St Mary's Church, Henbury

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St Mary's Church, Henbury
Henburychurch.jpg
St Mary's Church, Henbury is located in Bristol
St Mary's Church, Henbury
Shown within Bristol
Basic information
Location Bristol, England
Geographic coordinates 51°30′24″N 2°37′52″W / 51.506728°N 2.631207°W / 51.506728; -2.631207Coordinates: 51°30′24″N 2°37′52″W / 51.506728°N 2.631207°W / 51.506728; -2.631207
Affiliation Church of England
District Henbury
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Parish church
Website St Mary's
Architectural description
Architectural style English Gothic
Completed 1300
Specifications

St Mary the Virgin (grid reference ST562788) is a Church of England parish church in Henbury, Bristol, England.

There may have been a church on the site since the 7th century. Construction of the present building took place from around 1200 to around 1300. Restoration work was later carried out in the 19th century by the Gothic Revival architects Thomas Rickman and George Edmund Street. The church has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II* listed building.[1]

History[edit]

The first church on the site probably dates to around 691–92, when King Æthelred of Mercia made a grant of land to Oftfor, Bishop of Worcester.[2] Around 1093 a charter of another Bishop of Worcester, Wulfstan, endowed the Henbury church and all of its tithes to Westbury on Trym's monastery, which Wulfstan had acquired for the Worcester diocese around that time.[3]

When the monastery became Westbury College around 1194, the area around Henbury became a prebend of the College. The tithes from Henbury provided a revenue for one of the College's canons, who was responsible for providing the vicar for St Mary's. In addition, the Henbury church was the other church, alongside Holy Trinity Church, Westbury on Trym, whose maintenance was a collective responsibility of the college community.[4]

The college periodically received supervisory visits from the Worcester diocese,[3] with a bishop's palace in Henbury used as an episcopal residence until the late 15th century. This was situated somewhere close to St Mary's, though its exact location is not certain.[4][5][6]

When Westbury College was dissolved in 1544, St Mary's became a parish church of the new Bristol diocese.[7]

Architecture[edit]

The nave and lower tower date from around 1200. In the early 13th century the upper tower, chancel and south chapel were added, and the clerestory was built around 1300. These features are in the Early English style, although with some restoration since. Most notable are the Late Norman doorways, which have segmental arches.[1]

In 1836 Thomas Rickman built the north chapel and carried out restoration work, and the church was further restored by George Edmund Street in 1875–77. The 19th-century restorations introduced Perpendicular Gothic Revival style features, in particular the windows for the nave and the chapels.[1]

In the churchyard there is a mortuary chapel which was built around 1830, and may also have been designed by Rickman. It is in the Early English Gothic Revival style and has been designated by English Heritage as grade II listed.[8]

Memorials[edit]

The grave of Scipio Africanus

The slave known as Scipio Africanus is buried in the churchyard in a grave with elaborately painted headstone and footstone, dated 1720.[9]

The churchyard also contains an obelisk with a stone ankh, marking the grave of the Egyptologist Amelia Edwards.[10]

There are war graves in both the church's churchyard extension and its detached Church Cemetery. The former holds the graves of three soldiers of World War I and one of World War II,[11] the latter those of four soldiers and a Royal Air Force officer of World War II.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Church of St Mary the Virgin". Images of England. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  2. ^ Sivier, David (2002). Anglo-Saxon and Norman Bristol, p. 26. Tempus, Stroud, Gloucestershire. ISBN 0-7524-2533-1.
  3. ^ a b "Victoria History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 2 (1907), pp. 106–108". British History Online. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  4. ^ a b Orme, Nicholas (2010). "John Wycliffe and the Prebend of Aust", Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 61 (1): 144–152.
  5. ^ Little, Bryan (1978). Churches in Bristol, pp. 32–33. Redcliffe Press, Bristol. ISBN 0-905459-06-7.
  6. ^ "Monument No. 198198". PastScape. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  7. ^ "Westbury College". PastScape. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  8. ^ "Mortuary chapel in the churchyard of the Church of St Mary". Images of England. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  9. ^ "Memorial to Scipio Africanus 10 metres NW of south porch of Church of St Mary". Images of England. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  10. ^ Rees, Joan (1998). Amelia Edwards: Traveller, Novelist and Egyptologist, p. 69. Rubicon, London. ISBN 0-948695-61-7.
  11. ^ [1] CWGC Cemetery Report. Breakdown obtained from casualty record.
  12. ^ [2] CWGC Cemetery Report. Breakdown obtained from casualty record.

External links[edit]