Battle of Stalingrad

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For the 1949 Russian film, see The Battle of Stalingrad (film). For the Russian Civil War battle at the same city, see Battle for Tsaritsyn.
Battle of Stalingrad
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0506-316, Russland, Kampf um Stalingrad, Siegesflagge.jpg
Soviet soldier waving the Red Banner over the central plaza of Stalingrad in 1943.
Date 23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943a
(5 months, 1 week and 3 days)
Location Stalingrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517
Result Decisive[1] Soviet victory
  • Destruction of the German 6th Army
  • Axis forces began to decline on the Eastern Front
  • The Battle of Stalingrad is considered by many historians to have been the turning point of World War II in the European theatre.
Belligerents
 Germany
 Romania
 Italy
 Hungary
 Croatia
 Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders
Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany Erich von Manstein
Nazi Germany Friedrich Paulus Surrendered
Nazi Germany W.F. von Richthofen
Kingdom of Romania Petre Dumitrescu
Kingdom of Romania C. Constantinescu
Kingdom of Italy Italo Gariboldi
Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46) Gusztáv Jány

Independent State of Croatia Viktor Pavičić 
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin

Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov
Soviet Union Nikolay Voronov
Soviet Union A.M. Vasilevsky
Soviet Union Andrey Yeryomenko
Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet Union Hazi Aslanov
Soviet Union K.K. Rokossovsky
Soviet Union Nikolai Vatutin

Soviet Union Vasily Chuikov
Units involved
Nazi Germany Army Group B: Soviet Union Stalingrad Front

Soviet Union Don Front[Note 1]

Soviet Union South West Front[Note 2]
Strength
Initial:
270,000 personnel
3,000 artillery pieces
500 tanks
600 aircraft, 1,600 by mid-September (Luftflotte 4)[Note 3][2]
At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive:
~1,040,000 men (400,000+ Germans, 143,296 Romanians, 220,000 Italians, 200,000 Hungarian, 40,000 Hiwi)[3][4]
10,250 artillery pieces
500 tanks
732 (402 operational) aircraft[5]:p.225[6]:87
Initial:
187,000 personnel
2,200 artillery pieces
400 tanks
300 aircraft[2]:p.72
At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive:
1,143,000[7]
13,451 artillery pieces
894 tanks[7]
1,115[5]:p.224 aircraft
Casualties and losses
See casualties section See casualties section
aOver 10,000 Axis soldiers continued to fight until early March 1943.
Battle of Stalingrad is located in Russia
Battle of Stalingrad
Location of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) within modern Russia
Operation Blau: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942
  to 7 July 1942
  to 22 July 1942
  to 1 August 1942
  to 18 November 1942

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943)[8][9][10][11] was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the south-western Soviet Union. Marked by constant close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is the single largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. The heavy losses inflicted on the Wehrmacht make it arguably the most strategically decisive battle of the whole war.[12] It was a turning point in the European theatre of World War II–the German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses.[1]

The German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in late summer 1942 using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble. The fighting degenerated into building-to-building fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones generally along the west bank of the Volga River.

On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian forces protecting the German 6th Army's flanks.[13] The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out; instead, attempts were made to supply the army by air and to break the encirclement from the outside. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining elements of the 6th Army surrendered.[14]:p.932 The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days.

Historical background[edit]

By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the war had been progressing well for the Germans: the U-Boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Rommel had just captured Tobruk.[15]:p.522 In the east, they had stabilized their front in a line running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients in the line where Soviet offensives had pushed the Germans back (notably to the northwest of Moscow and south of Kharkov) but these were not particularly threatening. Hitler was confident that he could master the Red Army after the winter of 1942, because even though Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) had suffered heavy punishment west of Moscow the previous winter, 65% of its infantry had not been engaged and had been rested and re-equipped. Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard pressed over the winter.[16]:p.144 Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to again be directed against Moscow.[1]:p.498

The Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and positioning forces to block the Volga River. The river was a key route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia. Its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic of various commodities. It would also make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult.[14]:909

The German operations were initially very successful. On 23 July 1942, Hitler personally rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign, greatly expanding them to include the occupation of the city of Stalingrad. Both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union. It was assumed that the fall of the city would also firmly secure the northern and western flanks of the German armies as they advanced on Baku with the aim of securing these strategic petroleum resources for Germany.[15]:p.528 The expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad. It was based on a sort of victory fever and an underestimation of Soviet reserves.[17]

The Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight.[18]:p.94

Prelude[edit]

Case Blue[edit]

Main article: Case Blue

If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny then I must finish [liquidieren; to kill off, liquidate] this war.

—Adolf Hitler[15]:p.514

Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there. The planned summer offensive was code-named Fall Blau (Case Blue). It was to include the German 6th, 17th, 4th Panzer and 1st Panzer Armies. Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941. Poised in Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive.

Hitler intervened, however, ordering the Army Group to split in two. Army Group South (A), under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the 17th Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South (B), including Friedrich Paulus's 6th Army and Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad. Army Group B was commanded initially by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and later by General Maximilian von Weichs.[14]:p.915

The start of Case Blue had been planned for late May 1942. However, a number of German and Romanian units that were involved in Blau were then in the process of besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, and the city did not fall until the end of June. A smaller action was taken in the meantime, pinching off a Soviet salient in the Second Battle of Kharkov, which resulted in the envelopment of a large Soviet force on 22 May.

The German advance to the Don River between 7 May and 23 July.

Blau finally opened as Army Group South began its attack into southern Russia on 28 June 1942. The German offensive started well. Soviet forces offered little resistance in the vast empty steppes and started streaming eastward. Several attempts to re-establish a defensive line failed when German units outflanked them. Two major pockets were formed and destroyed: the first, northeast of Kharkov, on 2 July, and a second, around Millerovo, Rostov Oblast, a week later. Meanwhile, the Hungarian 2nd Army and the German 4th Panzer Army had launched an assault on Voronezh, capturing the city on 5 July.

The initial advance of the 6th Army was so successful that Hitler intervened and ordered the 4th Panzer Army to join Army Group South (A) to the south. A massive traffic jam resulted when the 4th Panzer and the 1st Panzer both required the few roads in the area. Both armies were stopped dead while they attempted to clear the resulting mess of thousands of vehicles. The delay was long, and it is thought that it cost the advance at least one week. With the advance now slowed, Hitler changed his mind and re-assigned the 4th Panzer Army back to the attack on Stalingrad.

Infantry and a supporting StuG III assault gun advance towards the city center.

By the end of July, the Germans had pushed the Soviets across the Don River. At this point, the Don and Volga Rivers were only 65 km (40 mi) apart, and the Germans left their main supply depots west of the Don, which had important implications later in the course of the battle. The Germans began using the armies of their Italian, Hungarian and Romanian allies to guard their left (northern) flank. The Italians won several accolades in official German communiques.[19][20][21][22] Sometimes they were held in little regard by the Germans, and were even accused of cowardice and low morale: in reality, the Italian divisions fought comparatively well, with the 3rd Mountain Infantry Division Ravenna and 5th Infantry Division Cosseria proving to have good morale, according to a German liaison officer[23] and being forced to retreat only after a massive armoured attack in which German reinforcements had failed to arrive in time, according to a German historian.[24] Indeed the Italians distinguished themselves in numerous battles, as in the battle of Nikolayevka.

The German 6th Army was only a few dozen kilometers from Stalingrad, and 4th Panzer Army, now to their south, turned northwards to help take the city. To the south, Army Group A was pushing far into the Caucasus, but their advance slowed as supply lines grew overextended. The two German army groups were not positioned to support one another due to the great distances involved.

After German intentions became clear in July 1942, Stalin appointed Marshal Andrey Yeryomenko as commander of the Southeastern Front on 1 August 1942. Yeryomenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev were tasked with planning the defense of Stalingrad.[25]:p.25, 48 The eastern border of Stalingrad was the wide River Volga, and over the river, additional Soviet units were deployed. These units became the newly formed 62nd Army, which Yeryomenko placed under the command of Lt. Gen. Vasiliy Chuikov on 11 September 1942. The situation was extremely dire. When asked how he interpreted his task, he responded "We will defend the city or die in the attempt."[26]:p.127 The 62nd Army's mission was to defend Stalingrad at all costs. Chuikov's generalship during the battle earned him one of his two Hero of the Soviet Union awards.

Attack on Stalingrad[edit]

The German advance to Stalingrad between 24 July and 18 November

On 23 August the 6th Army reached the outskirts of Stalingrad in pursuit of the 62nd and 64th Armies, which had fallen back into the city. Kleist later said after the war:[27]

"The capture of Stalingrad was subsidiary to the main aim. It was only of importance as a convenient place, in the bottleneck between Don and the Volga, where we could block an attack on our flank by Russian forces coming from the east. At the start, Stalingrad was no more than a name on the map to us."[27]

The Soviets had enough warning of the Germans' advance to ship grain, cattle, and railway cars across the Volga and out of harm's way but most civilian residents were not evacuated. This "harvest victory" left the city short of food even before the German attack began. Before the Heer reached the city itself, the Luftwaffe had rendered the River Volga, vital for bringing supplies into the city, unusable to Soviet shipping. Between 25 and 31 July, 32 Soviet ships were sunk, with another nine crippled.[2]:p.69

The battle began with the heavy bombing of the city by Generaloberst Wolfram von Richthofen's Luftflotte 4, which in the summer and autumn of 1942 was the most powerful single air formation in the world. Some 1,000 tons of bombs were dropped in 48 hours, more than in London at the height of the Blitzkrieg.[2]:p.122 Much of the city was quickly turned to rubble, although some factories continued production while workers joined in the fighting. The 369th (Croatian) Reinforced Infantry Regiment was the only non-German unit[28] selected by the Wehrmacht to enter Stalingrad city during assault operations. It fought as part of the 100th Jäger Division.

Stalin rushed all available troops to the east bank of the Volga, some from as far away as Siberia. All the regular ferries were quickly destroyed by the Luftwaffe, which then targeted troop barges being towed slowly across the river by tugs. Many civilians were evacuated across the Volga.[25] It has been said that Stalin prevented civilians from leaving the city in the belief that their presence would encourage greater resistance from the city's defenders.[26]:p.106 Civilians, including women and children, were put to work building trenchworks and protective fortifications. A massive German strategic bombing on 23 August caused a firestorm, killing thousands and turning Stalingrad into a vast landscape of rubble and burnt ruins. Ninety percent of the living space in the Voroshilovskiy area was destroyed. Between 23 and 26 August, Soviet reports indicate 955 people were killed and another 1,181 wounded as a result of the bombing.[2]:p.73 Casualties of 40,000 were greatly exaggerated,[5]:p.188–189 and after 25 August, the Soviets did not record any civilian and military casualties as a result of air raids.[Note 4]

Approaching this place, [Stalingrad], soldiers used to say: "We are entering hell." And after spending one or two days here, they say: "No, this isn't hell, this is ten times worse than hell."[29]

Vasily Chuikov
October 1942: German officer with a Russian PPSh-41 submachine gun in Barrikady factory rubble. Many German soldiers took up Russian weapons when found, as they were more effective than their own in close quarter combat.

The Soviet Air Force, the Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily (VVS), was swept aside by the Luftwaffe. The VVS bases in the immediate area lost 201 aircraft between 23 and 31 August, and despite meager reinforcements of some 100 aircraft in August, it was left with just 192 serviceable aircraft, 57 of which were fighters.[2]:p.74 The Soviets continued to pour aerial reinforcements into the Stalingrad area in late September, but continued to suffer appalling losses; the Luftwaffe had complete control of the skies.

German soldiers on their way in Stalingrad

The burden of the initial defense of the city fell on the 1077th Anti-Aircraft Regiment,[26]:p.106 a unit made up mainly of young female volunteers who had no training for engaging ground targets. Despite this, and with no support available from other units, the AA gunners stayed at their posts and took on the advancing panzers. The German 16th Panzer Division reportedly had to fight the 1077th's gunners "shot for shot" until all 37 anti-aircraft guns were destroyed or overrun. The German 16th Panzer Division was shocked to find that, due to Soviet manpower shortages, it had been fighting female soldiers.[26]:p.108[30] In the early stages of the battle, the NKVD organized poorly armed "Workers' militias" composed of civilians not directly involved in war production for immediate use in the battle. The civilians were often sent into battle without rifles.[26]:p.109 Staff and students from the local technical university formed a "tank destroyer" unit. They assembled tanks from leftover parts at the tractor factory. These tanks, unpainted and lacking gunsights, were driven directly from the factory floor to the front line. They could only be aimed at point blank range through the gun barrel.[26]:p.110

Soviets preparing to ward off a German assault in Stalingrad's suburbs

By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga, north of Stalingrad. Another advance to the river south of the city followed. By 1 September, the Soviets could only reinforce and supply their forces in Stalingrad by perilous crossings of the Volga under constant bombardment by artillery and aircraft.

On 5 September, the Soviet 24th and 66th Armies organized a massive attack against XIV Panzer Corps. The Luftwaffe helped repulse the offensive by heavily attacking Soviet artillery positions and defensive lines. The Soviets were forced to withdraw at midday after only a few hours. Of the 120 tanks the Soviets had committed, 30 were lost to air attack.[2]:p.75

A street fight in Stalingrad

Soviet operations were constantly hampered by the Luftwaffe. On 18 September, the Soviet 1st Guards and 24th Army launched an offensive against VIII Army Corps at Kotluban. VIII. Fliegerkorps dispatched wave after wave of Stuka dive-bombers to prevent a breakthrough. The offensive was repulsed. The Stukas claimed 41 of the 106 Soviet tanks knocked out that morning, while escorting Bf 109s destroyed 77 Soviet aircraft.[2]:p.80 Amid the debris of the wrecked city, the Soviet 62nd and 64th Armies, which included the Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division, anchored their defense lines with strongpoints in houses and factories.

Fighting within the ruined city was fierce and desperate. Lieutenant General Alexander Rodimtsev was in charge of the 13th Guards Rifle Division, and received one of two Heroes of the Soviet Union awarded during the battle for his actions. Stalin's Order No. 227 of 27 July 1942 decreed that all commanders who ordered unauthorized retreat would be subject to a military tribunal.[31] However, it was the NKVD that ordered the regular army and lectured them, on the need to show some guts. Through brutal coercion for self-sacrifice, thousands of deserters and presumed malingerers were executed to discipline the troops. At Stalingrad alone, 14,000 soldiers of the Red Army were executed in order to keep the formation.[32] "Not a step back!" and "There is no land behind the Volga!" were the slogans. The Germans pushing forward into Stalingrad suffered heavy casualties.

Fighting in the city[edit]

By 12 September, at the time of their retreat into the city, the Soviet 62nd Army had been reduced to 90 tanks, 700 mortars and just 20,000 personnel.[26] The remaining tanks were used as immobile strongpoints within the city. The initial German attack attempted to take the city in a rush. One infantry division went after the Mamayev Kurgan, one attacked the central rail station and one attacked toward the central landing stage on the Volga.

A German sniper in Stalingrad

Though initially successful, the German attacks stalled in the face of Soviet reinforcements brought in from across the Volga. The 13th Guards Rifle Division, assigned to counterattack at the Mamayev Kurgan and at Railway Station No. 1 suffered particularly heavy losses. Over 30 percent of its soldiers were killed in the first 24 hours, and just 320 out of the original 10,000 survived the entire battle. Both objectives were retaken, but only temporarily. The railway station changed hands 14 times in six hours. By the following evening, the 13th Guards Rifle Division had ceased to exist. So great were Soviet losses that at times, the life expectancy of a newly arrived soldier was less than a day, and the life expectancy of a Soviet officer was three days.

Combat raged for three days at the giant grain elevator in the south of the city. About fifty Red Army defenders, cut off from resupply, held the position for five days and fought off ten different assaults before running out of ammunition and water. Only forty dead Soviet fighters were found, though the Germans had thought there were many more due to the intensity of resistance. The Soviets burned large amounts of grain during their retreat in order to deny the enemy food. Paulus chose the grain elevator and silos as the symbol of Stalingrad for a patch he was having designed to commemorate the battle after a German victory.

German military doctrine was based on the principle of combined-arms teams and close cooperation between tanks, infantry, engineers, artillery and ground-attack aircraft. Some Soviet commanders adopted the tactic of always keeping their front-line positions as close to the Germans as physically possible; Chuikov called this "hugging" the Germans. This slowed the German advance and reduced the effectiveness of the German advantage in supporting fire.[33]

The Red Army gradually adopted a strategy to hold for as long as possible all the ground in the city. Thus, they converted multi-floored apartment blocks, factories, warehouses, street corner residences and office buildings into a series of well defended strongpoints with small 5–10 man units.[33] Manpower in the city was constantly refreshed by bringing additional troops over the Volga. When a position was lost, an immediate attempt was usually made to re-take it with fresh forces.

Soviet soldiers in the Red October Factory

Bitter fighting raged for every ruin, street, factory, house, basement, and staircase. Even the sewers were the sites of firefights. The Germans, calling this unseen urban warfare Rattenkrieg ("Rat War"),[34] bitterly joked about capturing the kitchen but still fighting for the living room and the bedroom. Buildings had to be cleared room by room through the bombed-out debris of residential neighborhoods, office blocks, basements and apartment high-rises. Some of the taller buildings, blasted into roofless shells by earlier German aerial bombardment, saw floor-by-floor, close quarters combat, with the Germans and Soviets on alternate levels, firing at each other through holes in the floors.[33]

Fighting on and around Mamayev Kurgan, a prominent hill above the city, was particularly merciless; indeed, the position changed hands many times.[25]:p?[35]

In another part of the city, a Soviet platoon under the command of Sergeant Yakov Pavlov fortified a four-story building that oversaw a square 300 meters from the river bank, later called Pavlov's House. The soldiers surrounded it with minefields, set up machine-gun positions at the windows and breached the walls in the basement for better communications.[26] The soldiers found about ten Soviet civilians hiding in the basement. They were not relieved, and not significantly reinforced, for two months. The building was labeled Festung ("Fortress") on German maps. Sgt. Pavlov was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union for his actions.

Soviet marines landing on the west bank of the Volga River.

The Germans made slow but steady progress through the city. Positions were taken individually, but the Germans were never able to capture the key crossing points along the river bank. The Germans used airpower, tanks and heavy artillery to clear the city with varying degrees of success. Toward the end of the battle, the gigantic railroad gun nicknamed Dora was brought into the area. The Soviets built up a large number of artillery batteries on the east bank of the Volga. This artillery was able to bombard the German positions or at least to provide counter-battery fire.

Snipers on both sides used the ruins to inflict casualties. The most famous Soviet sniper in Stalingrad was Vasily Zaytsev,[36] with 225 confirmed kills during the battle. Targets were often soldiers bringing up food or water to forward positions. Artillery spotters were an especially prized target for snipers.

A significant historical debate concerns the degree of terror in the Red Army. The British historian Antony Beevor noted the "sinister" message from the Stalingrad Front's Political Department on 8 October 1942 that: "The defeatist mood is almost eliminated and the number of treasonous incidents is getting lower" as an example of the sort of coercion Red Army soldiers experienced under the Special Detachments (later to be renamed SMERSH).[37]:p.154–168 On the other hand, Beevor noted the often extraordinary bravery of the Soviet soldiers in a battle that was only comparable to Verdun, and argued that terror alone cannot explain such self-sacrifice.[26]:p.154–168 Richard Overy addresses the question of just how important the Red Army's coercive methods were to the Soviet war effort compared with other motivational factors such as hatred for the enemy. He argues that, though it is "easy to argue that from the summer of 1942 the Soviet army fought because it was forced to fight," to concentrate solely on coercion is nonetheless to "distort our view of the Soviet war effort."[38] After conducting hundreds of interviews with Soviet veterans on the subject of terror on the Eastern Front – and specifically about Order No. 227 ("Not a step back!") at Stalingrad – Catherine Merridale notes that, seemingly paradoxically, "their response was frequently relief."[39] Infantryman Lev Lvovich's explanation, for example, is typical for these interviews; as he recalls, "[i]t was a necessary and important step. We all knew where we stood after we had heard it. And we all – it's true – felt better. Yes, we felt better."[40]

Soil after the battle of Stalingrad in the Vladimir Military Museum

Many women fought on the Soviet side, or were under fire. As General Chuikov acknowledged, "Remembering the defence of Stalingrad, I can't overlook the very important question ... about the role of women in war, in the rear, but also at the front. Equally with men they bore all the burdens of combat life and together with us men, they went all the way to Berlin."[41] At the beginning of the battle there were 75,000 women and girls from the Stalingrad area who had finished military or medical training, and all of whom were to serve in the battle.[42] Women staffed a great many of the anti-aircraft batteries that fought not only the Luftwaffe but German tanks.[43] Soviet nurses not only treated wounded personnel under fire but were involved in the highly dangerous work of bringing wounded soldiers back to the hospitals under enemy fire.[44] Many of the Soviet wireless and telephone operators were women who often suffered heavy casualties when their command posts came under fire.[45] Though women were not usually trained as infantry, many Soviet women fought as machine gunners, mortar operators, and scouts.[46] Women were also snipers at Stalingrad.[47] Three air regiments at Stalingrad were entirely female.[46] At least three women won the title Hero of the Soviet Union while driving tanks at Stalingrad.[48]

For both Stalin and Hitler, Stalingrad became a matter of prestige far beyond its strategic significance.[49] The Soviet command moved units from the Red Army strategic reserve in the Moscow area to the lower Volga, and transferred aircraft from the entire country to the Stalingrad region.

The strain on both military commanders was immense: Paulus developed an uncontrollable tic in his eye, which eventually afflicted the left side of his face, while Chuikov experienced an outbreak of eczema that required him to have his hands completely bandaged. Troops on both sides faced the constant strain of close-range combat.[50]

Air attacks[edit]

Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bomber over the neighborhood west of the Red October factory; some of the administration buildings are at lower right; Bayonet Gully is at top right.

Determined to crush Soviet resistance, Luftflotte 4's Stukawaffe flew 900 individual sorties against Soviet positions at the Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Factory on 5 October. Several Soviet regiments were wiped out; the entire staff of the Soviet 339th Infantry Regiment was killed the following morning during an air raid.[2]:p.83

In mid-October, the Luftwaffe intensified its efforts against remaining Red Army positions holding the west bank. Luftflotte 4 flew 2,000 sorties on 14 October and 550 t (610 short tons) of bombs were dropped while German infantry surrounded the three factories. Stukageschwader 1, 2, and 77 had largely silenced Soviet artillery on the eastern bank of the Volga before turning their attention to the shipping that was once again trying to reinforce the narrowing Soviet pockets of resistance. The 62nd Army had been cut in two, and, due to intensive air attack on its supply ferries, was receiving much less material support. With the Soviets forced into a 1 kilometer (1000 yards) strip of land on the western bank of the Volga, over 1,208 Stuka missions were flown in an effort to eliminate them.[2]:p.84

The Luftwaffe retained air superiority into November and Soviet daytime aerial resistance was nonexistent. However, the combination of constant air support operations on the German side and the Soviet surrender of the daytime skies began to affect the strategic balance in the air. After flying 20,000 individual sorties, the Luftwaffe '​s original strength of 1,600 serviceable aircraft had fallen to 950. The Kampfwaffe (bomber force) had been hardest hit, having only 232 out of a force of 480 left.[5]:p.95 The VVS remained qualitatively inferior, but by the time of the Soviet counter-offensive, the VVS had reached numerical superiority.

Romanian IAR 80 fighter planes.

The Soviet bomber force, the Aviatsiya Dal'nego Deystviya (Long Range Aviation; ADD), having taken crippling losses over the past 18 months, was restricted to flying at night. The Soviets flew 11,317 night sorties over Stalingrad and the Don-bend sector between 17 July and 19 November. These raids caused little damage and were of nuisance value only.[2]:p.82[51]:265

On 8 November, substantial units from Luftflotte 4 were withdrawn to combat the Allied landings in North Africa. The German air arm found itself spread thinly across Europe, struggling to maintain its strength in the other southern sectors of the Soviet-German front.[Note 5] The Soviets began receiving material assistance from the American government under the Lend-Lease program. During the last quarter of 1942, the U.S. sent the Soviet Union 45,000 t (50,000 short tons) of explosives and 230,000 t (250,000 short tons) of aviation gas.[52]:p.404

As historian Chris Bellamy notes, the Germans paid a high strategic price for the aircraft sent into Stalingrad: the Luftwaffe was forced to divert much of its air strength away from the oil-rich Caucasus, which had been Hitler's original grand-strategic objective.[53]

Germany reaches the Volga[edit]

After three months of slow advance, the Germans finally reached the river banks, capturing 90% of the ruined city and splitting the remaining Soviet forces into two narrow pockets. Ice floes on the Volga now prevented boats and tugs from supplying the Soviet defenders. Nevertheless, the fighting, especially on the slopes of Mamayev Kurgan and inside the factory area in the northern part of the city, continued.

Soviet counter-offensives[edit]

Soviet soldiers attack a house, February 1943

Recognizing that German troops were ill prepared for offensive operations during the winter of 1942, and that most of them were redeployed elsewhere on the southern sector of the Eastern Front, the Stavka decided to conduct a number of offensive operations between 19 November 1942 and 2 February 1943. These operations opened the Winter Campaign of 1942–1943 (19 November 1942 – 3 March 1943), which involved some 15 Armies operating on several fronts.

Weakness on the German flanks[edit]

During the siege, the German and allied Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian armies protecting Army Group B's flanks had pressed their headquarters for support. The Hungarian 2nd Army was given the task of defending a 200 km (120 mi) section of the front north of Stalingrad between the Italian Army and Voronezh. This resulted in a very thin line, with some sectors where 1–2 km (0.62–1.24 mi) stretches were being defended by a single platoon. These forces were also lacking in effective anti-tank weapons.

Because of the total focus on the city, the Axis forces had neglected for months to even consolidate their positions along the natural defensive line of the Don River. The Soviet forces were allowed to retain bridgeheads on the right bank from which offensive operations could be quickly launched. These bridgeheads in retrospect presented a serious threat to Army Group B.[14]:p.915

Similarly, on the southern flank of the Stalingrad sector the front southwest of Kotelnikovo was held only by the Romanian 7th Army Corps, and beyond it, a single German division, the 16th Motorized Infantry.

Operation Uranus: the Soviet offensive[edit]

Main article: Operation Uranus
The Soviet counter-attack at Stalingrad                      German front, 19 November                      German front, 12 December                      German front, 24 December
  Soviet advance, 19–28 November

In autumn, the Soviet generals Georgy Zhukov and Aleksandr Vasilevsky, responsible for strategic planning in the Stalingrad area, concentrated forces in the steppes to the north and south of the city. The northern flank was defended by Hungarian, and Romanian units, often in open positions on the steppes. The natural line of defense, the Don river, had never been properly established by the German side. The armies in the area were also poorly equipped in terms of anti-tank weapons. The plan was to punch through the overstretched and weakly defended German flanks and surround the German forces in the Stalingrad region.

During the preparations for the attack, Marshal Zhukov personally visited the front and noticing the poor organization, insisted on a one-week delay in the start date of the planned attack.[26]:p.117 The operation was code-named "Uranus" and launched in conjunction with Operation Mars, which was directed at Army Group Center. The plan was similar to the one Zhukov had used to achieve victory at Khalkhin Gol three years before, where he had sprung a double envelopment and destroyed the 23rd Division of the Japanese army.[54]

On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus. The attacking Soviet units under the command of Gen. Nikolay Vatutin consisted of three complete armies, the 1st Guards Army, 5th Tank Army, and 21st Army, including a total of 18 infantry divisions, eight tank brigades, two motorized brigades, six cavalry divisions and one anti-tank brigade. The preparations for the attack could be heard by the Romanians, who continued to push for reinforcements, only to be refused again. Thinly spread, deployed in exposed positions, outnumbered and poorly equipped, the Romanian 3rd Army, which held the northern flank of the German 6th Army, was overrun.

Behind the front lines, no preparations had been made to defend key points in the rear such as Kalach. The local response by the Wehrmacht was both chaotic and indecisive. Poor weather prevented effective air action against the Soviet offensive.

On 20 November, a second Soviet offensive (two armies) was launched to the south of Stalingrad against points held by the Romanian 4th Army Corps. The Romanian forces, made up primarily of infantry, were overrun by large numbers of tanks. The Soviet forces raced west and met on 23 November at the town of Kalach; sealing the ring around Stalingrad.[14]:p.926 The link-up of the Soviet forces, not filmed at the time, was later re-enacted for a propaganda film which was shown worldwide.

Sixth Army surrounded[edit]

Romanian soldiers near Stalingrad
German soldiers as prisoners of war. In the background is the heavily fought-over Stalingrad grain elevator
German dead in the city

About 265,000 German, Romanian, Italian soldiers,[55][page needed] the 369th (Croatian) Reinforced Infantry Regiment, and other volunteer subsidiary troops including some 40,000 Soviet volunteers fighting for the Germans (Beevor states that one quarter of the sixth army's frontline strength were HIWIs, as collaborationists recruited from the ranks of Soviet POWs were called)[citation needed][56] were surrounded. These Soviet HIWIs remained loyal to the end, knowing the Soviet penalty for helping the Germans was summary execution. German strength in the pocket was about 210,000 according to strength breakdowns of the 20 field divisions (average size 9,000) and 100 battalion sized units of the Sixth Army on 19 November 1942. Inside the pocket (German: Kessel, literally "cauldron"), there were also around 10,000 Soviet civilians and several thousand Soviet soldiers the Germans had taken captive during the battle. Not all of the 6th Army was trapped; 50,000 soldiers were brushed aside outside the pocket. These belonged mostly to the other 2 divisions of the 6th Army between the Italian and Romanian Armies: the 62nd and 298th Infantry Divisions. Of the 210,000 Germans, 10,000 remained to fight on, 105,000 surrendered, 35,000 left by air and the remaining 60,000 died, committed suicide[citation needed] in the 11 weeks after being encircled or were unable to surrender when the end was there.[clarification needed]

The Red Army units immediately formed two defensive fronts: a circumvallation facing inward and a contravallation facing outward. Field Marshal Erich von Manstein advised Hitler not to order the 6th Army to break out, stating that he could successfully break through the Soviet lines and relieve the besieged 6th Army.[57] The American historians Williamson Murray and Alan Millet wrote that it was Manstein's message to Hitler on 24 November advising him that the 6th Army should not break out, along with Göring's statements that the Luffwaffe could supply Stalingrad that "... sealed the fate of the Sixth Army."[58] After 1945, Manstein claimed that he told Hitler that the 6th Army must break out.[59] The American historian Gerhard Weinberg wrote that Manstein distorted his record on the matter.[60] Manstein was tasked to conduct a relief operation, named Operation Winter Storm (Unternehmen Wintergewitter) against Stalingrad, which he thought was feasible if the 6th Army was temporarily supplied through the air.[61][62]

Adolf Hitler had declared in a public speech (in the Berlin Sportpalast) on 30 September 1942 that the German army would never leave the city. At a meeting shortly after the Soviet encirclement, German army chiefs pushed for an immediate breakout to a new line on the west of the Don, but Hitler was at his Bavarian retreat of Obersalzberg in Berchtesgaden with the head of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring. When asked by Hitler, Göring replied, after being convinced by Hans Jeschonnek,[5]:p.234 that the Luftwaffe could supply the 6th Army with an "air bridge." This would allow the Germans in the city to fight on temporarily while a relief force was assembled.[14]:926 A similar plan had been used a year earlier at the Demyansk Pocket, albeit on a much smaller scale: a corps at Demyansk rather than an entire army.

The director of Luftflotte 4, Wolfram von Richthofen, tried to get this decision overturned. The forces under 6th Army were almost twice as large as a regular German army unit, plus there was also a corps of the 4th Panzer Army trapped in the pocket. The maximum 107 t (118 short tons) they could deliver a day—based on the number of available aircraft and with only the airfield at Pitomnik to land at—was far less than the minimum 750 t (830 short tons) needed.[5][Note 6] To supplement the limited number of Junkers Ju 52 transports, the Germans pressed other aircraft into the role, such as the Heinkel He 177 bomber (some bombers performed adequately—the Heinkel He 111 proved to be quite capable and was much faster than the Ju 52). General Richthofen informed Manstein on 27 November of the small transport capacity of the Luftwaffe and the impossibility of supplying 300 tons a day by air. Manstein now saw the enormous technical difficulties of a supply by air of these dimensions. The next day he made a six-page situation report to the general staff. Based on the information of the expert Richthofen, he declared that contrary to the example of the pocket of Demjansk the permanent supply by air would be impossible. If only a narrow link could be established to Sixth Army, he proposed that this should be used to pull it out from the encirclement. He acknowledged the heavy moral sacrifice the giving up of Stalingrad means but this is made easier to bear by the conservation of the combat power of Sixth Army and the regaining of the initiative ..."[63] However, he ignored the limited mobility of the army and the difficulties of disengaging the Soviets. Hitler reiterated that Sixth Army would stay at Stalingrad and that the air bridge would supply it until the encirclement was broken by a new German offensive.

The Luftwaffe was able to deliver an average of 85 t (94 short tons) of supplies per day out of an air transport capacity of 106 t (117 short tons) per day. The most successful day, 19 December, delivered 262 t (289 short tons) of supplies in 154 flights.

In the early parts of the operation, fuel was shipped at a higher priority than food and ammunition because of a belief that there would be a breakout from the city.[17]:p.153 Transport aircraft also evacuated technical specialists and sick or wounded personnel from the besieged enclave. Sources differ on the number flown out: at least 25,000 to at most 35,000. Carell: 42,000, of which 5000 did not survive.

The center of Stalingrad after liberation

Initially, supply flights came in from the field at Tatsinskaya, called 'Tazi' by the German pilots. On 23 December, the Soviet 24th Tank Corps, commanded by Major-General Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov, reached nearby Skassirskaya and in the early morning of 24 December, the tanks reached Tatsinskaya. Without any soldiers to defend the airfield, it was abandoned under heavy fire; in a little under an hour, 108 Ju 52s and 16 Ju 86s took off for Novocherkassk—leaving 72 Ju 52s and many other aircraft burning on the ground. A new base was established some 300 km (190 mi) from Stalingrad at Salsk, the additional distance another obstacle to the resupply efforts. Salsk was abandoned in turn by mid-January for a rough facility at Zverevo, near Shakhty. The field at Zverevo was attacked repeatedly on 18 January and a further 50 Ju 52s were destroyed. Winter weather conditions, technical failures, heavy Soviet anti-aircraft fire and fighter interceptions eventually led to the loss of 488 German aircraft.

In spite of the failure of the German offensive to reach 6th Army, the air supply operation continued under ever more difficult circumstances. The 6th Army slowly starved. Pilots were shocked to find the troops too exhausted and hungry to unload. Germans fought over the slightest scraps of bread. General Zeitzler, moved by their plight, began to limit himself to their slim rations at meal times. After a few weeks on such a diet, he had lost 12 kg (26 lb) and had become so emaciated that Hitler, annoyed, personally ordered him to start eating regular meals again.

The toll on the Transportgruppen was heavy. 160 aircraft were destroyed and 328 were heavily damaged (beyond repair). Some 266 Junkers Ju 52s were destroyed; one-third of the fleet's strength on the Eastern Front. The He 111 gruppen lost 165 aircraft in transport operations. Other losses included 42 Ju 86s, 9 Fw 200 Condors, 5 He 177 bombers and 1 Ju 290. The Luftwaffe also lost close to 1,000 highly experienced bomber crew personnel.[5]:p.310 So heavy were the Luftwaffe '​s losses that four of Luftflotte 4's transport units (KGrzbV 700, KGrzbV 900, I./KGrzbV 1 and II./KGzbV 1) were "formally dissolved."[2]:p.122

The end of the battle[edit]

Operation Winter Storm[edit]

Soviet forces consolidated their positions around Stalingrad, and fierce fighting to shrink the pocket began. Operation Winter Storm (Operation Wintergewitter), the German attempt led by Erich von Manstein to relieve the trapped army from the south, was initially successful. The cross country ability of German tanks in the snow may have slowed the relief attempts. By 19 December, the German Army had pushed to within 48 km (30 mi) of Sixth Army's positions. The encircled forces at Stalingrad made no attempt to break out or link up with the Manstein's advance. Some German officers requested that Paulus defy Hitler's orders to stand fast and instead attempt to break out of the Stalingrad pocket. Paulus refused. On 23 December, the attempt to relieve Stalingrad was abandoned and Manstein's forces switched over to the defensive to deal with new Soviet offensives.

Operation Little Saturn[edit]

Soviet gains (shown in blue) during Operation Little Saturn

On 16 December, the Soviets launched Operation Little Saturn, which attempted to punch through the Axis army (mainly Italians) on the Don and take Rostov. The Germans set up a "mobile defense" of small units that were to hold towns until supporting armor arrived. From the Soviet bridgehead at Mamon, 15 divisions—supported by at least 100 tanks—attacked the Italian Cosseria and Ravenna Divisions, and although outnumbered 9 to 1, the Italians initially fought well, with the Germans praising the quality of the Italian defenders,[64] but on 19 December, with the Italian lines disintegrating ARMIR headquarters ordered the battered divisions to withdraw to new lines.[65]

The fighting forced a total revaluation of the German situation. The attempt to break through to Stalingrad was abandoned and Army Group A was ordered to pull back from the Caucasus.

The 6th Army now was beyond all hope of German relief. While a motorised breakout might have been possible in the first few weeks, the 6th Army now had insufficient fuel and the German soldiers would have faced great difficulty breaking through the Soviet lines on foot in harsh winter conditions. But in its defensive position on the Volga, 6th Army continued to tie down a disproportionate number of Soviet Armies.

Soviet victory[edit]

759,560 Soviet personnel were awarded this medal for the defence of Stalingrad from 22 December 1942.
Main article: Operation Koltso

The Germans inside the pocket retreated from the suburbs of Stalingrad to the city itself. The loss of the two airfields, at Pitomnik on 16 January 1943 and Gumrak on the night of 21/22 January,[66] meant an end to air supplies and to the evacuation of the wounded.[67]:p.98 The third and last serviceable runway was at the Stalingradskaja flight school, which reportedly had the last landings and takeoffs on the night of 22–23 January.[28] After daybreak on 23 January, there were no more reported landings except for intermittent air drops of ammunition and food until the end.

Generalfeldmarschall Friedrich Paulus (left), with his chief of staff, Generalleutnant Arthur Schmidt (centre) and his aide, Wilhelm Adam (right), after their surrender.

The Germans were now not only starving, but running out of ammunition. Nevertheless, they continued to resist, in part because they believed the Soviets would execute any who surrendered. In particular, the so-called HiWis, Soviet citizens fighting for the Germans, had no illusions about their fate if captured. The Soviets were initially surprised by the number of Germans they had trapped, and had to reinforce their encircling troops. Bloody urban warfare began again in Stalingrad, but this time it was the Germans who were pushed back to the banks of the Volga. The Germans adopted a simple defense of fixing wire nets over all windows to protect themselves from grenades. The Soviets responded by fixing fish hooks to the grenades so they stuck to the nets when thrown.

The Germans had no usable tanks in the city, and those that still functioned could, at best, be used as makeshift pillboxes. The Soviets did not bother employing tanks in areas where the urban destruction restricted their mobility. A low-level Soviet envoy party (comprising Major Aleksandr Smyslov, Captain Nikolay Dyatlenko and a trumpeter) carried an offer to Paulus: if he surrendered within 24 hours, he would receive a guarantee of safety for all prisoners, medical care for the sick and wounded, prisoners allowed to keep their personal belongings, "normal" food rations, and repatriation to any country they wished after the war; but Paulus—ordered not to surrender by Hitler—did not respond.[68]:p.283

Soviets defend a position

On 22 January Paulus requested that he be granted permission to surrender. Hitler rejected it on a point of honour. He telegraphed the 6th Army later that day, claiming that it had made an historic contribution to the greatest struggle in German history and that it should stand fast "to the last soldier and the last bullet." Hitler told Goebbels that the plight of the 6th Army was a "heroic drama of German history."[69]

On 26 January 1943, the German forces inside Stalingrad were split into two pockets. A northern pocket centered on the tractor factory and a smaller southern pocket in the city center. The northern pocket was tactically commanded by General Walter Heitz while the southern pocket was commanded by Paulus.

On 30 January 1943, the 10th anniversary of Hitler's coming to power, Goebbels read out a proclamation that included the sentence: "The heroic struggle of our soldiers on the Volga should be a warning for everybody to do the utmost for the struggle for Germany's freedom and the future of our people, and thus in a wider sense for the maintenance of our entire continent."[70] Hitler promoted Paulus to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall. No German field marshal had ever surrendered, and the implication was clear: if Paulus surrendered, he would shame himself and would become the highest ranking German officer ever to be captured. Hitler believed that Paulus would either fight to the last man or commit suicide.[71] Paulus, however, commented, "I have no intention of shooting myself for this Bohemian corporal."[72][Note 7]

The next day, the southern pocket in Stalingrad collapsed. Soviet forces reached the entrance to the German headquarters in the ruined GUM department store. General Schmidt negotiated a surrender of the headquarters while Paulus waited in another room. When interrogated by the Soviets, Paulus claimed that he had not surrendered. He said that he had been taken by surprise. He denied that he was the commander of the remaining northern pocket in Stalingrad and refused to issue an order in his name for them to surrender.[73][74]

Four Soviet armies were deployed against the remaining northern pocket. At four in the morning on 2 February, General Strecker was informed that one of his own officers had gone to the Soviets to negotiate surrender terms. Seeing no point in continuing, he sent a radio message saying that his command had done its duty and fought to the last man. He then surrendered. Around 91,000 tired, ill, wounded, and starving prisoners were taken, including 3,000 Romanians (the survivors of the 20th Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division and "Col. Voicu" Detachment).[75] The prisoners included 22 generals. Hitler was furious and confided that Paulus "could have freed himself from all sorrow and ascended into eternity and national immortality, but he prefers to go to Moscow."[76]

Aftermath[edit]

The aftermath of the Battle of Stalingrad

Based on Soviet records, over 10,000 soldiers continued to resist in isolated groups within the city for the next month.

The German public was not officially told of the incoming disaster until the end of January 1943, though positive media reports had stopped in the weeks before the announcement.[77] Stalingrad marked the first time that the Nazi government publicly acknowledged a failure in its war effort; it was not the first major setback of the German military, but a crushing defeat where German losses were almost equal to those of the Soviets was unprecedented. Prior losses of the Soviet Union were generally three times as high as the German ones.[77] On 31 January, regular programming on German state radio was replaced by a broadcast of the somber Adagio movement from Anton Bruckner's Seventh Symphony, followed by the announcement of the defeat at Stalingrad.[77]

On 18 February, Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels gave the famous Sportpalast speech in Berlin, encouraging the Germans to accept a total war that would claim all resources and efforts from the entire population.

A Red Army soldier marches a German soldier into captivity.

According to the German documentary film Stalingrad (1993), over 11,000 soldiers refused to lay down their arms at the official surrender. Some have presumed that they were motivated by a belief that fighting on was better than a slow death in Soviet captivity. The Israeli historian Omer Bartov claims they were motivated by National Socialism. He studied 11,237 letters sent by soldiers inside of Stalingrad between 20 December 1942 and 16 January 1943 to their families in Germany. Almost every letter expressed belief in Germany's ultimate victory and their willingness to fight and die at Stalingrad to achieve that victory.[78] Bartov reported that a great many of the soldiers were well aware that they would not be able to escape from Stalingrad, but in their letters to their families boasted that they were proud to "sacrifice themselves for the Führer".[78]

The remaining forces continued to resist, hiding in cellars and sewers, but by early March 1943, the remaining small and isolated pockets of resistance had surrendered. According to Soviet intelligence documents shown in the documentary, a remarkable NKVD report from March 1943 is available showing the tenacity of some of these German groups:

The mopping-up of counter-revolutionary elements in the city of Stalingrad proceeded. The German soldiers - who had hidden themselves in huts and trenches - offered armed resistance after combat actions had already ended. This armed resistance continued until 15 February and in a few areas until 20 February. Most of the armed groups were liquidated by March ... During this period of armed conflict with the Germans, the brigade's units killed 2,418 soldiers and officers and captured 8,646 soldiers and officers, escorting them to POW camps and handing them over.

The operative report of the Don Front's staff issued on 5 February 1943, 22.00 said:

The 64th Army was putting itself in order, being in previously occupied regions. Location of army's units is as it was previously. In the region of location of the 38 Motorized Rifle Brigade in a basement 18 armed SS-men (sic) were found, who refused to surrender, the Germans found were destroyed.[79]

Out of the nearly 110,000 German prisoners captured in Stalingrad, only about 5,000 ever returned.[80] Already weakened by disease, starvation and lack of medical care during the encirclement, they were sent on death marches (75,000 survivors died within 3 months of capture) to prisoner camps and later to labour camps all over the Soviet Union. Some 35,000 were eventually sent on transports, of which 17,000 did not survive. Most died of wounds, disease (particularly typhus), cold, overwork, mistreatment, and malnutrition. Some were kept in the city to help rebuild.

A handful of senior officers were taken to Moscow and used for propaganda purposes, and some of them joined the National Committee for a Free Germany. Some, including Paulus, signed anti-Hitler statements that were broadcast to German troops. Paulus testified for the prosecution during the Nuremberg Trials and assured families in Germany that those soldiers taken prisoner at Stalingrad were safe.[25]:p.401 He remained in the Soviet Union until 1952, then moved to Dresden in East Germany, where he spent the remainder of his days defending his actions at Stalingrad, and was quoted as saying that Communism was the best hope for postwar Europe.[25]:p.280 General Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach offered to raise an anti-Hitler army from the Stalingrad survivors, but the Soviets did not accept. It was not until 1955 that the last of the 5-6,000 survivors were repatriated (to West Germany) after a plea to the Politburo by Konrad Adenauer.

Consequences[edit]

Stalingrad is often described as the turning point on the Eastern Front. From then on, the Soviet forces had the strategic initiative, and the Wehrmacht was in retreat. A year of German gains during Case Blue had been wiped out. Germany's Sixth Army had been destroyed, and the armies of Germany's European allies, except Finland, had been shattered. The effect on morale was immense, and many people round the world now believed that Hitler's defeat was inevitable.[81] In a speech on 9 November 1944, Hitler himself blamed this decisive battle for Germany's impending doom.[82]

During the Tehran conference later in 1943, Winston Churchill presented Stalin with the Sword of Stalingrad in recognition of the victory.

In recognition of the determination of its Soviet defenders, Stalingrad was awarded the title Hero City in 1945. Twenty-four years after the battle, in October 1967, a colossal monument, The Motherland Calls, was erected on Mamayev Kurgan, the hill overlooking the city.[83] The statue forms part of a War memorial complex that includes ruined walls deliberately left the way they were after the battle. The Grain Silo, as well as Pavlov's House can still be visited. Even today one may find bones and rusty metal splinters on Mamayev Kurgan, symbols of both the human suffering during the battle and the successful yet costly resistance.

Other information[edit]

Orders of battle[edit]

Red Army

During the defence of Stalingrad, the Red Army deployed six armies (8th, 28th, 51st, 57th, 62nd and 64th Armies) in and around the city and an additional nine armies in the encirclement counter offensive.[26]:435–438 The nine armies amassed for the counteroffensive were the 24th Army, 65th Army, 66th Army and 16th Air Army from the north as part of the Don Front offensive and 1st Guards Army, 5th Tank, 21st Army, 2nd Air Army and 17th Air Army from the south as part of the Southwestern Front.

Axis

Casualties[edit]

The calculation of casualties depends on what scope is given to the battle of Stalingrad. The scope can vary from just the fighting within the city and suburbs itself to the inclusion of almost all fighting on the southern wing of the Soviet-German front from the spring of 1942 to the end of the fighting in the city in the winter of 1943. Different scholars have produced different estimates depending on their definition of the scope of the battle. The difference is comparing the city against the region.

The Axis suffered 850,000 total casualties (wounded, killed, captured) among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies; 400,000 Germans, 200,000 Romanians, 130,000 Italians, and 120,000 Hungarians were killed, wounded or captured.[84]

On the material side, the Germans losses were 900 aircraft (including 274 transports and 165 bombers used as transports), 500 tanks, and 6,000 artillery pieces.[2]:122–123 According to a contemporary Soviet report, 5,762 artillery pieces; 1,312 mortars; 12,701 heavy machine guns; 156,987 rifles; 80,438 sub-machine guns; 10,722 trucks; 744 aircraft; 1,666 tanks; 261 other armored vehicles; 571 half-tracks; and 10,679 motorcycles were captured by the Soviets.[85] An unknown amount of Hungarian, Italian, and Romanian material was lost.

The USSR, according to archival figures, suffered 1,129,619 total casualties;[86] 478,741 personnel killed or missing, and 650,878 wounded or sick. On the materiel side for the USSR lost 4,341 tanks destroyed or damaged, 15,728 artillery pieces, and 2,769 combat aircraft.[87]

Anywhere from 25,000 to 40,000 Soviet civilians died in Stalingrad and its suburbs during a single week of aerial bombing by Luftflotte 4 as the German 4th Panzer and 6th Armies approached the city;[88] The total number of civilians killed in Stalingrad is unknown.

In all, the battle resulted in an estimated total of 1.7–2 million Axis and Soviet casualties.

Luftwaffe losses[edit]

Aircraft losses of the Luftwaffe for the supply of the 6th Army at Stalingrad, and the recovery of wounded from 24 November 1942 to 31 January 1943:

Losses Aircraft type
269 Junkers Ju 52
169 Heinkel He 111
42 Junkers Ju 86
9 Focke-Wulf Fw 200
5 Heinkel He 177
1 Junkers Ju 290
Total: 495 Equivalent to five squadrons or more than an air corps

These losses amounted to about 50% of total aircraft committed. In addition, the Luftwaffe training program was stopped and sorties in other theaters of war were significantly reduced to save fuel for use at Stalingrad.

In popular culture[edit]

The events of the battle for Stalingrad have been covered in several films of German, Russian,[89] British, and American origin.

The struggle is also remembered and reflected upon in numerous books, for its significance as a turning point in the Second World War and for the loss of life associated with the battle.

In the 2011 video game Red Orchestra 2: Heroes of Stalingrad, the single player campaign focuses on the Battle of Stalingrad, and several maps in the game portray famous locations of the battle, such as Pavlov's House, the Red October Factory and Mamayev Kurgan, among others. The Multiplayer also consisted of several famous locations from the single player so people could experience for themselves what it was like, to an extent.

The 2013 game, Company of Heroes 2, portrayed the battle in certain missions, but was heavily criticized by some Russian players for "being historically inaccurate",[90] and on 7 August DVD sales of the Russian version of the game were halted in Russia, while the game is still available for downloading from Steam.[91]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ The Soviet front's composition and names changed several times in the battle. The battle started with the South Western Front. It was later renamed Stalingrad Front, then had the Don Front split off from it.
  2. ^ The Front was reformed from reserve armies on 22 October 1942.
  3. ^ This force grew to 1,600 in early September by withdrawing forces from the Kuban region and South Caucasus: Hayward (1998), p. 195.
  4. ^ Bergström quotes: Soviet Reports on the effects of air raids between 23–26 August 1942. This indicates 955 people were killed and another 1,181 wounded
  5. ^ 8,314 German aircraft were produced from July–December 1942, but this could not keep pace with a three-front aerial war of attrition
  6. ^ Shirer p. 926 says that "Paulus radioed that they would need a minimum of 750 tons of supplies day flown in," while Craig pp. 206–207 quotes Zeitzler as pressing Goering about his boast that the Luftwaffe could airlift the needed supplies: "Are you aware ... how many daily sorties the army in Stalingrad will need? ... Seven hundred tons! Every day!"
  7. ^ Für so einen Schweinehund wie den böhmischen Gefreiten erschieße ich mich nicht! (I am not going to shoot myself for such a swine as this Bohemian corporal!), quoted in: Ich bitte erschossen zu werden, Der Spiegel, 1949-01-29.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c Bellamy, (2007)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bergström (2007)
  3. ^ Glantz (1995), p. 346
  4. ^ Anthony Tihamer Komjathy (1982). A Thousand Years of the Hungarian Art of War. Toronto: Rakoczi Foundation. pp. 144–45. ASIN B001PHB3N0. ISBN 978-0-8191-6524-4.  ASIN is for the version cited. ISBN is for a different printing from a different publisher.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Hayward, (1998)
  6. ^ Bergstrom (2005)
  7. ^ a b Glantz (1995), p. 134
  8. ^ McDougal Littell, (2006)
  9. ^ Roberts (2006: 143)
  10. ^ Biesinger (2006: 699): "On August 23, 1942, the Germans began their attack."
  11. ^ "Battle of Stalingrad". Encyclopædia Britannica. By the end of August, ... Gen. Friedrich Paulus, with 330,000 of the German Army's finest troops ... approached Stalingrad. On August 23 a German spearhead penetrated the city's northern suburbs, and the Luftwaffe rained incendiary bombs that destroyed most of the city's wooden housing. 
  12. ^ Taylor (1998) Vol IV, p. 142
  13. ^ Beevor (1998: 239)
  14. ^ a b c d e f Shirer (1990)
  15. ^ a b c Kershaw, (2000)
  16. ^ Taylor and Clark, (1974)
  17. ^ a b Walsh, Stephen. (2000). Stalingrad 1942–1943 The Infernal Cauldron. London, New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0916-8.
  18. ^ McDonald (1986)
  19. ^ German High Command (communique) (27 October 1941). "Text of the Day's War Communiques". New York Times (28 October 1941). Retrieved 27 April 2009. 
  20. ^ German High Command (communique) (10 November 1942). "Text of the Day's War Communiques on Fighting in Various Zones". New York Times (10 November 1942). Retrieved 27 April 2009. 
  21. ^ German High Command (communique) (26 August 1942). "Text of the Day's War Communiques on Fighting in Various Zones". New York Times (26 August 1942). Retrieved 27 April 2009. 
  22. ^ German High Command (communique) (12 December 1942). "Text of the Day's War Communiques". New York Times (12 December 1942). Retrieved 27 April 2009. 
  23. ^ "In spite of the unfavourable balance of forces - the 'Cosseria' and the 'Ravenna' faced eight to nine Russian divisions and an unknown number of tanks - the atmosphere among Italian staffs and troops was certainly not pessimistic.... The Italians, especially the officers of the 'Cosseria', had confidence in what they thought were well built defensive positions." All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust 1941-43, Jonathan Steinberg, p. ?, Routledge, 2003
  24. ^ "The attack at dawn failed to penetrate fully at first and developed into a grim struggle with Italian strongpoints, lasting for hours. The Ravenna Division was the first to be overrun. A gap emerged that was hard to close, and there was no holding back the Red Army when it deployed the mass of its tank forces the following day. German reinforcements came too late in the breakthrough battle." The Unknown Eastern Front: The Wehrmacht and Hitler's Foreign Soldiers, Rolf-Dieter Müller, p. 84, I.B.Tauris, 28 Feb 2014
  25. ^ a b c d e Craig, (1973)
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Beevor (1998), 198.
  27. ^ a b Clark, Lloyd, Kursk: The Greatest Battle: Eastern Front 1943, 2011, page 157
  28. ^ a b Pojić, Milan. Hrvatska pukovnija 369. na Istočnom bojištu 1941. – 1943.. Croatian State Archives. Zagreb, 2007.
  29. ^ Clark, Lloyd, Kursk: The greatest battle: Eastern Front 1943, 2011, page 164–165
  30. ^ "Stalingrad 1942". Retrieved 31 January 2010. 
  31. ^ Beevor (1998), 84-5, 97, 144.
  32. ^ Krivosheev, G. I. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. Greenhill Books. pp. 51–97. ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4. 
  33. ^ a b c TV Novosti. "Crucial WW2 battle remembered". Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  34. ^ Bellamy (2007), 514-517.
  35. ^ Beevor (1998), 135-137.
  36. ^ Beevor (1998), 203-206.
  37. ^ Beevor (2004)
  38. ^ Overy, Richard. Russia's War (New York: 1997), 201.
  39. ^ Merridale, Catherine. Ivan's War (New York: 2006), 156.
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  41. ^ Bellamy (2007), 520-521.
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  43. ^ Pennington, p. 178.
  44. ^ Pennington, pp. 189–192.
  45. ^ Pennington, pp. 192–194.
  46. ^ a b Pennington, p. 197.
  47. ^ Pennington, pp. 201–204.
  48. ^ Pennington, pp. 204–207.
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  58. ^ Murray, Williamson & Millet, Alan War To Be Won, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000 page 288.
  59. ^ Weinberg A World In Arms, 2005 451.
  60. ^ Weinberg, 2005 A World In Arms, page 1045.
  61. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard A World At Arms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 408; 449; 451.
  62. ^ Manstein 2004, pp. 315; 334.
  63. ^ Kehrig, Manfred Stalingrad, Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags Anstalt, 1974 pages 279,311-312,575.
  64. ^ "During this phase, the Germans praised the steadfastness of Italian infantry, who held out tenaciously even in isolated strongpoints but eventually reached their breaking-point under this constant pressure. " The Unknown Eastern Front: The Wehrmacht and Hitler's Foreign Soldiers, Rolf-Dieter Müller, p. 83-84, I.B.Tauris, 28 Feb 2014
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  68. ^ Clark (1995)
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  70. ^ Kershaw (2000), p. 550.
  71. ^ Bellamy (2007), 549.
  72. ^ Beevor, p. 381
  73. ^ Beevor, p. 390
  74. ^ Bellamy (2007), 550.
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  • Glantz, David (2011), 'After Stalingrad: The Red Army's Winter Offensive 1942–1943', Helion and Company, ISBN 978-1-907677-05-2
  • Goldman, Stuart D. Nomonhan, 1939; The Red Army's Victory That Shaped World War II. 2012, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-61251-098-9.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Antill, Peter (2007). Stalingrad 1942, Osprey Publishing, London. ISBN 1-84603-028-5
  • Biesinger, Joseph A. (2006). Germany: a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present. Infobase Publishing, New York City. ISBN 978-0-8160-4521-1
  • Corum, James S. (2008). Wolfram von Richthofen: Master of the German Air War. Lawrence, KS, University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1598-8.
  • Dibold, Hans (2001) Doctor at Stalingrad. Littleton, CO: Aberdeen, (hardcover, ISBN 0-9713852-1-1).
  • Grossman, Vasiliĭ Semenovich; Beevor, Antony; Vinogradova, Luba (2007). A Writer at War:A Soviet Journalist with the Red Army, 1941–1945. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-307-27533-2. 
  • Holl, Adelbert. (2005) An Infantryman In Stalingrad: From 24 September 1942 to 2 February 1943. Pymble, NSW, Australia: Leaping Horseman Books (hardcover, ISBN 0-9751076-1-5).
  • Hoyt, Edwin Palmer. (1999) 199 Days: The Battle for Stalingrad. New York: A Forge Book, (paperback, ISBN 0-312-86853-7).
  • Jones, Michael K. (2007) Stalingrad: How the Red Army Survived the German Onslaught. Drexel Hill, PA: Casemate, (hardcover, ISBN 978-1-932033-72-4)
  • Mayer, SL & Taylor, AJP (1974). History of World War II. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-7064-0399-1 & ISBN 978-0-7064-0399-2
  • Raus, Erhard. Panzer Operations: The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941–1945, compiled and translated by Steven H. Newton. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2003 (hardcover, ISBN 0-306-81247-9); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0-306-81409-9).
  • Roberts, Geoffrey. (2002) Victory at Stalingrad: The Battle that Changed History. New York: Longman, (paperback, ISBN 0-582-77185-4).
  • —— (2006) Stalin's wars: from World War to Cold War, 1939–1953. Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-11204-1
  • Samsonov A.M., (1989) Stalingrad Battle, 4th ed. re-edited and added-to, Moscow, Science publishing. Russian: Самсо́нов А.М. Сталинградская би́тва, 4-е изд., испр. и доп.— М.: Нау́ка, 1989. (in Russian)
  • Snyder, David R. (2005). Review in The Journal of Military History Volume 69 (1).
  • Zhukov, Georgiĭ Konstantinovich & Harrison E., Salisbury (1969). Marshal Zhukov's Greatest Battles. New York: Harper & Row. OCLC 563797912. 
  • Joly, Anton (2013) Stalingrad: Battle Atlas, StalData Publications (paperback, ISBN 979-10-93222-03-5).

External links[edit]