Standard J

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Standard J
Standard J-1 USAF.jpg
Role Trainer
National origin USA
Manufacturer Standard Aircraft Corporation
Designer Charles Healy Day
First flight 1916
Number built 1,600+
Unit cost
$6,000
Developed from Sloan H series

The Standard J was a substitute standard basic trainer aircraft produced in the USA from 1916 to 1918. It was a two-seat tandem biplane constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. Charles Healy Day had designed the Sloan H series of aircraft and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies—Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, built 1,601 J-1s, all of which were delivered between June 1917 and June 1918. The J-1 was considered from the beginning as a stopgap to supplement the more favored Curtiss JN-4 production. Though the J-1 and its variants were produced in large numbers, it was disliked by instructors and students alike because of its highly vibration-inducing and unreliable four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine. Fatality records show while the JN-4 production outnumbered the Standards by only about two to one to June 1918, the number of fatalities in J-1s to JN4s was about one to seven, which is probably indicative of the actual limited use of the available aircraft. Many of the later production J-1s were never taken out of their delivery crates. In June 1918, even while training was at a fever pitch, all Standard J-1s were grounded, and although it was considered for adaptation to the OX-5 engine used by the Curtiss JN-4, the $2,000 cost of conversion was not seen as cost-effective, as the supply of OX-5–powered JN-4s was now considered sufficient for military elementary training needs. All contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were retired to be sold on the civilian market or scrapped. The manufacturer of Standard's chief competitor (Curtiss JN series) bought many of the surplus J-1s for modification (different engine) and resale. Many J-1s carried on with civilian flying schools, joy-riding, and barnstorming operations until they wore out, or were forced to be retired by the nascent air transport legislation, introduced in 1927, which forbade the use of wooden aircraft for passenger transport. Many people confuse the Standard J-1 with the Curtiss JN series, even believing that Charles H. Day was responsible for both, but the Standard's slightly swept-back wing planform for both upper and lower wing panels, with the triangular king posts above the upper wing (versus the Jenny's rectangular layout of these same structural elements) — and the forward landing gear strut angle, when seen from the side, as well as the forward landing gear strut's anchorage placement on the fuselage's lower longeron, just behind the lower wing root's leading edge, quickly distinguishes the Standard J-1 from the Curtiss aircraft.


Variants[edit]

Standard J-1 Mailplane conversion, showing the slight wing sweepback
  • Sloan H series - trainers and reconnaissance aircraft from 1913
  • Standard H series - production by Standard of Sloan H-series
  • Standard J - first Standard-designed variant
  • Standard J-1 - trainer for US Army
  • Standard SJ-1 - J-1 with additional pair of forward wheels to prevent noseovers
  • Standard JR-1 - advanced trainer for US Army
  • Standard JR-1B - mail carrier for US Post Office, modification of JR-1
  • Standard E-4 - redesignated JR-1B mailcarrier

War-surplus conversions[edit]

Operators[edit]

 United States

Survivors[edit]

Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.

  • Two J-1s are on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio.
    • One J-1 is displayed uncovered, with only sample panels of fabric covering to show the wire-braced wooden construction in vogue in the 1917-18 period and the method for covering an aircraft structure. This aircraft is equipped with a Hall-Scott A-4A engine of 100 horsepower. It was donated to the museum in 1962 by Robert Grieger of Oak Harbor, Ohio.[3]
    • A second J-1 (s/n 1141) is on display in a fully restored condition. It is equipped with the rarer Curtiss OXX-6 engine of 100 hp. This aircraft underwent a full restoration by museum staff in 1981.
Klessig Standard J-1
  • A Hisso (Hispano-Suiza)-powered J-1 (s/n 1956) restored by Charles Klessig of Fargo, North Dakota, is on display at the EAA AirVenture Museum.
  • A OXX-6-powered J-1 (s/n 2434 registered and flown as N9477) also restored by Klessig in 1971 is part of the collection of the Cass County, North Dakota's Bonanzaville, U.S.A. Museum. It is currently on loan to the Fargo Air Museum.
  • Standard J-1 s/n 581 is on display, and maintained in flying condition with a Hispano-Suiza 8 for power, at the Owls Head Transportation Museum, Owls Head, Maine
  • s/n 823H owned by the Henry Ford Museum, on loan to Glenn H Curtiss Museum, Hammondsport, New York
  • s/n 1000 James Hammond, Yellow Springs, Ohio
  • s/n 1582 Kermit Weeks, is displayed at Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida (composite of two aircraft)
  • "N62505" Historic Aircraft Museum, Creve Coeur Airport, Missouri, was previously owned by Ernie Freeman.
  • s/n 1598 reported existent, location uncertain
  • s/n 2969 Michael Cilurso, Schnecksville, Pennsylvania (assembled from original components – period kit)
  • s/n 4598 is displayed at the Pioneer Flight Museum, Kingsbury, Texas.
  • s/n 5083 is displayed at the San Diego Aerospace Museum (Wright Hispano E-2 with E-3 heads). It was previously part of the late Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome Collection, in Rhinebeck, New York.
  • One, s/n unknown, is being restored by John Barker, Contoocook, New Hampshire.
  • One, s/n unknown, is being restored for the Golden Age Air Museum, Bethel, Pennsylvania

Specifications (SJ-1)[edit]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 26 ft 2 in (7.98 m)
  • Wingspan: 43 ft 10 in (13.36 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
  • Gross weight: 2,025 lb (920 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-5, 175 hp (130 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 72 mph (120 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 64 mph ( km/h)
  • Stall speed: 40 mph ( km/h)
  • Range: 350 miles (560 km)
  • Service ceiling: 15,000 ft (4,600 m)

See also[edit]

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft p.2835
  2. ^ Taylor 1989, p.774
  3. ^ United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 7.
Bibliography
  • Donald, David, ed (1997). Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Ontario: Prospero Books. p. 854. 
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. 
  • "Standard, Standard-Caproni, Standard-DH,Standard-Handley-Page, Gates-Day Standard". Aerofiles. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  • Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. 
  • United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975.