Positive wing stagger of a de Havilland Tiger Moth
An aircraft is said to have positive stagger, or simply stagger, when the upper wing is positioned forward of the lower (bottom) wing, such as the de Havilland Tiger Moth or Stearman. Conversely, an aeroplane is said to have negative stagger in unusual cases where the upper wing is positioned behind the lower wing, as in the Sopwith Dolphin or Beech Model 17 Staggerwing. An aircraft with the wings positioned directly above each other is said to have unstaggered wings, as in the Sopwith Cuckoo or Vickers Vildebeest.
The extreme of wing stagger is a Tandem wing.
The value sometimes expressed as a distance, s say, but it may also be written as a fraction or percentage of the 'gap' (distance g between wings), i.e. s/g. It may also be presented as an angle equal to tan−1(s/g). The Gloster TSR.38 had a stagger of 0.91 m and a gap of 2.0 m, so the stagger might be written as 0.91 m, 0.455, 45.5% or 24.5°. s is the distance from the leading edge of the upper wing along its chord to the point of intersection of the chord with a line drawn perpendicularly to the chord of the upper wing at the leading edge of the lower wing, all lines being drawn in a plane parallel to the plane of symmetry.
As a general rule, there is a tendency for the upper wing to contribute a greater proportion of the total lift than the lower with positive stagger, and less with negative stagger. Increase in positive stagger also tends to move the centre of lift forward on the upper wing and backward on the lower wing. When unstaggered, the centres of lift for upper and lower wings are almost coincidental.
Positive stagger is by far the most common, as this positioning of the upper wing(s) allows better visibility for the crew as well as increased aircraft longitudinal stability, aerodynamic efficiency and maximum lift.
- NACA technical report No.310 Wind Tunnel Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Biplane Wing Models (July 1929), p.17. Retrieved on 8 February 2009.
- James, Derek N., Gloster Aircraft since 1917. (1971). London: Putnam Publishing Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-370-00084-6 page 204
- NACA technical report No.269 The Distribution of Loads Between the Wings of a Biplane Having Decalage (November 1927), p.3. Retrieved on 9 February 2009.
- NACA technical report No.256 The Airforces on a Systematic Series of Biplane and Triplane Cellule Models (1927), p.6. Retrieved on 9 February 2009.
- NACA technical report No.70 The Effect of Staggering a Biplane (September 1921), pp.1,3,4. Retrieved on 9 February 2009.
- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics technical reports accessed through the Cranfield University AERADE website.