A non-commissioned officer (sometimes spelled noncommissioned officer, abbreviated to NCO or non-com (US)), called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission. Non-commissioned officers, in the English-speaking world, usually obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks.
The NCO corps usually includes all grades of corporal and sergeant; in some countries, warrant officers also carry out the duties of NCOs. The naval equivalent includes some or all grades of petty officer, although not all navies class their petty officers as NCOs. There are different classes of non-commissioned officer, including junior non-commissioned officers (JNCO) and senior (or staff) non-commissioned officers (SNCO).
The non-commissioned officer corps is often referred to as "the backbone" of the armed services, as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel. Additionally, they are the leaders primarily responsible for executing a military organization's mission and for training military personnel so they are prepared to execute their missions. NCO training and education typically includes leadership and management as well as service-specific and combat training.
Senior NCOs are considered the primary link between enlisted personnel and the commissioned officers in a military organization. Their advice and guidance is particularly important for junior officers, who begin their careers in a position of authority but generally lack practical experience. One analysis by a retired U.S. Army colonel argued that armies in the Arab world are ineffective in large part because the NCO class in these armies is neglected. In the U.S. Armed Forces, NCOs play a vital role in maintaining unit cohesion and serving as a bridge between the enlisted soldiers and the officers. In Arab armies, the NCOs are often treated by officers as lowly enlisted men, which maintains stratification within the ranks.
In the Australian Army, the NCOs perform most of the physical duties and management. Lance corporals and corporals are called junior NCOs, while sergeants, staff sergeants, warrant officers class two and one are classified as senior NCOs. Officers in the Australian Army perform paper work duties whilst in a barracks environment while the NCOs ensure discipline is being maintained. In battle, it is the senior NCOs that ensure the soldiers are doing their job, while the officers are looking at the wider tactical picture.
In the New South Wales Police Force, NCOs perform supervisory and coordination roles. The ranks of probationary constable through to leading senior constable are referred to as "constables". All NCOs within the NSW Police are given a warrant of appointment under the Commissioner's hand and seal.
All officers within the Australian Defence Force Cadets are non-commissioned. ADFC officers are appointed by the Director-General of their respective branch.
In the Canadian Forces, the Queen's Regulations and Orders formally defined a non-commissioned officer as "A Canadian Forces member holding the rank of Sergeant or Corporal." In the 1990s, the term "non-commissioned member" (NCM) was introduced to indicate all ranks in the Canadian Forces from recruit to chief warrant officer.
By definition, with the unification of the CF into one service, the rank of sergeant included the naval rank of petty officer 2nd class, and corporal includes the naval rank of leading seaman; Corporal also includes the appointment of master corporal (naval master seaman).
NCOs are officially divided into two categories: junior non-commissioned officers, consisting of corporals/leading seamen and master corporals/master seamen; and senior non-commissioned members, consisting of sergeants and petty officers 2nd class. In the Royal Canadian Navy, however, the accepted definition of "NCO" reflects the international use of the term (i.e. all grades of petty officer).
Junior Non-commissioned officers mess and billet with privates and seamen; their mess is usually referred to as the junior ranks mess. Conversely, senior non-commissioned officers mess and billet with warrant officers; their mess is normally referred to as the warrant officers and sergeants mess (army and air force establishments) or the chiefs and petty officers mess (naval establishments).
As a group, NCOs rank above privates and below warrant officers. The term "non-commissioned members" includes these ranks.
In the Finnish Defence Force, NCO's (aliupseeristo) includes all ranks from corporal (alikersantti, lit. sub-sergeant) to sergeant major (sotilasmestari, lit. soldiermaster). Ranks of lance corporal (korpraali) and leading seaman (ylimatruusi) are considered not to be NCO ranks. This ruling applies to all branches of service and also to the troops of the Border Guard.
In 1983 the NCO corps, since 1972 called the Platoon Officer Corps, was disbanded and its members were given commissions as officers in ranks of second or first lieutenant in Sweden's new one-tier military leadership system. In 2009 a similar system as the NCO corps was re-established, called "specialist officers". Direct recruitment from civilian life is followed by basic and preparatory leadership training, and advanced leadership training during 1.5 year as a specialist cadet at the military academy in Halmstad, a warrant as an OR-6, followed by specialist technical training. Swedish specialist officers have relative ranks that matches the commissioned officers; an OR-7 takes precedent over a second lieutenant, for instance.
In France and French-speaking countries like Belgium and most former French colonies, the term sous-officier (meaning: "lower officer" or "sub-officer") is a class of ranks between the rank-and-file (hommes du rang) and commissioned officers (officiers). Corporals (caporal and caporal-chef) belong to the rank-and-file. Sous-officiers include two subclasses: "subalternes" (sergents and sergents-chefs) and "supérieurs" (adjudants, adjudants-chefs and majors). "Sous-officiers supérieurs" can perform various functions within a regiment or battalion, including commanding a platoon or section.
In Germany and German-speaking countries like Austria, the term Unteroffizier (meaning: "lower officer" or sub-officer) describes a class of ranks between normal enlisted personnel (Mannschaften or in Austria Chargen) and officers (Offiziere). In this group of ranks there are, in Germany, two other classes: Unteroffiziere mit Portepee (with sword-knot) and Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee (without swordknot), both containing several ranks, which in Austria would be Unteroffiziere (NCOs) and Höhere Unteroffiziere (senior NCOs).
In the New Zealand Defence Force, a non-commissioned officer is defined as:
- "(a) In relation to the Navy, a rating of warrant officer, chief petty officer, petty officer, or leading rank; and includes—
- (b) In relation to the Army, a soldier above the rank of private but below the rank of officer cadet; and includes a warrant officer; and also includes—
- (i) A non-commissioned officer of the Navy or the Air Force attached to the Army; and
- (ii) A person duly attached or lent as a non-commissioned officer to or seconded for service or appointed for duty as a non-commissioned officer with the Army:
- (c) In relation to the Air Force, an airman above the rank of leading aircraftman but below the rank of officer cadet; and includes a warrant officer; and also includes—
- (i) A non-commissioned officer of the Navy or the Army attached to the Air Force; and
- (ii) A person duly attached or lent as a non-commissioned officer to or seconded for service or appointed for duty as a non-commissioned officer with the Air Force:" – Defence Act 1990, Sect 2 (Interpretation)
In the Singapore Armed Forces, the term "non-commissioned officer" is no longer officially used, being replaced with Specialist. The term NCO however is still frequently used unofficially among the army.
In the British Armed Forces, NCOs are divided into two categories. Lance corporals (including lance bombardiers) and corporals (including lance sergeants, bombardiers, and lance corporals of horse) are junior NCOs. Sergeants (including corporals of horse), staff sergeants (including colour sergeants and staff corporals), and RAF chief technicians and flight sergeants are senior NCOs.
Warrant officers are often included in the senior NCO category, but actually form a separate class of their own, similar in many ways to NCOs but with a royal warrant. Senior NCOs and WOs have their own messes, which are similar to officers' messes (and are usually known as sergeants' messes), whereas junior NCOs live and eat with the unranked personnel.
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In the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, all ranks of sergeant are termed NCOs, as are corporals in the Army and Marine Corps. A Marine Corps lance corporal (E-3) is not considered an NCO as of 1991; prior to that year they were listed as junior NCOs in the NCO Handbook. The rank of corporal (E-4) in the Army is a junior NCO, and is to be shown the same respect as any other NCO. In the United States Air Force, E-5 (Staff Sergeant) and E-6 (Technical Sergeant) are classified under the NCO tier, while E-7 (Master Sergeant), E-8 (Senior Master Sergeant), and E-9 (Chief Master Sergeant) are considered senior non-commissioned officers (SNCOs). In the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, all ranks of petty officer are so designated. Junior NCOs (E-4 through E-5 grade), or simply "NCOs" (E-4 and E-5 only) in USMC usage, function as first-tier supervisors and technical leaders.
NCOs serving in the top three enlisted grades (E-7, E-8, and E-9) are termed senior non-commissioned officers (chief petty officers in the Navy and Coast Guard). Senior NCOs are expected to exercise leadership at a more general level. They lead larger groups of service members, mentor junior officers, and advise senior officers on matters pertaining to their areas of responsibility. A select few senior NCOs in paygrade E-9 serve as Senior Enlisted Advisors to senior commanders in each service (e.g., major command, fleet, force, etc.) and in DoD (unified commands, e.g., United States Strategic Command, United States European Command, United States Pacific Command, etc., and DoD agencies, e.g. the Defense Information Systems Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency. One senior E-9, selected by the service chief of staff, is the ranking NCO/PO in that service, holds the highest enlisted rank for that service, and is responsible for advising their service secretary and chief of staff. One E-9 holds a similar position as the SEA to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Senior enlisted advisors, service enlisted advisors and the SEA to the Chairman advise senior officer and civilian leaders on all issues affecting operational missions and the readiness, utilization, morale, technical and professional development, and quality of life of the enlisted force.
Within the United States Marine Corps, senior NCOs are referred to as staff noncommissioned officers and also include the rank of staff sergeant (E-6). SNCOs are those career marines serving in grades E-6 through E-9. The ranks include staff sergeant, gunnery sergeant (E-7), master sergeant / first sergeant (E-8), and master gunnery sergeant / sergeant major (E-9).
The title of 'Superintendent' is used by the United States Air Force as the title of the Non-Commissioned Officer in Charge (NCOIC) of a section, flight, staff agency, directorate, or similar organization. These positions are assigned to senior non-commissioned officers (SNCOs), as opposed to the titles NCOIC (which are held by junior NCOs) and Chief or Director (which is assigned to commissioned officers as the head of the section).
Warrant officers in the United States Armed Forces are considered specialty officers and fall between non-commissioned and commissioned officers. US warrant officers also have their own rank tier and paygrade. However, when US warrant officers achieve the rank of chief warrant officer (CWO2) or higher, they are commissioned and are considered commissioned US officers just like any other commissioned officer, but are still held in a different paygrade tier.
NCO Candidate Course
Beginning in 1967 at Fort Benning, Georgia, the US Army Non-commissioned Officer Candidate Course (NCOCC) was a Vietnam-war era program developed to alleviate shortages of enlisted leaders at squad and platoon level assignments, training enlisted personnel to assume jobs as squad leaders in combat.
Based loosely on the Officer Candidate School (OCS), NCOC was a new concept (at the time) where high performing trainees attending basic infantry combat training were nominated to attend a 2-phased course of focused instruction on jungle warfare, and included a hands-on portion of intense training, promotion to sergeant, and then a 12-week assignment leading trainees going through advanced training.
Regular Army soldiers who had received their promotion through traditional methods (and others) used derisive terms for these draftees (typically) who were promoted quicker, such as "Instant NCOs, Shake 'n' Bake and 'Whip n' Chills.'
The program proved to be so successful that as the war began to wind down they elected to institutionalize training non-commissioned officers and created the NCO Education System (NCOES), which was based around the NCO Candidate Course. NCO Candidate course generally ended in May 1971.
- NCOA: Noncommissioned Officers Association (U.S.)
- NCOA: Noncommissioned Officers Academy (U.S.)
- NCOER: Noncommissioned Officer Evaluation Report (Department of the Army FORM 2166-8)
- NCOIC: Non-Commissioned Officer in Charge (U.S./UK/Canada)
- NCA: Noncommissioned Aircrew (UK)
- SNCO: Senior Noncommissioned Officer
- "non-commissioned officer – definition of non-commissioned officer by Macmillan Dictionary". Macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- "NCO – Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online". Ldoceonline.com. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- "Definition of non-commissioned – Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- "Chambers | Free English Dictionary". Chambersharrap.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- General Sir Mike Jackson (September 2003). "Cream Paper 46: The Role of the Non Commissioned Officer in the British Army" (PDF). UK Defence Forum. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- Chapman, Jordan (August 18, 2009). "Building the NCO Backbone". United States Army. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- De Atkine, Norvell B. (December 1999). "Why Arabs Lose Wars". Middle East Forum 6 (4). Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "Volume 1 – Administration: Chapter 1 Introduction and Definitions" (PDF). Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Forces. Assistant Deputy Minister (Finance and Corporate Services), Department of National Defence/Canadian Forces. 9 October 2008. p. 6. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- Department of National Defence Canada Non-Commissioned Officer Rank Insignia 1967–1985. Canadian Military Police Virtual Museum. Retrieved on: 2011-12-07.
- New Zealand Defence Act 1990 No 28, Sect 2. New Zealand Legislation, reprint as at 7 July 2010. Accessed August 19, 2010.
- Zais, Melvin. “The New NCO,” Army. 18 (May 1968): 72-76.
- Israr Choudhri, The Noncommissioned Officer Course (PDF)
- Dan Elder, Shake and Bake: The True Story of the Noncommissioned Officer Candidate Course, pgs.7,14–15 PDF
- Bud Russell, A Brief History of the Noncommissioned Officer Candidate Course
- Jerry Horton, Shake & Bake NCO's
- The Center for Advanced Studies of the U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officer (United States)
- A Short History of the NCO (United States)
- History of noncommissioned officers (United States)
- Educating Noncommissioned Officers: The history (United States)
- The United States Army Non-Commissioned officer's guide Field Manual FM7-22.7 (United States)