as the Holy Trinity Parish Church or "town kirk") is the most historic church in St Andrews.[41] The church was initially built on land, close to the south-east gable of the Cathedral, around 1144 by bishop Robert Kennedy.[41] The church was dedicated in 1234 by Bishop David de Bernham and then moved to a new site on the north side of South Street between 1410–1412 by bishop Warlock.[39][41] Towards the end of June 1547, this was the location where John Knox first preached in public and to which he returned to give an inflammatory sermon on 4 June 1559 which led to the stripping of both the cathedral and ecclesiastical status.[42][43] Much of the architecture feature of the church was lost in the re-building by Robert Balfour between 1798–1800.[44] The church was later restored to a (more elaborately decorated) approximation of its medieval appearance between 1907–1909 by MacGregor Chambers.[39][45] Only the north-western tower and spire with parts of the arcade arches were retained.[44]

View of the cathedral grounds from the top of St Rule's Tower.

To the east of the town centre, lie the ruins of the Category A listed [46] St Andrew's Cathedral.[47] This was at one time Scotland's largest building, originated in the priory of Canons Regular founded by Bishop Robert Kennedy. The Category A listed [48] St Rule's Church, to the south-east of the medieval cathedral is said to date from around 1120 and 1150, being the predecessor of the cathedral.[49] The tall square tower, part of the church, was built to hold the relics of St Andrew and became known as the first cathedral in the town.[49][50] After the death of Bishop Robert Kennedy, a new cathedral began in 1160 by Bishop Arnold (his successor) on a site adjacent to St Rule's Church.[49][50] Work on the cathedral was finally completed and consecrated in 1318 by Bishop William de Lamberton with Robert the Bruce (1306–29) present at the ceremony.[49][50]

The ruins of the Category A listed [51] St Andrews Castle are situated on a cliff-top to the north of the town.[52][53] The castle was first erected around 1200 as the residence, prison and fortress of the bishops of the diocese. Several reconstructions occurred in subsequent centuries, most notably due to damage incurred in the Wars of Scottish Independence.

St Andrew's bandstand

The castle was occupied, besieged and stormed during The Rough Wooing and was severely damaged in the process.

The majority of the castle seen today dates to between 1549 and 1571. The work was commissioned by John Hamilton (archbishop of St Andrews) in a renaissance style which made the building a comfortable, palatial residence while still remaining well-fortified.[52] After the Reformation, the castle passed to several owners, who could not maintain its structure and the building deteriorated into a ruin. The castle is now administered by Historic Scotland

The apse of the Dominican friary, Blackfriars, can still be seen on South Street (between Madras College and Bell Street).[54] Other defunct religious houses that existed in the medieval town, though less visible, have left traces, as for instance the leper hospital at St Nicholas farmhouse (The Steading) between Albany Park and the East Sands leisure centre.[55]

Education[edit]

Original building of Madras College on South Street

Today, St Andrews is home to one secondary school; one private school and three primary schools.[56] Canongate Primary School, which opened in 1972 is located off the Canongate, beside the St Andrews Royal Botanic Gardens. The school roll was recorded in February 2008 as 215.[57] Lawhead Primary School, which opened in 1974 is on the western edge of the town. The school roll was recorded in September 2009 as 181.[58]

Madras College is the sole secondary school in the town. The school which opened to pupils in 1833 was based on a Madras system – founded and endowed by Dr Andrew Bell (1755–1832), a native of the town.[59][60] Prior to the opening, Bell was interested in the demand for a school which was able to teach both poor and privileged children on one site.[59] The high reputation of the school meant that many children came from throughout Britain to be taught there, often lodging with masters or residents in the town.[59] The school is now located on two campuses – Kilrymont and South Street (incorporating the original 1833 building). Pupils in S1-S3 are served by Kilrymont and S4-S6 by South Street.[61]

Plans to build a replacement for Madras College on a single site have been ongoing since 2006. Originally, the school were in negotiations with the University of St Andrews for a joint new build at Lang Lands on land owned by the University. The plans, which were scrapped in August 2011, would have seen the school share the University's playing fields.[62] In October 2011, a scoring exercise drawn up by the council to decide the best location for the new Madras College was put before parents, staff and the local community to ask for their views. A £40 million redevelopment of the Kilrymont building proved to be most popular and was officially given the go-ahead in November 2011.[63][64] This decision was met with controversy from parents, staff and the local community.[64] Work on the new school to date has yet to start, following a decision from a group of senior councillors to analyse the other potential sites than push ahead with the controversial redevelopment.[65] This means that the new school, which was expected to be open for August 2015, has now been delayed until at least 2017.[64][65]

The University of St Andrews Classics Building, Swallowgate

The private school known as St Leonards School was initially established as the St Andrews School for girls company in 1877. The present name was taken in 1882 when a move to St Leonards House was made.[66] The school is now spread across thirty acres between Pends Road and Kinnesburn.[66] A private school for boys was also set up in 1933 as New Park. The operations of the school merged with the middle and junior sections of St Leonards to become St Leonards-New Park in 2005.[66]

The University of St Andrews, the oldest in Scotland, dates back to 1410.[67] A charter for the university was issued by Bishop Henry Wardlaw between 1411 and 1412.[39][67] This was followed by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII granting university status to award degrees to students in 1413.[39][67] The school initially started out as a society for learned men in the fields of canon law, the arts and divinity.[67] The chapel and college of St John the Evangelist became the first building to have ties with the university in 1415.[39] The two original colleges to be associated with the university were St Salvator in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy and St Leonard in 1512 by archbishop Alexander Stewart and prior James Hepburn.[39]

Sport and recreation[edit]

St Andrews is known widely as the "home of golf".[68] According to the earliest surviving document from 1552, the "playing at golf" on the links adjacent to the "water of eden" was granted permission by Archbishop Hamilton.[68] The most famous golf course in the town is the Old Course, purchased by the town council in 1894.[69] The course which dates back to medieval times, is an Open Championship course – which was first staged in 1873.[14][70] Famous winners at St Andrews have included: Old Tom Morris (1861, 1862, 1867 and 1874), Bobby Jones (1927 and 1930 British Amateur), Jack Nicklaus (1970 and 1978) and Tiger Woods (2000 and 2005).[70][71] According to Jack Nicklaus, "if a golfer is going to be remembered, he must win at St Andrews".[70] There are seven golf courses in total – Old, New, Jubilee, Eden, Strathtyrum, Balgove and the Castle - surrounding the western approaches of the town.[69][70] The seventh golf course (the Castle) was added in 2007 at Kinkell Braes, designed by David McLay Kidd.[70]

Other leisure facilities in the town include a canoe club;[72] junior football team; rugby club (known as Madras Rugby Club); tennis club; university sports centre and a links golf driving range. The East Sands Leisure Centre, which opened in 1988, sits on the outskirts of the town as the town's swimming pool with gym facilities. The University of St Andrews have expressed plans to provide a new multi-million pound leisure centre to replace East Sands.[73]

West Sands Beach[edit]

West Sands, looking towards St Andrews

West Sands Beach in St Andrews, Scotland,[74][75][76][77] served as the set for the opening scene in the movie Chariots of Fire.[76][77][78][79] This scene was reenacted during the 2012 Olympics torch relay.[80][81] The beach was also featured in the 2012 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony [82][83]

The two mile long beach is adjacent to the famous St Andrews Links golf course.[84] Sand dunes on the beach, which have long protected the golf course, are themselves in danger of eroding away, and are the subject of a restoration project.[85]

Lade Braes Walk[edit]

Remains of Law Mill at the head of the Lade Braes Walk in St Andrews, Fife.

The Lade Braes Walk is a public footpath of about 1.5 miles (2.5km) which follows the route of a medieval mill lade through St Andrews.[86] The walk starts in the town centre near Madras College and runs roughly westward, through Cockshaugh Park to Law Mill.[87] The lade's function was to transport water from the Kinness Burn to the mill in the grounds of St Andrews Cathedral Priory and may have been built before 1144.[88] In the late 19th century the lade was covered over and the area from Cockshaugh Park to Law Mill was landscaped and planted with trees.[89] The remains of Law Mill, its grain drying kiln and water wheel are a category C listed building.[90]

Museum of the University of St Andrews[edit]

The Museum of the University of St Andrews is a small museum dedicated to the history of the University of St Andrews. The museum, which is free to enter, looks at the University's foundation, student life at the University, and innovative ideas and inventions associated with staff, students and alumni. The museum also shows a range of temporary exhibitions on different themes. Highlights of the displays include the University's three medieval maces, which are rare examples of ornate ceremonial University maces from the 15th century, and a large astrolabe dating from 1575.[91]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Mid-2008 Population Estimates – Localities in order of size". General Register Office for Scotland. 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  2. ^ Scots Language Centre: Scottish Place Names in Scots
  3. ^ Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba ~ Gaelic Place-Names of Scotland
  4. ^ [4]
  5. ^ Gifford,J., The Buildings of Scotland:Fife (Yale UP, 1988), p. 357.
  6. ^ a b Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea pp.1–2.
  7. ^ a b c Gifford Buildings of Scotland – Fife p.357.
  8. ^ Raymond Lamont-Brown, St Andrews: City by the Northern Sea (Edinburgh: Berlinn, 2006), 9.
  9. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.16.
  10. ^ Gifford, Buildings of Scotland:Fife p.357
  11. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.71.
  12. ^ a b Gifford The Buildings of Scotland: Fife p.359.
  13. ^ Omand,D. (ed.) The Fife Book, Birlinn Ltd, 2000, p.118
  14. ^ a b c d e f Cook Old St Andrews p.3.
  15. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.76.
  16. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews –City by The Northern Sea p.19.
  17. ^ Omand The Fife Book p.109.
  18. ^ a b "Reserved and devolved matters". Scotland Office. Retrieved 6 January 2010. [dead link]
  19. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – The City By The Northern Sea p.188.
  20. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – The City By The Northern Sea p.190.
  21. ^ "Menzies Campbell, MP for North East Fife". BBC News. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  22. ^ "North East Fife MSP and Mid Scotland and Fife MSPs". Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  23. ^ "Scotland results – North East Fife constituency results". BBC News (Vote 2011). Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  24. ^ a b "List of MEPs for Scotland". European Parliament. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c d e "Comparative Populartion: St Andrews Locality Scotland". scrol.co.uk. 2001. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  26. ^ "Comparative Population Profile: Fife Council Area Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  27. ^ a b "Comparative Employment Profile: St Andrews Locality Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  28. ^ "Comparative Employment Profile: Fife Locality Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  29. ^ "1990 maximum". Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  30. ^ "1971-00 average annual warmest day". Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  31. ^ ">25c days". Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  32. ^ "July 2006 temperature". Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  33. ^ "Feb 1972 minimum". Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  34. ^ "Annual average coldest night". Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  35. ^ "December 2010 temperature". Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  36. ^ "Climate Normals and extremes". Met Office. Retrieved 22 Mar 2011. 
  37. ^ "West Port, St Andrews – Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  38. ^ Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus p.79.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h Pride Kingdom of Fife pp.124–126.
  40. ^ "Holy Trinity Church (Town Kirk), St Andrews – Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  41. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.171.
  42. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.173.
  43. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.81.
  44. ^ a b Fife Regional Council Medieval Abbeys and Historic Churches in Fife p.46.
  45. ^ Cook Old St Andrews p.14.
  46. ^ "St Andrews Cathedral, St Andrews – Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  47. ^ Fife Regional Council Medieval Abbeys and Historic Churches in Fife p.22.
  48. ^ "St Rule's Tower, St Andrews – Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  49. ^ a b c d Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus pp.130–132.
  50. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend pp.70–72.
  51. ^ "St Andrews Castle, St Andrews – Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  52. ^ a b Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus pp.115–116.
  53. ^ Pride Kingdom of Fife p.121.
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Lamont-Brown, Raymond (2002). Fife in History and Legend. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-567-9. 
  • Lamont-Brown, Raymond (2006). St Andrews:city by the northern sea. Edinburgh: Birlinn Publishing. ISBN 1-84158-450-9. 
  • Omand, Donald (2000). The Fife Book. 
  • Pride, Glen L. (1999). The Kingdom of Fife (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Rutland Press. ISBN 1-873190-49-2. 

External links[edit]