|Classification and external resources|
Staphylococci are species of Gram-positive bacteria that can cause a wide variety of infections in humans and other animals through infection or the production of toxins. Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, as they can be produced in improperly-stored food. Staphylococci are also known to be a cause of bacterial conjunctivitis. Among neurosurgical patients, it can cause community-acquired meningitis.
These bacteria can survive on dry surfaces, increasing the chance of transmission. S. aureus is also implicated in toxic shock syndrome; during the 1980s some tampons allowed the rapid growth of S. aureus, which released toxins that were absorbed into the bloodstream. Any S. aureus infection can cause the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, a cutaneous reaction to exotoxin absorbed into the bloodstream. It can also cause a type of septicaemia called pyaemia. The infection can be life-threatening. Problematically, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, and is being recognized with increasing frequency in community-acquired infections.
The generic name Staphylococcus is derived from the Greek word "staphyle" meaning a bunch of grapes, and "kokkos" means granule. The bacteria, when seen under a microscope appear like a branch of grapes or berries.
|Main Staphylococcus aureus infections|
|Localized skin infections|
Diffuse skin infection
Deep, localized infections
|Unless else specified in boxes, then reference is |
Other infections include:
- Closed-space infections of the fingertips, known as paronychia.
- S. epidermidis, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus species, is a commensal of the skin, but can cause severe infections in immune-suppressed patients and those with central venous catheters.
- S. saprophyticus, another coagulase-negative species that is part of the normal vaginal flora, is predominantly implicated in genitourinary tract infections in sexually-active young women.
- In recent years, several other staphylococcal species have been implicated in human infections, notably S. lugdunensis, S. schleiferi, and S. caprae.
- "Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis or Pinkeye) Symptoms, Treatment, Home Remedies, Medication, Causes". MedicineNet. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- Cheng-Ching, Esteban; Chahine, Lama; Baron, Eric P.; Alexander Rae-Grant (28 March 2012). Comprehensive Review in Clinical Neurology (in English). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 670. ISBN 9781451153637. Retrieved 23 September 2014. "Neurosurgical patients are predisposed to meningitis with aerobic gram-negative bacilli (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (such as epidermidis)."
- Sahebnasagh R, Saderi H, Owlia P. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from clinical samples in Tehran by detection of the mecA and nuc genes. The First Iranian International Congress of Medical Bacteriology; 4–7 September; Tabriz, Iran. 2011. 195 pp.
- Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 349. ISBN 0-7817-8215-5.