Stade Roland Garros
|Location||16th arrondissement, Paris, France|
|Capacity||14,840 (Court Philippe Chatrier)
10,068 (Court Suzanne Lenglen)
3,800 (Court 1)
|Surface||"Clay" (see text)|
Le Stade Roland Garros ("Roland Garros Stadium") is a tennis venue complex located in Paris, France. It hosts the French Open, also known as Roland Garros, a Grand Slam championship tournament played annually around the end of May and the beginning of June. The facility was constructed in 1928 to host France's first defense of the Davis Cup. It is named for Roland Garros, a pioneer aviator (completed the first solo flight across the Mediterranean Sea), engineer (inventor of the first forward-firing aircraft machine gun), and World War I hero (the first pilot to shoot down five enemy aircraft, and to be called an "ace" for doing so), who was killed in aerial combat in 1918.
The 21-acre (8.5-hectare) complex contains twenty courts, including three large-capacity stadiums; Les Jardins de Roland-Garros, a large restaurant and bar complex; Le Village, the press and VIP area; France's National Training Centre (CNE); and the Tenniseum, a bilingual, multimedia museum of the history of tennis.
While the Roland Garros surface is invariably characterized as "red clay", the courts are in fact surfaced with white limestone frosted with a few millimeters of powdered red brick dust. Beneath the 3-inch-thick layer of porous limestone is 6 inches of volcanic rock, followed by a 3-foot (0.91 m) layer of sand, all of which rests on a slab of concrete. Crushed brick is pressed onto the limestone surface with rollers, then drenched in water. The process is repeated several times until a thin, compact layer coats each court. The crushed brick is deep enough to allow footprints and ball marks, but shallow enough to avoid making the court spongy or slippery. In tournament situations workers smooth the surface before matches and between sets by dragging rectangular lengths of chain-link across it. The red brick dust is replenished as needed (daily during major tournaments).
The surface was a state-of-the art solution, in 1928, to the biggest problem with natural clay courts: poor drainage. At the time it was not unusual for clay surfaces to be unplayable for two to three days after even short periods of precipitation. The limestone/crushed brick combination, originally developed in Britain, played and looked similar to clay without clay's drainage issues, thus rendering natural clay obsolete as a tennis court surface. Since then a multitude of other "fast-dry" and synthetic clay surfaces have been developed. Courts surfaced with these materials play much like natural clay surfaces and are collectively classified as "clay courts", despite the fact that few if any true clay courts have been built for almost a century. The diversity in composition of various "clay" surfaces around the world explains the extraordinary variability in their playing characteristics.
Court Philippe Chatrier
Court Philippe Chatrier was built in 1928 as Roland Garros's centerpiece and remains its principal venue, seating 14,840 spectators (reduced from 15,166 in 2010 to accommodate new press boxes). The stadium was known simply as "Court Central" until 2001, when it was renamed for the long-time president of the Fédération Française de Tennis (FFT) who helped restore tennis as a Summer Olympics sport in 1988. The four main spectator grandstands are named for les Quatre Mousquetaires ("Four Musketeers") – Jacques "Toto" Brugnon, Jean Borotra (the "Bouncing Basque"), Henri Cochet (the "Magician"), and René Lacoste (the "Crocodile") – who dominated men's tennis in the 1920s and '30s.
When France won the Davis Cup in 1927, due largely to the Musketeers' efforts, Roland Garros was constructed as a venue for its successful defense the following year. France retained the Cup until 1933, again largely because of the Musketeers. A monument to France's six Cup championships stands at the center of Place des Mousquetaires, the circular courtyard between Court Chatrier and Court 1. As a further tribute, the trophy awarded each year to the French Open men's singles champion is known as La Coupe des Mousquetaires.
A retractable roof for this stadium is planned for 2019. 
Court Suzanne Lenglen
Originally designated "Court A", Court Suzanne Lenglen, the secondary stadium with a capacity of 10,068 spectators, was built in 1994. Its namesake, an international celebrity and the first true star of women's tennis, won 31 major tournaments, including six French Open titles and six Wimbledon championships, between 1914 and 1926. Known as La Divine ("Divine One") and La Grand Dame ("Great Lady") of French tennis, she also won two Olympic gold medals in Antwerp in 1920. A bronze bas relief of Lenglen by the Italian sculptor Vito Tongiani stands over the east tunnel-entrance to the stadium. The trophy awarded each year to the French Open women's singles champion is named La Coupe Suzanne Lenglen in her honor.
The court has an underground irrigation system, the first of its kind, to control moisture levels within its surface.
Nicknamed the "Bullring" because of its circular shape, Court 1 is the facility's tertiary venue. Its architect, Jean Lovera, a former French junior champion, designed the 3,800-seat structure as a deliberate contrast to the adjacent, exceedingly geometric Court Philippe Chatrier. Built in 1980, the Bullring is a favorite among serious tennis fans because of its relatively small size and feeling of close proximity to the action. An unusual design feature is its press seating in the first row at court level behind the south baseline.
Court 1 has been the scene of some stunning French Open upsets, such as unseeded Gustavo Kuerten's 3rd-round victory over fifth-seeded former champion Thomas Muster in 1997, on his way to his first of three Open titles; and Gabriela Sabatini's defeat – after a 6–1, 5–1 lead and five match points – to Mary Joe Fernandez in the 1993 quarterfinals. It was also the site of Marat Safin's famous "dropped pants" match against Felix Mantilla in 2004.
Known officially as the Museum of the French Federation of Tennis, the Tenniseum was designed by the French architect Bruno Moinard and opened in May, 2003. It is housed in a former groundsman's cottage, and comprises a multimedia center, media library, and permanent and temporary exhibits dedicated to the history of tennis in general, and the French Open in particular. Permanent exhibits include a display of the French Open perpetual trophies, including La Coupe des Mousquetaires and La Coupe Suzanne Lenglen; a narrative and photographic history of Roland Garros; displays documenting the evolution of tennis attire through the years; a comprehensive collection of tennis racquets dating back to the mid-19th century; and a large exhibition of tennis-related photographs and paintings. The media library houses a diverse collection of documents, posters, books, and magazines, as well as a database of tennis information, statistics, trivia, and match summaries of all French Open tournament matches since 1928. The bilingual (French/English) multimedia center contains over 4,000 hours of digitized video including documentaries, interviews with many of the sport's legendary players, and film archives dating from 1897 to the present. Tours are conducted daily. (Two per day, at 11:00am and 3:00pm, are in English.) During the French Open the normal entry fee is waived for tournament ticket-holders.
Expansion vs. relocation
During the 2004 French Open, officials announced plans to expand the grounds and build a new stadium with a retractable roof as part of the Paris 2012 Olympic Bid.
During the 2005 French Open, officials said the expansion and new stadium would go ahead regardless of whether or not the Olympic bid was successful. The Paris bid ultimately placed 2nd behind London in a close 54-50 vote. London's Olympic Bid also included plans to add a retractable roof to its main tennis court.
During the 2006 French Open, officials said plans for a roof were "on hold" due to London's win over Paris in the 2012 Olympic Bidding.
During the 2007 French Open, officials said a roof would not be ready until the 2011 French Open.
During the 2008 French Open, officials said a roof would not be ready until the 2012 French Open.
In 2009 the Fédération Française de Tennis (FFT) announced that it had determined that the French Open's venue had become inadequate, compared to other major tennis tournament facilities. As a result, it had commissioned the French architect Marc Mimram (designer of the Passerelle des Deux Rives footbridge across the Rhine River in Strasbourg) to design a significant expansion of Stade Roland Garros. On the current property, the proposal calls for the addition of lights and a roof over Court Philippe Chatrier. At the nearby Georges Hébert municipal recreation area, east of Roland Garros at Porte d'Auteuil, a fourth stadium will be built, with a retractable roof and 14,600 seating capacity, along with two smaller courts with seating for 1,500 and 750.
In 2010, faced with opposition to the proposed expansion from factions within the Paris City Council, the FFT announced it was considering an alternate plan to move the French Open to a completely new, 55-court venue outside of Paris city limits. Three sites reportedly being considered are Marne-la-Vallée (site of the Euro Disney resort), the northern Paris suburb of Gonesse near of the international airport Charles de Gaulle, and a vacant army base near Versailles. Amid charges of bluffing and brinkmanship, a spokesman explained that Roland Garros is less than half the size of other Grand Slam venues, leaving the FFT with only two viable options: expansion of the existing facility or relocation of the event.
In February 2011, the decision was taken to keep the French Open at its current location near the Porte d'Auteuil. The venue will undergo major renovations by 2018. Court n°1 will be demolished, while 2 new courts will be built. In addition, a retractable roof will be installed on the Philippe Chatrier court, and the size of the venue will be expanded by 60%.
In February 2015, the renovation plans encountered new resistance when the Ministry of Ecology issued a negative report. It remains unclear whether final government approval will be given, or if the tournament will remain in Paris after it's lease expires after the 2015 French Open.
In March 2015, renovation plans were officially placed on hold, when the Paris city council asked for yet another study to be conducted of the land use. Those in favor of the renovation argue that further delay will put at risk a possible Paris bid for the 2024 Olympics.
Roland Garros is located at the southern boundary of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris's 16th arrondissement. The triangular property is bounded by Avenue Porte d'Auteuil on the north and Boulevard d'Auteuil on the south. The eastern boundary is Avenue Gordon Bennett.
Rail: Lines 9 and 10. Bus: Routes 22, 32, 52, 62, 72, 123, 241 and PC1.
A special Roland Garros taxi stand operates in May and June during the French Open on the southeast corner of the venue grounds, at the corner of Robert Schuman Avenue and Auteuil Boulevard.
In October 1939 shortly after the outbreak of World War II the stadium was converted into a detention centre where "indésirables" were held pending imprisonment after the German and Austrian population of Paris had been processed and imprisoned elsewhere. The "indésirables" mostly consisted of unwanted aliens, primarily Hungarians, Russians, Italians, Poles and those suspected of being communists were held at the stadium. As the French prisons were full, the stadium became a prison substitute.
Arthur Koestler, a detainee at the stadium reported that at the time of his detention posters from the last match before the outbreak of war were still in place advertising Henri Cochet versus Jean Borotra.
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- Tenniseum website
- "Roland Garros set for roof". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
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- Official website
- Media related to Stade Roland-Garros at Wikimedia Commons
- Official site of the French Tennis Federation
- History from the official 2008 French Open site
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