Mary (mother of Jesus)

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For the 1999 television film, see Mary, Mother of Jesus (film).
This article is an overview. For specific views, see: Ecumenical, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Islamic, Protestant, Lutheran, Anglican, and Mormon perspectives. For other uses see Saint Mary (disambiguation) and Virgin Mary (disambiguation)
Our Lady of Vladimir, one of the holiest medieval representations of the Theotokos.

Mary (actually "Mariam"),[1] also known as Saint Mary or the Virgin Mary (c. 18 BC – c. 41 AD), is identified in the Bible[Mt 1:16,18-25][Lk 1:26-56][2:1-7] as the mother of Jesus, the founder of the Christian religion. Christians hold her son Jesus to be the Christ or messiah foretold in Jewish scripture, and the God made flesh. Mary (Maryam) also has a revered position in Islam, where a whole chapter of the Qur'an is devoted to her, also describing the birth of Jesus.

The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament describe Mary as a virgin (Greek: παρθένος, parthénos).[2] Traditionally, Christians believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the agency of the Holy Spirit. Muslims believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the command of God. This took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony.[3] She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born.[4] Dale Allison states that in ancient Jewish custom, Mary could have been betrothed at about 12, but does not claim that this did happen in her case.[5] There is no direct evidence of Mary's age at betrothal or in pregnancy.

The Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to gospel accounts, Mary was present at the Crucifixion of Jesus and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Apocryphal writings, she never died but was assumed into Heaven; this is known in Christian teaching as the Assumption.

Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity,[6][7] and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the Church. Christians of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as Mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God and the Theotokos, literally "Bearer of God". There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas; namely her status as the mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, the perpetual virginity of Mary, and the Assumption of Mary into Heaven.[8] Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, based on the argued brevity of biblical references.[9]

Names[edit]

Virgin and Child with angels and Sts. George and Theodore. Icon from around 600, from Saint Catherine's Monastery.

The English name "Mary" comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a shortened form of Μαριάμ. The New Testament name was based on the original Aramaic name ܡܪܝܡ or Maryam or Mariam. [10] Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament.

In Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are Saint Mary, Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God in Western churches, Theotokos in Orthodox Christianity, and Maryam, mother of Isa, in Islam.

In ancient sources[edit]

New Testament[edit]

The Annunciation by Eustache Le Sueur, an example of 17th century Marian art. The Angel Gabriel announces to Mary her pregnancy with Jesus and offers her White Lilies

The New Testament account of her humility and obedience to the message of God have made her an exemplar for all ages of Christians. Out of the details supplied in the New Testament by the Gospels about the maid of Galilee, Christian piety and theology have constructed a picture of Mary that fulfills the prediction ascribed to her in the Magnificat (Luke 1:48): "Henceforth all generations will call me blessed."

— "Mary." Web: 29Sep2010 Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

Specific references[edit]

  • Luke's gospel mentions Mary most often, identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative (1:27,30,34,38,39,41,46,56; 2:5,16,19,34).
  • Matthew's gospel mentions her by name five times, four of these (1:16,18,20; 2:11) in the infancy narrative and only once (13:55) outside the infancy narrative.
  • Mark's gospel names her once by name (6:3) and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31.
  • John's gospel refers to her twice but never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances in John's gospel. She is first seen at the wedding at Cana of Galilee[Jn 2:1-12] which is mentioned only in the fourth gospel. The second reference in John, also exclusively listed this gospel, has the mother of Jesus standing near the cross of her Son together with Mary Magdalene, and Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas), described by John as her "sister", along with the "disciple whom Jesus loved".[Jn 19:25-26] John 2:1-12 is the only text in the canonical gospels in which the adult Jesus has a conversation with Mary. He does not address her as "Mother" but as "Woman", an honorable title in the culture of the time similar to "My Lady" in later ages. It may be that this title links Mary to the "Woman" of Genesis 3:15 promised by God to have "enmity" for the serpent, and the "Woman clothed with the sun" in Revelation 12:1, John's later work.
  • In the Book of Acts, Luke's second writing, Mary and the "brothers of Jesus" are mentioned in the company of the Eleven who are gathered in the upper room after the Ascension.[Acts 1:14]
  • In the Book of Revelation,[12:1,5-6] John's apocalypse never explicitly identifies the "woman clothed with the sun" as Mary of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus. Jean-Pierre Ruiz makes that connection in an article in New Theology Review[11] but the belief is quite ancient.

Family and early life[edit]

The New Testament tells little of Mary's early history. The 2nd century Gospel of James is the first source to name her parents as Joachim and Anne.[12] John 19:25 states that Mary had a sister also named Mary, but she is likely a sister-in-law, the wife of Joseph's brother, Clopas (Cleophas), according to the early 2nd century historian, Hegesippus.[13]

According to St. Luke, Mary was a cousin of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the tribe of Levi.[Luke 1:5;1:36] Some of those who consider that the relationship with Elizabeth was on the maternal side, consider that Mary, like Joseph, to whom she was betrothed, was of the House of David and so of the tribe of Judah, and that the genealogy of Jesus presented in Luke 3 from Nathan, third son of David and Bathsheba, is in fact the genealogy of Mary, while the genealogy from Solomon given in Matthew 1 is that of Joseph.[14][15] (Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah, so all his descendents are from both Levi and Judah.)[Num.1:7 & Ex.6:23]

The Virgin's first seven steps mosaic from Chora Church, c. 12th century.

Mary resided in "her own house"[Lk.1:56] in Nazareth in Galilee, possibly with her parents, and during her betrothal—the first stage of a Jewish marriage—the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit, and she accepted His Divine Will in perfect virtue of humility and responded, "I am the handmaid of the Lord. Let it be done unto me according to Your word." [16] After a number of months, when Joseph was told of her conception in a dream by "an angel of the Lord", he was surprised; but the angel told him to be unafraid and take her as his wife, which Joseph did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites.[17][Mt 1:18-25]

Since the angel Gabriel had told Mary (according to Luke 1:19) that Elizabeth—having previously been barren—was then miraculously pregnant, Mary hurried to see Elizabeth, who was living with her husband Zechariah in "Hebron, in the hill country of Judah".[18] Mary arrived at the house and greeted Elizabeth who called Mary "the mother of my Lord", and Mary spoke the words of praise that later became known as the Magnificat from her first word in the Latin version.[Luke 1:46-55] After about three months, Mary returned to her own house.[Lk 1:56-57]

According to the Gospel of Luke, a decree of the Roman emperor Augustus required that Joseph return to his hometown of Bethlehem to be taxed. While he was there with Mary, she gave birth to Jesus; but because there was no place for them in the inn, she used a manger as a cradle.[19]:p.14 [2:1ff] After eight days, he was circumcised according to Jewish law, and named "JESUS" which means, "God saves" [Luke 2:21] in accordance with the instructions that the angel had given to Mary in Luke 1:31, and Joseph was likewise told to call him Jesus in Matthew 1:21.

After Mary continued in the "blood of her purifying" another 33 days for a total of 40 days, she brought her burnt offering and sin offering to the temple,[citation needed] so the priest could make atonement for her sins, being cleansed from her blood.[Leviticus 12:1-8] They also presented Jesus – "As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord" (Luke 2:23 other verses). After the prophecies of Simeon and the prophetess Anna in Luke 2:25-38 concluded, Joseph and Mary took Jesus and "returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth".[Luke 2:39]

Sometime later, the "wise men" arrived at the house where Jesus and his family were staying, and they fled by night and stayed in Egypt for a while, and returned after Herod died in 4 BC and took up residence in Nazareth.[Mat.2]

Mary in the life of Jesus[edit]

Mary is involved in the only event in Jesus' adolescent life that is recorded in the New Testament. At the age of twelve, Jesus, having become separated from his parents on their return journey from the Passover celebration in Jerusalem, was found among the teachers in the temple.[20]:p.210 [Lk 2:41-52]

After Jesus' baptism by John the Baptist and his temptations by the devil in the desert, Mary was present when, at her suggestion, Jesus worked his first Cana miracle during a marriage they attended, by turning water into wine.[Jn 2:1-11] Subsequently there are events when Mary is present along with James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas, called Jesus' brothers, and unnamed "sisters". [Mt 1:24-25] [12:46] [13:54-56] [27:56] [Mk 3:31] [6:3] [15:40] [16:1] [Jn 2:12] [7:3-5] [Gal 1:19] [Ac 1:14] Following Jerome, the Church Fathers interpreted the words translated as "brother" and "sister" as referring to close relatives.[21] [22]

There is also an incident which can be interpreted as Jesus rejecting his family in the New Testament: "And his mother and his brothers arrived, and standing outside, they sent in a message asking for him[Mk 3:21] ... And looking at those who sat in a circle around him, Jesus said, 'These are my mother and my brothers. Whoever does the will of God is my brother, and sister, and mother.'"[23][3:31-35].

Mary is also depicted as being present among the women at the crucifixion during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene,[Jn 19:25-26] to which list Matthew 27:56 adds "the mother of the sons of Zebedee", presumably the Salome mentioned in Mark 15:40. This representation is called a Stabat Mater.[24][25] Mary, cradling the dead body of her Son, while not recorded in the Gospel accounts, is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "pity".

After the Ascension of Jesus[edit]

In Acts 1:26, especially v. 14, Mary is the only one to be mentioned by name other than the eleven apostles, who abode in the upper room, when they returned from mount Olive. (It is not stated where the later gathering of about one hundred and twenty disciples was located, when they elected Matthias to fill the office of Judas Iscariot who perished.) Some speculate that the "elect lady" mentioned in 2 John 1:1 may be Mary. From this time, she disappears from the biblical accounts, although it is held by Catholics that she is again portrayed as the heavenly woman of Revelation.[Rev 12:1]

Her death is not recorded in the scriptures. However, Catholic and Orthodox tradition and doctrine have her assumed (taken bodily) into Heaven. Belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is universal to Catholicism, in both Eastern and Western Catholic Churches, as well as the Eastern Orthodox Church,[26][27] Coptic Churches, and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican Churches.[28]

Later Christian writings and traditions[edit]

The Dormition: ivory plaque, late 10th-early 11th century (Musée de Cluny).

According to the apocryphal Gospel of James Mary was the daughter of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. Before Mary's conception, Anne had been barren and was far advanced in years. Mary was given to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much like Hannah took Samuel to the Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament.[29] Some apocryphal accounts state that at the time of her betrothal to Joseph, Mary was 12–14 years old, and he was thirty years old, but such accounts are unreliable.[30]

Mary, according to some in Christianity, never died because she was free from Original Sin since her creation. One of the results of Original Sin is death, but because Mary was an Immaculate Conception, she never had to face the consequence of it. Instead, she was assumed into Heaven, body and soul to prevent the Mother of God, the perfect innocent one, from seeing bodily corruption in soil.

Hyppolitus of Thebes claims that Mary lived for 11 years after the death of her Son, dying in 41 AD.[31]

The earliest extant biographical writing on Mary is Life of the Virgin attributed to the 7th-century saint, Maximus the Confessor which portrays her as a key element of the early Christian Church after the death of Jesus.[32][33][34]

In the 19th century, a house near Ephesus in Turkey was found, based on the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, an Augustinian nun in Germany.[35][36] It has since been visited as the House of the Virgin Mary by Roman Catholic pilgrims who consider it the place where Mary lived until her assumption.[37][38][39][40] The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved,[Jn 19:27] identified as John the Evangelist. Irenaeus and Eusebius of Caesarea wrote in their histories that John later went to Ephesus, which may provide the basis for the early belief that Mary also lived in Ephesus with John.[41][42]

Christian devotion[edit]

Main article: Marian devotions

2nd to 5th centuries[edit]

Christian devotion to Mary goes back to the 2nd century and predates the emergence of a specific Marian liturgical system in the 5th century, following the First Council of Ephesus in 431. The Council itself was held at a church in Ephesus which had been dedicated to Mary about a hundred years before.[43][44][45] In Egypt the veneration of Mary had started in the 3rd century and the term Theotokos was used by Origen, the Alexandrian Father of the Church.[46]

The earliest known Marian prayer (the Sub tuum praesidium, or Beneath Thy Protection) is from the 3rd century (perhaps 270), and its text was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt.[47][48] Following the Edict of Milan in 313, by the 5th century artistic images of Mary began to appear in public and larger churches were being dedicated to Mary, e.g., S. Maria Maggiore in Rome.[49][50][51]

Middle Ages[edit]

The Middle Ages saw many legends about Mary, and also her parents and even grandparents.[52]

Since the Reformation[edit]

Over the centuries, devotion and veneration to Mary has varied greatly among Christian traditions. For instance, while Protestants show scant attention to Marian prayers or devotions, of all the saints whom the Orthodox venerate, the most honored is Mary, who is considered "more honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious than the Seraphim".[53]

Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: "Love and veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the soul of Orthodox piety. A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith, another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church."[54]

Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary, they do not view her as divine, nor do they worship her. Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures.[55] Similarly Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote that the Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings" and "ceaselessly pray for her intercession". However, she is not considered a "substitute for the One Mediator" who is Christ.[54] "Let Mary be in honor, but let worship be given to the Lord", he wrote.[56] Similarly, Catholics do not worship Mary, but venerate her. Catholics use the term hyperdulia for Marian veneration rather than latria that applies to God and dulia for other saints.[57] The definition of the three level hierarchy of latria, hyperdulia and dulia goes back to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.[58]

Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions. There is a long tradition of Roman Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Catholic art as does the image of Madonna and Child.[59] The icon of the Virgin is without doubt the most venerated icon among the Orthodox.[60] Both Roman Catholics and the Orthodox venerate images and icons of Mary, given that the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 permitted their veneration with the understanding that those who venerate the image are venerating the reality of the person it represents,[61] and the 842 Synod of Constantinople confirming the same.[62] The Orthodox, however, only pray before and venerate flat, two-dimensional icons and not three-dimensional statues.[63]

The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary, Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury said: "It is not only that we cannot understand Mary without seeing her as pointing to Christ; we cannot understand Christ without seeing his attention to Mary."[64][65]

Titles[edit]

Main article: Titles of Mary
Eleusa Theotokos with scenes from the life of Mary, 18th century

Titles to honor Mary or ask for her intercession are used by some Christian traditions such as the Eastern Orthodox or Catholics, but not others, e.g., the Protestants. Common titles for Mary include Mother of God (Theotokos), The Blessed Virgin Mary (also abbreviated to "BVM"), Our Lady (Notre Dame, Nuestra Señora, Nossa Senhora, Madonna) and the Queen of Heaven (Regina Caeli).[66][67]

Specific titles vary among Anglican views of Mary, Ecumenical views of Mary, Lutheran views of Mary, Protestant views on Mary, and Roman Catholic views of Mary, Latter Day Saint views on Mary, Orthodox views of Mary, in addition to Mary in Islam.

Mary is referred to by the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Anglican Church, and all Eastern Catholic Churches as Theotokos, a title recognized at the Third Ecumenical Council (held at Ephesus to address the teachings of Nestorius, in 431). Theotokos (and its Latin equivalents, "Deipara" and "Dei genetrix") literally means "Godbearer". The equivalent phrase "Mater Dei" (Mother of God) is more common in Latin and so also in the other languages used in the Western Catholic Church, but this same phrase in Greek (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ), in the abbreviated form of the first and last letter of the two words (ΜΡ ΘΥ), is the indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God".[68][69][70]

Some titles have a Biblical basis, for instance the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, who was sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his lineage of King David. The biblical basis for the term Queen can be seen in the Gospel of Luke 1:32 and the Book of Isaiah 9:6, and Queen Mother from 1 Kings 2:19-20 and Jeremiah 13:18-19.[71] Other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary, e.g., Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators or Our Lady of Ransom who protects captives.[72][73][74][75]

The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, i.e., Mother of God (Greek Θεοτόκος), Aeiparthenos, i.e., Ever Virgin (Greek ἀειπαρθὲνος), as confirmed in the Fifth Ecumenical Council 553, and Panagia, i.e., All Holy (Greek Παναγία).[53] A large number of titles for Mary are used by Roman Catholics, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions, e.g., the title Our Lady of Sorrows has resulted in masterpieces such as Michelangelo's Pietà.[76]

Marian feasts[edit]

Main article: Marian feast days (includes lists of feast days)

The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. Given that according to the Gospel of Luke (Luke 2:22-40), forty days after the birth of Jesus, along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple Mary was purified according to Jewish customs, the Feast of the Purification began to be celebrated by the 5th century, and became the "Feast of Simeon" in Byzantium.[77]

Village decorations during the Feast of the Assumption in Għaxaq, Malta.

In the 7th and 8th centuries four more Marian feasts were established in the Eastern Church. In the Western Church a feast dedicated to Mary, just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century. The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification, Annunciation, Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England by the 11th century.[77]

Over time, the number and nature of feasts (and the associated Titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions. Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions.[76] Some such feasts relate to specific events, e.g., the Feast of Our Lady of Victory was based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States in the Battle of Lepanto.[78][79]

Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues—the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition or Assumption of Mary, the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. [67][80] While the Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on August 15, some Eastern Catholics celebrate it as Dormition of the Theotokos, and may do so on August 28, if they follow the Julian calendar. The Eastern Orthodox also celebrate it as the Dormition of the Theotokos, one of their 12 Great Feasts. Protestants do not celebrate this, or any other Marian feasts.[67]

Depiction within Renaissance Art[edit]

In paintings, Mary is traditionally portrayed in blue. This tradition can trace its origin to the Byzantine Empire, from c.500 AD, where blue was "the colour of an empress". A more practical explanation for the use of this colour is that in Medieval and Renaissance Europe, the blue pigment was derived from the rock lapis lazuli, a stone imported from Afghanistan of greater value than gold. Beyond a painter's retainer, patrons were expected to purchase any gold or lapis lazuli to be used in the painting. Hence, it was an expression of devotion and glorification to swathe the Virgin in gowns of blue.

Catholic doctrines[edit]

Mary with an inscription referencing Luke1:46-47 in St.Jürgen church in Gettorf (Schleswig-Holstein)

There is significant diversity in the Marian doctrines attributed to her primarily by the Catholic Church. The key Marian doctrines held primarily in Catholicism can be briefly outlined as follows:

The acceptance of these Marian doctrines by Catholics can be summarized as follows:[9][81][82]

Doctrine Church action Accepted by
Mother of God First Council of Ephesus, 431 Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists
Virgin birth of Jesus First Council of Nicaea, 325 Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Protestants
Assumption of Mary Munificentissimus Deus encyclical
Pope Pius XII, 1950
Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, some Anglicans, some Lutherans
Immaculate Conception Ineffabilis Deus encyclical
Pope Pius IX, 1854
Roman Catholics, some Anglicans, some Lutherans, early Martin Luther
Perpetual Virginity Council of Constantinople, 533
Smalcald Articles, 1537
Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, some Anglicans, some Lutherans,
Martin Luther

The title "Mother of God" (Theotokos) for Mary was confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus, held at the Church of Mary in 431. The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of God because her son Jesus is one person who is both God and man, divine and human.[68] This doctrine is widely accepted by Christians in general, and the term Mother of God had already been used within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium which dates to around 250 AD.[83]

The Virgin birth of Jesus was an almost universally held belief among Christians from the 2nd until the 19th century.[84] It is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds, which state that Jesus "was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary" (the Nicene Creed in what is now its familiar form)[85] and the Apostles' Creed. The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 7:14. The authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke consider Jesus' conception not the result of intercourse and assert that Mary had "no relations with man" before Jesus' birth.[Mt 1:18] [Mt 1:25] [Lk 1:34] This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit, and not through intercourse with Joseph or anyone else.[86]

The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to Heaven. While the Roman Catholic Church has established the dogma of the Assumption, namely that Mary went directly to Heaven without a usual physical death, the Eastern Orthodox Church believes in the Dormition, i.e., that she fell asleep, surrounded by the Apostles.[87][88]

Roman Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary, as proclaimed Ex Cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. The Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church has a liturgical feast by that name, kept on December 8.[89] The Eastern Orthodox reject the Immaculate Conception principally because their understanding of ancestral sin (the Greek term corresponding to the Latin "original sin") differs from that of the Roman Catholic Church.[90]

The Perpetual Virginity of Mary asserts Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. The term Ever-Virgin (Greek ἀειπάρθενος) is applied in this case, stating that Mary remained a virgin for the remainder of her life, making Jesus her biological and only son, whose conception and birth are held to be miraculous.[86][87][91]

Perspectives on Mary[edit]

Blessed Virgin Mary
L' Annonciation de 1644, Philippe de Champaigne..jpg
West: Mother of God, Queen of Heaven, Mother of the Church
East: Theotokos
Honored in
Islam
Canonized Pre-Congregation
Major shrine Santa Maria Maggiore (See Marian shrines)
Feast See Marian feast days
Attributes Blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, roses, woman with child
Patronage See Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Christian perspectives on Mary[edit]

Christian Marian perspectives include a great deal of diversity. While some Christians such as Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox have well established Marian traditions, Protestants at large pay scant attention to Mariological themes. Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutherans venerate the Virgin Mary. This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. Additionally it includes composing poems and songs in Mary's honor, painting icons or carving statues of her, and conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints.[53][65][67][76]

Catholic view[edit]

Madonna of humility by Domenico di Bartolo, 1433; one of the most innovative Marian images from the early Renaissance.[92]

In the Catholic Church, Mary is accorded the title "Blessed", (from Latin beatus, blessed, via Greek μακάριος, makarios and Latin facere, make) in recognition of her assumption to Heaven and her capacity to intercede on behalf of those who pray to her. Catholic teachings make clear that Mary is not considered divine and prayers to her are not answered by her, they are answered by God.[93] The four Catholic dogmas regarding Mary are: Mother of God, Perpetual virginity of Mary, Immaculate Conception (of Mary) and Assumption of Mary.[87][94][95]

The Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus has a more central role in Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs than in any other major Christian group. Not only do Roman Catholics have more theological doctrines and teachings that relate to Mary, but they have more festivals, prayers, devotional, and venerative practices than any other group.[76] The Catholic Catechism states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship."[96]

For centuries, Roman Catholics have performed acts of consecration and entrustment to Mary at personal, societal and regional levels. These acts may be directed to the Virgin herself, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to the Immaculata. In Catholic teachings, consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God, but enhances it, for all consecration is ultimately made to God.[97][98]

Following the growth of Marian devotions in the 16th century, Catholic saints wrote books such as Glories of Mary and True Devotion to Mary that emphasized Marian veneration and taught that "the path to Jesus is through Mary".[99] Marian devotions are at times linked to Christocentric devotions, e.g., the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary.[100]

The chapel based on the claimed House of Mary in Ephesus

Key Marian devotions include: Seven Sorrows of Mary, Rosary and scapular, Miraculous Medal and Reparations to Mary.[101][102] The months of May and October are traditionally "Marian months" for Roman Catholics, e.g., the daily Rosary is encouraged in October and in May Marian devotions take place in many regions.[103][104][105] Popes have issued a number of Marian encyclicals and Apostolic Letters to encourage devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary.

Catholics place high emphasis on Mary's roles as protector and intercessor and the Catholic Catechism refers to Mary as the "Mother of God to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs".[106][107][108][109][110] Key Marian prayers include: Hail Mary, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Sub Tuum Praesidum, Ave Maris Stella, Regina Coeli, Ave Regina Coelorum and the Magnificat.[111]

Mary's participation in the processes of salvation and redemption has also been emphasized in the Catholic tradition, but they are not doctrines.[112][113][114][115] Pope John Paul II's 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater began with the sentence: "The Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation."[116]

In the 20th century both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI have emphasized the Marian focus of the Church. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) wrote:

It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that "truth about Jesus Christ," "truth about the Church" and "truth about man."[117]

when he suggested a redirection of the whole Church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary".[117]

Orthodox view[edit]

See also: Theotokos and Hymns to Mary
15th century icon of the Theotokos (God-bearer).

Orthodox Christianity includes a large number of traditions regarding the Ever Virgin Mary, the Theotokos.[118] The Orthodox believe that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ's birth.[53] The Theotokia (i.e., hymns to the Theotokos) are an essential part of the Divine Services in the Eastern Church and their positioning within the liturgical sequence effectively places the Theotokos in the most prominent place after Christ.[119] Within the Orthodox tradition, the order of the saints begins with: The Theotokos, Angels, Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, Martyrs, etc. giving the Virgin Mary precedence over the angels. She is also proclaimed as the "Lady of the Angels".[119]

The views of the Church Fathers still play an important role in the shaping of Orthodox Marian perspective. However, the Orthodox views on Mary are mostly doxological, rather than academic: they are expressed in hymns, praise, liturgical poetry and the veneration of icons. One of the most loved Orthodox Akathists (i.e., standing hymns) is devoted to Mary and it is often simply called the Akathist Hymn.[120] Five of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodoxy are dedicated to Mary.[53] The Sunday of Orthodoxy directly links the Virgin Mary's identity as Mother of God with icon veneration.[121] A number of Orthodox feasts are connected with the miraculous icons of the Theotokos.[119]

The Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings", although not divine.[54] The Orthodox venerate Mary as conceived immaculate and assumed into heaven, but they do not accept the Roman Catholic dogmas on these doctrines.[122] The Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos, rather than Assumption.[53]

The Protoevangelium of James, an extra-canonical book, has been the source of many Orthodox beliefs on Mary. The account of Mary's life presented includes her consecration as a virgin at the temple at age three. The High Priest Zachariah blessed Mary and informed her that God had magnified her name among many generations. Zachariah placed Mary on the third step of the altar, whereby God gave her grace. While in the temple, Mary was miraculously fed by an angel, until she was twelve years old. At that point an angel told Zachariah to betroth Mary to a widower in Israel, who would be indicated. This story provides the theme of many hymns for the Feast of Presentation of Mary, and icons of the feast depict the story.[123] The Orthodox believe that Mary was instrumental in the growth of Christianity during the life of Jesus, and after his Crucifixion, and Orthodox Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: "The Virgin Mary is the center, invisible, but real, of the Apostolic Church."

Theologians from the Orthodox tradition have made prominent contributions to the development of Marian thought and devotion. John Damascene (c. 650─c. 750) was one of the greatest Orthodox theologians. Among other Marian writings, he proclaimed the essential nature of Mary's heavenly Assumption or Dormition and her mediative role.

It was necessary that the body of the one who preserved her virginity intact in giving birth should also be kept incorrupt after death. It was necessary that she, who carried the Creator in her womb when he was a baby, should dwell among the tabernacles of heaven.[124]

From her we have harvested the grape of life; from her we have cultivated the seed of immortality. For our sake she became Mediatrix of all blessings; in her God became man, and man became God.[125]

More recently, Sergei Bulgakov expressed the Orthodox sentiments towards Mary as follows:[54]

Mary is not merely the instrument, but the direct positive condition of the Incarnation, its human aspect. Christ could not have been incarnate by some mechanical process, violating human nature. It was necessary for that nature itself to say for itself, by the mouth of the most pure human being: "Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it unto me according to Thy word."

Anglican view[edit]

The multiple churches that form the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement have different views on Marian doctrines and venerative practices given that there is no single church with universal authority within the Communion and that the mother church (the Church of England) understands itself to be both "catholic" and "Reformed".[126] Thus unlike the Protestant churches at large, the Anglican Communion (which includes the Episcopal Church in the United States) includes segments which still retain some veneration of Mary.[65]

Mary's special position within God's purpose of salvation as "God-bearer" (Theotokos) is recognised in a number of ways by some Anglican Christians.[127] All the member churches of the Anglican Communion affirm in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. This feast is called in older prayer books the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary on February 2. The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin on March 25 was from before the time of Bede until the 18th century New Year's Day in England. The Annunciation is called the "Annunciation of our Lady" in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on 31 May, though in some provinces the traditional date of July 2 is kept. The feast of the St. Mary the Virgin is observed on the traditional day of the Assumption, August 15. The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on September 8.[65]

The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is kept in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, on December 8. In certain Anglo-Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception. Again, the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo-Catholics, but is considered a pious opinion by moderate Anglicans. Protestant minded Anglicans reject the celebration of these feasts.[65]

Prayers and venerative practices vary a great deal. For instance, as of the 19th century, following the Oxford Movement, Anglo-Catholics frequently pray the Rosary, the Angelus, Regina Caeli, and other litanies and anthems of Our Lady that are reminiscent of Catholic practices.[128] On the other hand, Low-church Anglicans rarely invoke the Blessed Virgin except in certain hymns, such as the second stanza of Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones.[127][129]

The Anglican Society of Mary was formed in 1931 and maintains chapters in many countries. The purpose of the society is to foster devotion to Mary among Anglicans.[65][130] The high-church Anglicans espouse doctrines that are closer to Roman Catholics, and retain veneration for Mary, e.g., official Anglican pilgrimages to Our Lady of Lourdes have taken place since 1963, and pilgrimages to Our Lady of Walsingham have gone on for hundreds of years.[131]

Historically, there has been enough common ground between Roman Catholics and Anglicans on Marian issues that in 2005 a joint statement called Mary: grace and hope in Christ was produced through ecumenical meetings of Anglicans and Roman Catholic theologians. This document, informally known as the "Seattle Statement", is not formally endorsed by either the Catholic Church or the Anglican Communion, but is viewed by its authors as the beginning of a joint understanding of Mary.[65][132]

Protestant view[edit]

Further information: Protestant views on Mary

Protestants in general reject the veneration and invocation of the Saints.[9]:1174 Protestants typically hold that Mary was the mother of Jesus, but was an ordinary woman devoted to God. Therefore, there is virtually no Marian veneration, Marian feasts, Marian pilgrimages, Marian art, Marian music or Marian spirituality in today's Protestant communities. Within these views, Roman Catholic beliefs and practices are at times rejected, e.g., theologian Karl Barth wrote that "the heresy of the Catholic Church is its Mariology".[133]

Some early Protestants venerated and honored Mary. Martin Luther wrote that: "Mary is full of grace, proclaimed to be entirely without sin. God's grace fills her with everything good and makes her devoid of all evil."[134] However, as of 1532 Luther stopped celebrating the feast of the Assumption of Mary and also discontinued his support of the Immaculate Conception.[135]

John Calvin said, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor."[136] However, Calvin firmly rejected the notion that anyone but Christ can intercede for man.[137]

Although Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli honored Mary as the Mother of God in the 16th century, they did so less than Martin Luther.[138] Thus the idea of respect and high honor for Mary was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Roman Catholics for venerating Mary. Following the Council of Trent in the 16th century, as Marian veneration became associated with Catholics, Protestant interest in Mary decreased. During the Age of the Enlightenment any residual interest in Mary within Protestant churches almost disappeared, although Anglicans and Lutherans continued to honor her.[9]

Protestants acknowledge that Mary is "blessed among women"[Luke 1:42] but they do not agree that Mary is to be venerated. She is considered to be an outstanding example of a life dedicated to God.[139]

In the 20th century, Protestants reacted in opposition to the Catholic dogma of the Assumption of Mary. The conservative tone of the Second Vatican Council began to mend the ecumenical differences, and Protestants began to show interest in Marian themes. In 1997 and 1998 ecumenical dialogs between Catholics and Protestants took place, but to date the majority of Protestants pay scant attention to Marian issues and often view them as a challenge to the authority of Scripture.[9]

The Council Of Chalcedon, accepted by Protestants, held Mary to be Mother of God (not Christ).

Lutheran view[edit]
Stained glass of Jesus leaving his mother in a Lutheran Church, South Carolina.

Despite Martin Luther's harsh polemics against his Roman Catholic opponents over issues concerning Mary and the saints, theologians appear to agree that Luther adhered to the Marian decrees of the ecumenical councils and dogmas of the church. He held fast to the belief that Mary was a perpetual virgin and the Theotokos or Mother of God.[140][141] Special attention is given to the assertion that Luther, some three-hundred years before the dogmatization of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pius IX in 1854, was a firm adherent of that view. Others maintain that Luther in later years changed his position on the Immaculate Conception, which, at that time was undefined in the Church, maintaining however the sinlessness of Mary throughout her life.[142][143] For Luther, early in his life, the Assumption of Mary was an understood fact, although he later stated that the Bible did not say anything about it and stopped celebrating its feast. Important to him was the belief that Mary and the saints do live on after death.[144][145][146] "Throughout his career as a priest-professor-reformer, Luther preached, taught, and argued about the veneration of Mary with a verbosity that ranged from childlike piety to sophisticated polemics. His views are intimately linked to his Christocentric theology and its consequences for liturgy and piety."[147] Luther, while revering Mary, came to criticize the "Papists" for blurring the line, between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being, and religious service given to another creature. He considered the Roman Catholic practice of celebrating saints' days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints to be idolatry.[148][149] His final thoughts on Marian devotion and veneration are preserved in a sermon preached at Wittenberg only a month before his death:

Therefore, when we preach faith, that we should worship nothing but God alone, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, as we say in the Creed: 'I believe in God the Father almighty and in Jesus Christ,' then we are remaining in the temple at Jerusalem. Again,'This is my beloved Son; listen to him.' 'You will find him in a manger'. He alone does it. But reason says the opposite:

What, us? Are we to worship only Christ? Indeed, shouldn’t we also honor the holy mother of Christ? She is the woman who bruised the head of the serpent. Hear us, Mary, for thy Son so honors thee that he can refuse thee nothing. Here Bernard went too far in his Homilies on the Gospel: Missus est Angelus.[150] God has commanded that we should honor the parents; therefore I will call upon Mary. She will intercede for me with the Son, and the Son with the Father, who will listen to the Son. So you have the picture of God as angry and Christ as judge; Mary shows to Christ her breast and Christ shows his wounds to the wrathful Father. That’s the kind of thing this comely bride, the wisdom of reason cooks up: Mary is the mother of Christ, surely Christ will listen to her; Christ is a stern judge, therefore I will call upon St. George and St. Christopher. No, we have been by God’s command baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, just as the Jews were circumcised.[151][152]

Certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church however, continue to venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do, and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith.[153]

Methodist view[edit]
Further information: Saints in Methodism

Methodists have no official writings or teachings on the Virgin Mary except what is mentioned in Scripture and the ecumenical Creeds, mainly that Christ was conceived in her womb through the Holy Spirit and that she gave birth to Christ as a virgin. John Wesley, the principal founder of the Methodist movement within the Church of England, believed that Mary "continued a pure and unspotted virgin."[154][155] The church does hold that Mary was a virgin before, during, and immediately after the birth of Christ.[156][157]

Article II of The Confession of Faith from The Book of Discipline states:

We believe in Jesus Christ, truly God and truly man, in whom the divine and human natures are perfectly and inseparably united. He is the eternal Word made flesh, the only begotten Son of the Father, born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit. As ministering servant he lived, suffered and died on the cross. He was buried, rose from the dead and ascended into heaven to be with the Father, from whence he shall return. He is eternal Savior and Mediator, who intercedes for us, and by him all persons are to be judged.

From this statement, United Methodists reject the Catholic ideas of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix and Mediatrix of the Faith. The Methodist churches disagree with veneration of saints, of Mary, and of relics; believing that reverence and praise are for God alone. However, studying the life of Mary and the biographies of saints is deemed appropriate, as they are seen as heroes and examples of good Christians.[158] The Methodist churches reject the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption of Mary, stating that Christ was the only person to live a sinless life and to ascend body and soul into Heaven.[159]

Latter Day Saints[edit]

Latter Day Saints reject the Roman Catholic traditions of the Immaculate Conception, perpetual virginity, and her assumption.[160] Mary is not seen as an intercessor between humankind and Jesus, and Latter Day Saints do not pray to Mary.[160]

In the first edition of the Book of Mormon (1830), Mary was referred to as "the mother of God, after the manner of the flesh", a reading that was changed to "the mother of the Son of God" in all subsequent editions (1837–).

Nontrinitarian view[edit]

Nontrinitarians, such as Unitarians, Christadelphians and Jehovah's Witnesses[161] also acknowledge Mary as the biological mother of Jesus Christ, but do not recognise Marian titles such as "Mother of God" as these groups generally reject Christ's divinity. Since Nontrinitarian churches are typically also mortalist, the issue of praying to Mary, whom they would consider "asleep", awaiting resurrection, does not arise.[162] Swedenborg says God as he is in himself could not directly approach evil spirits to redeem those spirits without destroying them (Exodus 33:20, John 1:18), so God impregnated Mary, who gave Jesus Christ access to the evil heredity of the human race, which he could approach, redeem and save.[163]

Islamic perspective[edit]

Main article: Mary in Islam

Mary, the mother of Jesus, is mentioned as Maryam in the Qur'an a total of fifty times.[164] Mary holds a singularly distinguished and honored position among women in the Qur'an. A Sura (chapter) in the Qur'an is titled "Maryam" (Mary), which is the only Sura in the Qur'an named after a woman, in which the story of Mary (Maryam) and Jesus (Isa) is recounted according to the Islamic view of Jesus.[165]

She is mentioned in the Qur'an with the honorific title of "our lady" (syyidatuna) as the daughter of Imran and Hannah.[166]

She is the only woman directly named in the Qur'an; declared (uniquely along with Jesus) to be a Sign of God to humanity;[167] as one who "guarded her chastity";[168] an obedient one;[168] chosen of her mother and dedicated to God whilst still in the womb;[169] uniquely (amongst women) Accepted into service by God;[170] cared for by (one of the prophets as per Islam) Zakariya (Zacharias);[170] that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al-Mihrab (understood to be the Holy of Holies), and was provided with heavenly "provisions" by God.[170][166]

Mary is also called a Chosen One;[171] a Purified One;[171] a Truthful one;[172] her child conceived through "a Word from God";[173] and "exalted above all women of The Worlds/Universes (the material and heavenly worlds)".[171]

The Qur'an relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places, Qur'an 3:35–47 and 19:16–34. These state beliefs in both the Immaculate Conception of Mary and the Virgin birth of Jesus.[174][175] [176] The account given in Sura 19 is nearly identical with that in the Gospel according to Luke, and both of these (Luke, Sura 19) begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya (Zecharias) and Good News of the birth of Yahya (John), followed by the account of the annunciation. It mentions how Mary was informed by an angel that she would become the mother of Jesus through the actions of God alone.[177]

In the Islamic tradition, Mary and Jesus were the only children who could not be touched by Satan at the moment of their birth, for God imposed a veil between them and Satan.[178] According to author Shabbir Akhtar, the Islamic perspective on Mary's Immaculate Conception is compatible with the Catholic doctrine of the same topic. "O People of the Book! Do not go beyond the bounds in your religion, and do not say anything of God but the truth. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was but a Messenger of God, and a Word of His (Power) which He conveyed to Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in God (as the One, Unique God), and His Messengers (including Jesus, as Messenger); and do not say: (God is one of) a trinity. Give up (this assertion) – (it is) for your own good (to do so). God is but One God; All-Glorified He is in that He is absolutely above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And God suffices as the One to be relied on, to Whom affairs should be referred." Quran 4/171[179][180]

The Qur'an says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Qur'an, where it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin.[181]

Baha'i perspective[edit]

The Bahá'í Faith venerates Mary as the mother of Jesus. The Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baha'i religion, describes Mary as "that most beauteous countenance," and "that veiled and immortal Countenance." It claims that Jesus was "conceived of the Holy Ghost."[182]

Other views[edit]

Pagan Rome[edit]

From the early stages of Christianity, belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus, as stated in the gospels, holy and supernatural, was used by detractors, both political and religious, as a topic for discussions, debates and writings, specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike.[183] In the 2nd century, as part of the earliest anti-Christian polemics, Celsus suggested that Jesus was the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named Panthera.[184] The views of Celsus drew responses from Origen, the Church Father in Alexandria, Egypt, who considered it a fabricated story.[185] How far Celsus sourced his view from Jewish sources remains a subject of discussion.[186]

In Judaism[edit]

The issue of the parentage of Jesus in the Talmud affects also the view of his mother. However the Talmud does not mention Mary by name and is considerate rather than only polemic.[187][188] The story about Panthera is also found in the Toledot Yeshu, the literary origins of which can not be traced with any certainty and given that it is unlikely to go before the 4th century, it is far too late to include authentic remembrances of Jesus.[189] The Blackwell Companion to Jesus states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts as such, and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity.[190] The name Panthera may be a distortion of the term parthenos (virgin) and Raymond E. Brown considers the story of Panthera a fanciful explanation of the birth of Jesus which includes very little historical evidence.[191] Robert Van Voorst states that given that Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document and due to its lack of a fixed form and orientation towards a popular audience, it is "most unlikely" to have reliable historical information.[192]

4th-century Arabia[edit]

According to the 4th century heresiologist Epiphanius of Salamis the Virgin Mary was worshipped as a Mother goddess in the Christian sect Collyridianism, which was found throughout Arabia sometime during the 300s AD. Collyridianism had women performing priestly acts. They made bread offerings to the Virgin Mary. The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis, who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion.[193]

Study of the historical Jesus[edit]

To date, scholars continue to debate the accounts of the birth of Jesus from several perspectives, including textual analysis, historical records and post-apostolic witnesses.[194] Bart D. Ehrman has suggested that the historical method can never comment on the likelihood of supernatural occurrences (meaning that miracles can never be considered historical facts).[195]

The statement that Joseph "knew her not till she brought forth her first born son" (Matthew 1:25 DouayRheims) has been debated among scholars with some saying that she did not remain a virgin and some saying that she was a perpetual virgin.[196] Other scholars contend that the Greek word heos (i.e., until) denotes a state up to a point, but does not mean that the state ended after that point, and that Matthew 1:25 does not confirm or deny the virginity of Mary after the birth of Jesus.[197][198][199]

Other biblical verses have also been debated, e.g., that the reference by Paul that Jesus was made "of the seed of David according to the flesh" (Romans 1:3) may be hypothesized as Joseph being the father of Jesus.[200] However, most scholars reject this interpretation in the context of virgin birth given that Paul used the Greek word genomenos (i.e., becoming) rather than the word gennetos and the reference to "seed of David" is likely to Mary's lineage.[201][202][203]

Cinematic portrayals[edit]

Mary has been portrayed in various films and on television, including:

Image gallery[edit]

See also: Life of the Virgin
For a larger gallery, please see: Marian image gallery

Music[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aramaic: מרים‎; Greek: Μαριάμ; Hebrew: מרים‎; Arabic: مَريَمْ
  2. ^ Matthew 1:23 uses Greek parthénos virgin, whereas only the Hebrew of Isaiah 7:14, from which the New Testament ostensibly quotes, as Almah young maiden. See article on parthénos in Bauer/(Arndt)/Gingrich/Danker, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature", Second Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1979, p. 627.
  3. ^ Browning, W. R. F. A dictionary of the Bible. 2004 ISBN 0-19-860890-X page 246
  4. ^ Ruiz, Jean-Pierre. "Between the Crèche and the Cross: Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament." New Theology Review; Aug2010, Vol. 23 Issue 3, pp3-4
  5. ^ Allison, Dale C., Matthew: A Shorter Commentary, p.12 Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004 ISBN 0-567-08249-0
  6. ^ Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page 178
  7. ^ Mary for evangelicals by Tim S. Perry, William J. Abraham 2006 ISBN 0-8308-2569-X page 142
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  10. ^ A Dictionary of First Names by Patrick Hanks, Kate Hardcastle and Flavia Hodges (July 27, 2006) Oxford Univ Press ISBN 0198610602 entry for Mary
  11. ^ Ruiz, Jean-Pierre. "Between the Crèche and the Cross: Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament." New Theology Review. Aug 2010, Vol. 23 Issue 3, pp. 5-15
  12. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G. Holy people of the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia, Volume 3. 2004 ISBN 1-57607-355-6 page 54
  13. ^ The Blessed Virgin Mary – Catholic Encyclopedia – Catholic Online
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  15. ^ "New Advent Genealogy of Christ". Newadvent.org. September 1, 1909. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  16. ^ An event described by some Christians as the Annunciation Luke 1:35.
  17. ^ Mills, Watson E., Roger Aubrey Bullard. Mercer dictionary of the Bible. 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 429
  18. ^ Compare Luke 1:39-40 with Joshua 21:11 The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge says, "This was most probably Hebron, a city of the priests, and situated in the hill country of Judea, (Jos 11:21; 21:11, 13,) about 25 miles south of Jerusalem, and nearly 100 from Nazareth."
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  28. ^ Coptic Church website, Accessed 2010/10/6.
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  34. ^ Maximus's Mary, by Sally Cuneen, Commonweal Magazine, December 4, 2009
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  52. ^ Toronto Star article - In December 2010, Catherine Lawless of the University of Limerick stated that by analyzing 15th-century Florentine manuscripts, she had concluded that Ismeria was the maternal grandmother of Mary. Toronto Star Dec 2010 Discovery News
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  85. ^ Translation by the ecumenical English Language Liturgical Consultation, given on page 17 of Praying Together, a literal translation of the original, "σαρκωθέντα ἐκ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τῆς Παρθένου" archiveaccessdate September 11, 2014
  86. ^ a b Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary, 1993, ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pages 56–64
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  98. ^ "Vatican website: Marian consecration and entrustment, item 204". Vatican.va. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  99. ^ Schroede, Jenny, The Everything Mary Book 2006 ISBN 1-59337-713-4 page 219
  100. ^ O'Carroll, Michael, The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary 2007, ISBN 1-882972-98-8 pages 10–15
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  102. ^ "Cardinal Urges Devotion to Rosary and Scapular". Zenit.org. July 17, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  103. ^ Handbook of Prayers by James Socías 2006 ISBN 0-87973-579-1 page 483
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  107. ^ A Beginner's Book of Prayer: An Introduction to Traditional Catholic Prayers by William G. Storey 2009 ISBN 0-8294-2792-9 page 99
  108. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 365
  109. ^ Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac by Matthew Bunson 2009 ISBN 1-59276-441-X page 122
  110. ^ The Catholic Handbook for Visiting the Sick and Homebound by Corinna Laughlin, Sara McGinnis Lee 2010 ISBN 978-1-56854-886-9 page 4
  111. ^ Geoghegan. G.P. A Collection of My Favorite Prayers, 2006 ISBN 1-4116-9457-0 pages 31, 45, 70, 86, 127
  112. ^ Mary, mother of the redemption by Edward Schillebeeckx 1964 ASIN B003KW30VG pages 82–84
  113. ^ Mary in the Redemption by Adrienne von Speyr 2003 ISBN 0-89870-955-5 pages 2–7
  114. ^ Salvation Through Mary by Henry Aloysius Barry 2008 ISBN 1-4097-3172-3 pages 13–15
  115. ^ The mystery of Mary by Paul Haffner 2004 ISBN 0-85244-650-0 page 198
  116. ^ "''Redemptoris Mater'' at the Vatican website". Vatican.va. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  117. ^ a b Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page xxi
  118. ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 pages 168–169
  119. ^ a b c Ecclesiasticus II: Orthodox Icons, Saints, Feasts and Prayer by George Dion Dragas 2005 ISBN 0-9745618-0-0 pages 81-83
  120. ^ The Everything Mary Book by Jenny Schroedel 2006 ISBN 1-59337-713-4 page 90
  121. ^ Vasilaka, Maria Images of the Mother of God: perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium 2005 ISBN 0-7546-3603-8 page 97
  122. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin, et al. The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 pages 403–409
  123. ^ Wybrew, Hugh Orthodox feasts of Jesus Christ & the Virgin Mary: liturgical texts 2000 ISBN 0-88141-203-1 pages 37–46
  124. ^ Damascene, John. Homily 2 on the Dormition 14; PG 96, 741 B
  125. ^ Damascene, John. Homily 2 on the Dormition 16; PG 96, 744 D
  126. ^ Milton, Anthony Catholic and Reformed 2002 ISBN 0-521-89329-1 page 5
  127. ^ a b Braaten, Carl, et al. Mary, Mother of God 2004 ISBN 0-8028-2266-5 page 13
  128. ^ Burnham, Andrew A Pocket Manual of Anglo-Catholic Devotion 2004 ISBN 1-85311-530-4 pages 1, 266,310, 330
  129. ^ Duckworth, Penelope, Mary: The Imagination of Her Heart 2004 ISBN 1-56101-260-2 page 3-5
  130. ^ Church of England yearbook: Volume 123 2006 ISBN 0-7151-1020-9 page 315
  131. ^ Perrier, Jacques, Lourdes Today and Tomorrow 2008 1565483057 ISBN page 56
  132. ^ Mary: grace and hope in Christ: the Seattle statement of the Anglican-Roman Catholics" by the Anglican/Roman Catholic International Group 2006 ISBN 0-8264-8155-8 pages 7–10
  133. ^ Barth, Karl, Church dogmatics 1, pp. 143–4, ISBN 0-567-05069-6 
  134. ^ Lehmann, H., ed. ‘’Luther's Works, American edition,’’ vol. 43, p. 40, Fortress, 1968.
  135. ^ Lee (1993), Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison, p. 249, ISBN 978-0-615-16635-3 
  136. ^ Alternately: "It cannot even be denied that God conferred the highest honour on Mary, by choosing and appointing her to be the mother of his Son." Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, 1845, Jean Calvin, Rev. William Pringle, Edinburgh, Volume 2, page 87 quote.
    • "Neque etiam negari potest, quin Deus Mariam Filio suo matrem eligens ac destinans summo eam honore dignatus sit." Calvin’s Opera, vol. 45 (Corpus Reformatorum, vol. 73), p. 348. no preview
  137. ^ McKim, Donald K (2004), The Cambridge companion to John Calvin, ISBN 0-521-01672-X 
  138. ^ Haffner, Paul (2004), The mystery of Mary, p. 11, ISBN 0-85244-650-0 
  139. ^ Geisler, Norman L; MacKenzie, Ralph E (1995), Roman Catholics and Evangelicals: agreements and differences, p. 143, ISBN 0-8010-3875-8 
  140. ^ Bäumer, Remigius. Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe, Leo Scheffczyk, ed., (Regensburg: Institutum Marianum, 1994), 190.
  141. ^ Schroedel, Jenny (2006), The Everything Mary Book, pp. 125–6, ISBN 1-59337-713-4 
  142. ^ Jackson, Gregory Lee (1993), Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison, p. 249, ISBN 978-0-615-16635-3 
  143. ^ Bäumer, 191
  144. ^ Haffner, Paul (2004), The mystery of Mary, p. 223, ISBN 0-85244-650-0 
  145. ^ Bäumer, 190.
  146. ^ Colonna, Vittoria; Matraini (2009), Who Is Mary?, p. 34, ISBN 0-226-11400-7  |first2= missing |last2= in Authors list (help)
  147. ^ Eric W. Gritsch (1992). H. George Anderson, J. Francis Stafford, Joseph A. Burgess (eds.), ed. The One Mediator, The Saints, and Mary, Lutherans and Roman Catholic in Dialogue VII. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. p. 235. 
  148. ^ Luther's Works, 47, pp. 45f.
  149. ^ Lutherans and Catholics in Dialogue VIII, p. 29.
  150. ^ Homiliae S. Bernardi super evangelio : "Missus est angelus Gabriel" - saint Bernard de Clairvaux - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  151. ^ Doberstein, John W; Lehmann, Helmut T, eds. (1959) [1546], "Sermon on the Second Sunday after Epiphany", Luther's Works, 51 Sermons I, Fortress Press, p. 375, ISBN 978-0-8006-0351-9 
  152. ^ Dr. Martin Luthers Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe 51, Weimar, 1883, p. 128 
  153. ^ More FAQ | The Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church archiveaccessdate=September 11, 2014
  154. ^ Wesley’s Letters, The Wesley Center Online, 1749 [dead link]
  155. ^ "Mary's Perpetual Virginity". Davidmacd.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  156. ^ "What does The United Methodist Church teach about the Virgin Mary?". Archives.umc.org. November 6, 2006. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  157. ^ "Comparing Christian Denominations – Beliefs: Nature of Mary". Christianity.about.com. July 30, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  158. ^ "Methodist church stirs controversy with statue". Religionnewsblog.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  159. ^ "What does The United Methodist Church teach about the Immaculate Conception and the Virgin Birth?". Archives.umc.org. November 6, 2006. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  160. ^ a b Fronk, Camille (1992), "Mary, Mother of Jesus", Encyclopedia of Mormonism 2, New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., pp. 863–64 
  161. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2006 Page 73 Eugene V. Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft "Jehovah's Witnesses pray to God in the name of Jesus, but insist that the Bible never identifies Christ as an eternal ... Jehovah God caused an ovum, or egg cell, in Mary's womb to become fertile, accomplishing this by the transferal of "
  162. ^ Christian mortalism from Tyndale to Milton Norman T. Burns - 1972
  163. ^ Swedenborg, E. ‘’The True Christian Religion’’ (New York: Swedenborg Foundation, 1951, Chapters 2 and 3)
  164. ^ See the following verses: 5:114, 5:116, 7:158, 9:31, 17:57, 17:104, 18:102, 19:16, 19:17, 19:18, 19:20, 19:22, 19:24, 19:27, 19:28, 19:29, 19:34, 21:26, 21:91, 21:101, 23:50, 25:17, 33:7, 39:45, 43:57, 43:61, 57:27, 61:6, 61:14, 66:12.
  165. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G. Holy people of the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia, Volume 3. 2004 ISBN 1-57607-355-6 page 558 Sayyidana Maryam
  166. ^ a b The new encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith 2003 ISBN 0-7591-0190-6 page 296 sayyidatuna
  167. ^ Quran 23:50
  168. ^ a b Quran 66:12
  169. ^ Quran 3:36
  170. ^ a b c Quran 3:37
  171. ^ a b c Quran 3:42
  172. ^ Quran 5:75
  173. ^ Quran 3:45
  174. ^ Jomier, Jacques. The Bible and the Qur'an. 2002 ISBN 0-89870-928-8 page 133
  175. ^ Nazir-Ali, Michael. Islam, a Christian perspective. 1984 ISBN 0-664-24527-7 page 110
  176. ^ "The Virgin Mary In The Koran". Ewtn.com. April 13, 1978. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  177. ^ Jackson, Montell. Islam Revealed. 2003 ISBN 1-59160-869-4 page 73
  178. ^ Rodwell, J. M. The Koran. 2009 ISBN 0-559-13127-5 page 505
  179. ^ Akhtar, Shabbir.The Quran and the secular mind: a philosophy of Islam. 2007 page 352
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  182. ^ The Kitáb-i-Íqán Part One. Baha'i Reference Library. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
  183. ^ Bennett, Clinton, In search of Jesus 2001 ISBN 0-8264-4916-6 pages 165–170
  184. ^ Also see: Schaberg, Jane. Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (Biblical Seminar Series, No 28), ISBN 1-85075-533-7.
  185. ^ Contra Celsum by Origen, Henry Chadwick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953) reprint 1980 ISBN 0-521-29576-9 page 32
  186. ^ John Patrick The Apology of Origen in Reply to Celsus 1892 reprint 2009 ISBN 1-110-13388-X pages 22–24
  187. ^ The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman culture: Volume 3 - Page 369 Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser - 2002 The Mother of the Messiah in the Talmud Yerushalmi and Sefer Zerubbabel by Martha Himmelfarb "Through the centuries the Virgin Mary has played a central role in Christian piety. Unlike so many aspects of Christianity, veneration of the ..."
  188. ^ Peter Schäfer Mirror of His beauty: feminine images of God from the Bible to the ..2002 Page 233 "On the one hand, it mockingly disapproves of the idea of the mother of God; on the other hand it treats Mary considerately and by no means only polemically. The talmudic and post-talmudic discussions about the Virgin Mary are classic ..."
  189. ^ Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pp. 122 and 127
  190. ^ Michael J. Cook Jewish Perspectives on Jesus Chapter 14 in the "The Blackwell Companion to Jesus" edited by Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 978-1-4443-2794-6
  191. ^ Mary in the New Testament by Raymond Edward Brown, et al. 1978 ISBN 0-8091-2168-9 page 262
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  193. ^ Collyridianism - EWTN Retrieved September 11, 2014
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  195. ^ Ehrman, Bart; William Lane Craig (March 28, 2006). "William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman "Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?"". College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts: bringyou.to. Retrieved August 11, 2010. "Historians can only establish what probably happened in the past, and by definition a miracle is the least probable occurrence. And so, by the very nature of the canons of historical research, we can't claim historically that a miracle probably happened. By definition, it probably didn't. And history can only establish what probably did." 
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  197. ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 page 95
  198. ^ Cradle of redeeming love by John Saward 2002 Ignatius Press ISBN 0-89870-886-9 page 17
  199. ^ Mary in the New Testament by Raymond Edward Brown 1978 ISBN 0-8091-2168-9 page 86
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  201. ^ This Jesus by Markus Bockmuehl 2004 ISBN 0-567-08296-2 page 32
  202. ^ Aquinas on doctrine: a critical introduction by Thomas Gerard Weinandy, John Yocum 2004 ISBN 0-567-08411-6 pages 245-246
  203. ^ All the Doctrines of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 0-310-28051-6 page 43
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