Stadium

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This article is about the building type. For other uses, see Stadium (disambiguation).
The Allianz Arena in Munich, Germany is the first stadium that can change the colour of its exterior.
The Melbourne Cricket Ground in Melbourne is the 10th largest stadium in the world. It is also one of the largest and oldest Cricket stadiums in the world, and additionally hosts football matches.

A modern stadium (plural stadiums/stadia[1]) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.[2]

Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word "stadium" originated.[3]

Computer imaging of the proposed new multi-purpose stadium at Baku in Azerbaijan

Etymology[edit]

The Stadium in Olympia

"Stadium" comes from the Greek word "stadion" (στάδιον), a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet. As feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion = 600 ft (180 m), in a given historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller.[3]

The equivalent Roman measure, the stadium, had a similar length - about 185 m (607 ft) - but instead of being defined in feet was defined using the Roman standard passus to be a distance of 125 passi (double-paces).

Although most dictionaries provide for both "stadiums" and "stadia" as valid plurals, etymological sticklers sometimes apply "stadia" only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium. (That the "stadium" measurement is used only in historical contexts perhaps explains the sustained use of the archaic plural.)

The English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length.

History[edit]

The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, Greece, where the Olympic Games of antiquity were held from 776 BC. Initially 'the Games' consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. The stadion, a measure of length, may be related to the "Stadium", but the track at the Stadium at Olympia is longer than the conventional stadion. Greek and Roman stadiums have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium of Domitian, in Rome.

The excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium hosted an early version of the Olympic Games in 1870,[4] 1875, 1896 and 1906. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas, and it was the first ancient stadium to be used in modern times.

Modern stadiums[edit]

The first stadiums to be built in the modern era were basic facilities, designed for the single purpose of fitting as many spectators in as possible. With tremendous growth in the popularity of organised sport in the late Victorian era, especially football in the United Kingdom and baseball in the U.S., the first such structures were built.[5] One such early stadium was the Lansdowne Road Stadium, the brainchild of Henry Wallace Doveton Dunlop (1844 -1930), who organised the first All Ireland Athletics Championships. Banned from locating sporting events at Trinity College, Dunlop built the stadium in 1872. "I laid down a cinder running path of a quarter-mile, laid down the present Lansdowne Tennis Club ground with my own theodolite, started a Lansdowne archery club, a Lansdowne cricket club, and last, but not least, the Lansdowne Rugby Football Club - colours red, black and yellow." Some 300 cartloads of soil from a trench beneath the railway were used to raise the ground, allowing Dunlop to utilise his engineering expertise to create a pitch envied around Ireland.

Other early stadiums from this period in the UK include the Stamford Bridge stadium (opened in 1877 for the London Athletic Club) and Anfield stadium (1884 as a venue for Everton F.C.).

In the U.S., many professional baseball teams built large stadiums mainly out of wood, with the first such venue being the South End Grounds in Boston, opened in 1871 for the team then known as the Boston Beaneaters (now the Atlanta Braves). However, many of these parks caught fire, and even those that did not burn proved inadequate for a growing game. All of the 19th-century wooden parks were replaced, some after only a few years, and none survive today.

Goodison Park was the first purpose-built football stadium in the world. Walton-based building firm Kelly brothers were instructed to erect two uncovered stands that could each accommodate 4,000 spectators. A third covered stand accommodating 3,000 spectators was also requested.[6] Everton officials were impressed with the builder's workmanship and agreed two further contracts: exterior hoardings were constructed at a cost of £150 and 12 turnstiles were installed at a cost of £7 each.[7] The stadium was officially opened on 24 August 1892 by Lord Kinnaird and Frederick Wall of the Football Association. No football was played; instead the 12,000 crowd watched a short athletics event followed by music and a fireworks display.[6] Upon its completion the stadium was the first joint purpose-built football stadium in the world.[8]

The architect Archibald Leitch brought his experience with the construction of industrial buildings to bear on the design of functional stadiums up and down the country. His work encompassed the first 40 years of the 20th century. One of his most notable designs was Old Trafford in Manchester. The ground was originally designed with a capacity of 100,000 spectators and featured seating in the south stand under cover, while the remaining three stands were left as terraces and uncovered.[9] It was the first stadium to feature continuous seating along the contours of the stadium.[5]

These early venues, originally designed to host football matches, were adopted for use by the Olympic Games, the first one being held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. The White City Stadium, built for the 1908 Summer Olympics in London is often cited as the first modern seater stadium. Designed by the engineer J.J. Webster and completed in 10 months by George Wimpey,[10] on the site of the Franco-British Exhibition, this stadium with a seating capacity of 68,000 was opened by King Edward VII on 27 April 1908.[11] Upon completion, the stadium had a running track 24 ft wide (7.3 m) and three laps to the mile (536 m); outside there was a 35-foot-wide (11 m), 660-yard (600 m) cycle track. The infield included a swimming and diving pool. The London Highbury Stadium, built in 1913, was the first stadium in the UK to feature a two-tiered seating arrangement when it was redesigned in the Art Deco style in 1936.[5] However, two- and three-tiered stadiums had been the standard in the US for several decades prior to 1936. The first two-tiered stadium in that country was the Baker Bowl, a baseball park in Philadelphia that opened in 1895. The first three-tiered stadium came in 1923 with the opening of the original Yankee Stadium in New York City.

The ancient stadium[edit]

Hippodrome; stadium; circus[edit]

The Greek hippodrome was the basic model for both the Roman stadium and the Roman circus. A hippodrome and a stadium may be of similar size, while the largest circus structures can have seating capacities up to ten times greater. In practice, however, the association of one of these three words with a given structure may be more the result of some naming convention than a reflection of any characteristic of its physical size or structure. Indeed from one epoch to another the same structure many be known by different names. For example the Stadium of Domitian was also known as the Circus Agonalis. In another example a structure at Aphrodisias can be found referred to as a stadium, or a hippodrome, while it has the size and structure of a small circus.

Examples of ancient stadiums[edit]

Name Country Earliest date Track length Track width
Stadium at Olympia Greece 776 BC 212.54 m (697.3 ft) 28.5 m (94 ft)
Stadium at Delphi Greece 500 BC 177 m (581 ft) 25.5 m (84 ft)
Stadium of Domitian Italy 80 AD 200 m (660 ft) - 250 m (820 ft) (estimated)
Stadium at Aphrodisias Turkey 225 m (738 ft) (approx.) 30 m (98 ft) (approx.)

The modern stadium[edit]

The Veltins-Arena in Gelsenkirchen, Germany is an example of a stadium with a retractable roof and a retractable pitch
Journalist Mario Filho Stadium, popularly known as Maracanã, one of the most famous stadiums in the world.

Types[edit]

Domed stadiums are distinguished from conventional stadiums by their enclosing roofs. Many of these are not actually domes in the pure architectural sense, some being better described as vaults, some having truss-supported roofs and others having more exotic designs such as a tensegrity structure. But, in the context of sports stadiums, the term "dome" has become standard for all covered stadiums,[12] particularly because the first such enclosed stadium, the Houston Astrodome, was built with an actual dome-shaped roof. Some stadiums have partial roofs, and a few have even been designed to have moveable fields as part of the infrastructure. The Mercedes-Benz Superdome in New Orleans is a true dome structure made of a lamellar multi-ringed frame and has a diameter of 680 feet (210) m. It is the largest fixed domed structure in the world.[6]

Even though enclosed, dome stadiums are called stadiums because they are large enough for, and designed for, what are generally considered to be outdoor sports such as athletics, American football, association football, rugby, and baseball. Those designed for what are usually indoor sports like basketball, ice hockey and volleyball are generally called arenas. Exceptions include the basketball arena at Duke University, which is called Cameron Indoor Stadium, Red Bull Arena, which is home of the New York Red Bulls of MLS, and the now-demolished Chicago Stadium, former home of the Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL and Chicago Bulls of the NBA.

Design issues[edit]

Different sports require fields of different size and shape. Some stadiums are designed primarily for a single sport while others can accommodate different events, particularly ones with retractable seating. Stadiums built specifically for association football are quite common in Europe; however, Gaelic games stadiums (such as the incomplete Croke Park) would be most common in Ireland, while ones built specifically for baseball or American football are common in the United States. The most common multiple use design combines a football pitch with a running track, a combination which generally works fairly well, although certain compromises must be made. The major drawback is that the stands are necessarily set back a good distance from the pitch, especially at the ends of the pitch. In the case of some smaller stadiums, there are not stands at the ends. When there are stands all the way around, the stadium takes on an oval shape. When one end is open, the stadium has a horseshoe shape. All three configurations (open, oval and horseshoe) are common, especially in the case of American college football stadiums. Rectangular stadiums are more common in Europe, especially for football where many stadiums have four often distinct and very different stands on the four sides of the stadium. These are often all of different sizes and designs and have been erected at different periods in the stadium's history. The vastly differing character of European football stadiums has led to the growing hobby of ground hopping where spectators make a journey to visit the stadium for itself rather than for the event held there. In recent years the trend of building completely new oval stadiums in Europe has led to traditionalists criticising the designs as bland and lacking in the character of the old stadiums they replace.

In North America, where baseball and American football are the two most popular outdoor spectator sports, a number of football/baseball multi-use stadiums were built, especially during the 1960s, and some of them were successful.

However, since the requirements for baseball and football are significantly different, the trend, beginning with Kansas City in 1972–1973 and accelerating in the 1990s, has been toward the construction of single-purpose stadiums. In several cases, an American football stadium has been constructed adjacent to a baseball park, to allow for the sharing of mutual parking lots and other amenities. With the rise of MLS, the construction of soccer-specific stadiums has also increased since the late 1990s to better fit the needs of that sport. In many cases, earlier baseball stadiums were constructed to fit into a particular land area or city block. This resulted in asymmetrical dimensions for many baseball fields. Yankee Stadium, for example, was built on a triangular city block in The Bronx, New York City. This resulted in a large left field dimension but a small right field dimension.

Before more modern football stadiums were built in the United States, many baseball parks, including Fenway Park, the Polo Grounds, Wrigley Field, Comiskey Park, Tiger Stadium, Griffith Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium, Shibe Park, Forbes Field, Yankee Stadium, and Sportsman's Park were used by the National Football League or the American Football League. (To a certain extent, this continues in lower football leagues as well, with TD Ameritrade Park being used as the home stadium of the United Football League's Omaha Nighthawks.) Along with today's single use stadiums is the trend for retro style ballparks closer to downtown areas. Oriole Park at Camden Yards was the first such ballpark for Major League Baseball to be built, using early-20th-century styling with 21st-century amenities.

There is a solar-powered stadium in Taiwan that produces as much energy as it needs to function.[13]

Stadium designers often study acoustics to increase noise caused by fans' voices, aiming to create a lively atmosphere.[14]

Spectator areas and seating[edit]

Camp Nou in Barcelona, Spain is the largest stadium in Europe.

An "all-seater" stadium has seats for all spectators. Other stadiums are designed so that all or some spectators stand to view the event. The term "all-seater" is not common in the U.S., perhaps because very few American stadiums have sizeable standing-only sections. Poor stadium design has contributed to disasters, such as the Hillsborough disaster and the Heysel Stadium disaster. Since these, all FA Premier League, UEFA and FIFA World Cup qualifying matches require all spectators to be seated (though not necessarily in an all-seater stadium, if terraces are left empty).

The spectator areas of a stadium may be referred to as bleachers, especially in the U.S., or as terraces, especially in the United Kingdom, but also in some American baseball parks, as an alternative to the term tier. Originally set out for standing room only, they are now usually equipped with seating. Either way, the term originates from the step-like rows which resemble agricultural terraces. Related, but not precisely the same, is the use of the word terrace to describe a sloping portion of the outfield in a baseball park, possibly, but not necessarily for seating, but for practical or decorative purposes. The most famous of these was at Crosley Field in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Many stadiums make luxury suites or boxes available to patrons at high prices. These suites can accommodate fewer than 10 spectators or upwards of 30 depending on the venue. Luxury suites at events such as the Super Bowl can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Political and economic issues[edit]

Empire Field, stadium made with temporary structures, cheaper than permanent.

Modern stadiums, especially the largest among them, are megaprojects that can only be afforded by the largest corporations, wealthiest individuals, or government. Sports fans have a deep emotional attachment to their teams. In North America, with its closed-league "franchise" system, there are fewer teams than cities which would like them. This creates tremendous bargaining power for the owners of teams, whereby owners can threaten to relocate teams to other cities unless governments subsidize the construction of new facilities.[15] In Europe and Latin America, where there are multiple association football clubs in any given city, and several leagues in each country, no such monopoly power exists, and stadiums are build primarily with private money. Outside of professional sports, governments are also involved through the intense competition for the right to host major sporting events, primarily the Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup (of association football), during which cities often pledge to build new stadiums on order to satisfy the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or FIFA.

Corporate naming[edit]

PGE Arena in Gdańsk, Poland is an example of corporate naming.

In recent decades, to help take the burden of the massive expense of building and maintaining a stadium, many American and European sports teams have sold the rights to the name of the facility. This trend, which began in the 1970s, but accelerated greatly in the 1990s, has led to sponsors' names being affixed to both established stadiums and new ones. In some cases, the corporate name replaces (with varying degrees of success) the name by which the venue has been known for many years. But many of the more recently built stadiums, like the Volkswagen Arena in Wolfsburg, Germany, have never been known by a non-corporate name. The sponsorship phenomenon has since spread worldwide. There remain a few municipally owned stadiums, which are often known by a name that is significant to their area (for example, Minneapolis' Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome). In recent years, some government-owned stadiums have also been subject to naming-rights agreements, with some or all of the revenue often going to the team(s) that play there.

One consequence of corporate naming has been an increase in stadium name changes, when the namesake corporation changes its name, or if it is the naming agreement simply expires. Phoenix's Chase Field, for example, was previously known as Bank One Ballpark, but was renamed to reflect the takeover of the latter corporation. San Francisco's historic Candlestick Park was renamed as 3Com Park for several years, but the name was dropped when the sponsorship agreement expired, and it was another two years before the new name of Monster Cable Products' Monster Park was applied. Local opposition to the corporate naming of that particular stadium led San Francisco's city council to permanently restore the Candlestick Park name once the Monster contract expired. More recently, in Ireland, there has been huge opposition to the renaming of Dublin's historic Lansdowne Road as the Aviva Stadium. Lansdowne was redeveloped as the Aviva, opening in May 2010.

On the other hand, Los Angeles' Great Western Forum, one of the earliest examples of corporate renaming, retained its name for many years, even after the namesake bank no longer existed, the corporate name being dropped only after the building later changed ownership. This practice has typically been less common in countries outside the United States. A notable exception is the Nippon Professional Baseball league of Japan, in which many of the teams are themselves named after their parent corporations. Also, many new European football stadiums, such as the Reebok and Emirates Stadiums in England and Signal Iduna Park and Allianz Arena in Germany have been corporately named.

This new trend in corporate naming (or renaming) is distinguishable from names of some older venues, such as Crosley Field, Wrigley Field, and the first and second Busch Stadiums, in that the parks were named by and for the club's owner, which also happened to be the name of the company owned by those clubowners. (The current Busch Stadium received its name via a modern naming rights agreement.) SkyDome in Toronto, Canada was renamed Rogers Centre in 2005, removing any reference that it is a domed stadium.

During the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, some stadiums were temporarily renamed because FIFA prohibits sponsorship of stadiums. For example, the Allianz Arena in Munich was called the FIFA World Cup Stadium, Munich during the tournament. Likewise, the same stadium will be known as the "München Arena" during the European Competitions. Similar rules affect the Imtech Arena and Veltins-Arena. This rule applies even if the stadium sponsor is an official FIFA sponsor—the Johannesburg stadium commercially known as "Coca-Cola Park", bearing the name of one of FIFA's major sponsors, was known by its historic name of Ellis Park Stadium during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Corporate names are also temporarily replaced during the Olympics.

Music venues[edit]

Main article: Stadium rock
Queen during a live concert in Norway in 1982
A Queen concert in Drammen, Norway in 1982, showing the scale and lighting of an arena rock concert

From the 1960s stadiums began to be used as live music venues, giving rise to the term "stadium rock", particularly for forms of hard rock and progressive rock. The origins of stadium rock are sometimes dated to when The Beatles played Shea Stadium in New York in 1965. Also important was the use of large stadiums for American tours by bands in the later 1960s, such as The Rolling Stones, Grand Funk Railroad and Led Zeppelin. The tendency developed in the mid-1970s as the increased power of amplification and sound systems allowed the use of larger and larger venues.[16] Smoke, fireworks and sophisticated lighting shows became staples of arena rock performances.[17] Key acts from this era included Journey, REO Speedwagon, Boston, Foreigner, Styx,[18] Kiss, Peter Frampton[19] and Queen.[20][21] In the 1980s arena rock became dominated by glam metal bands, following the lead of Aerosmith[22] and including Mötley Crüe, Quiet Riot, W.A.S.P. and Ratt.[23] Since the 1980s pop and folk stars including Madonna, Britney Spears, Lepa Brena, Taylor Swift and Lady Gaga have undertaken large-scale stadium based tours.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Stadia is the Latin plural form, but both are used in English. Dictionary.com
  2. ^ Nussli Group "Stadium Construction Projects"
  3. ^ a b A Brief History of the Olympic Games by David C. Young, p. 20
  4. ^ The Modern Olympic Games, A Struggle for Revival by David C. Young, Chapters 4 & 13
  5. ^ a b c "Stadium History". 
  6. ^ a b Corbett, James. School of Science. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-3431-9. 
  7. ^ "The Move to Goodison". Everton Collection. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  8. ^ "History of Goodison Park". ToffeeWeb. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  9. ^ Inglis, Simon (1996) [1985]. Football Grounds of Britain (3rd ed.). London: CollinsWillow. p. pp. 234-235. ISBN 0-00-218426-5. 
  10. ^ White, Valerie (1980). Wimpey: The first hundred years. George Wimpey. p. p.5. 
  11. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs". Citius, Altius, Fortius 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 24 March 2007. 
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dome
  13. ^ Taiwan's solar stadium 100% powered by the sun Guardian
  14. ^ How do you give stadiums atmosphere? - Martin Vennard, BBC News, 12 April 2013
  15. ^ Lambert, Craig. "The Dow of Professional Sports" Harvard Magazine http://harvardmagazine.com/2001/09/the-dow-of-professional.html
  16. ^ S. Waksman, This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk (University of California Press, 2009), ISBN 0-520-25310-8, pp. 21-31.
  17. ^ R. Shuker, Popular Music: the Key Concepts (London: Routledge, 2nd., edn., 2002), 0415284252, p. 158.
  18. ^ “Arena rock”, Allmusic, retrieved 20 January 2011.
  19. ^ J. Shepherd, ed., Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 1 (Continuum, 2003), ISBN 0-8264-6321-5, p. 423.
  20. ^ P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, p. 835.
  21. ^ Thrills, Adrian (11th March 2011) We STILL rock you: Re-releases chart Queen's rise to power Daily Mail. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
  22. ^ D. L. Joyner, American Popular Music (McGraw-Hill, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 0-07-352657-6, p. 261.
  23. ^ "Hair metal", Allmusic. Retrieved 6 July 2010.

References[edit]

  • John, Geraint; Rod Sheard; Ben Vickery (2007). Stadia: A Design and Development Guide (4th ed. ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-6844-6. 
  • Serby, Myron W. (1930). The Stadium; A Treatise on the Design of Stadiums and Their Equipment. New York, Cleveland: American Institute of Steel, inc.  (worldcat) (search)

External links[edit]