Staphylococcus lugdunensis

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Staphylococcus lugdunensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: S. lugdunensis
Binomial name
Staphylococcus lugdunensis
Freney et al. 1988

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative member of the genus Staphylococcus,[1] consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells that appear in clusters.[citation needed]

History[edit]

It was first described in 1988 after being differentiated through DNA analysis. Its name comes from Lugdunum, the Latin name for Lyon, France, where the organism was first isolated.

Description[edit]

Colonies of S. lugdunensis are usually hemolytic, sticky, yellow or tan and about 2–4 mm in diameter after a 48-hour incubation. They also can have a characteristic sweet, hay-like odor.[citation needed]

S. lugdunensis may produce a bound coagulase (that is, the enzyme is bound to the cells), a property it shares with S. aureus, but unlike S. aureus, it does not produce a free coagulase. In the laboratory, it can give a positive slide-coagulase test but a negative tube-coagulase test.

S. lugdunensis is fairly easy to identify because, unlike the great majority of staphylococci, it decarboxylates ornithine and is positive for pyrrolidonyl arylamidase.[citation needed]

In the past, it was frequently misidentified as S. hominis, S. aureus or other species.

It occurs as a commensal on human skin, but has been recorded as a cause of serious human infections,[2][3] such as osteomyelitis, arthritis,[4] septicaemia, wound infections,[5] and aggressive endocarditis.[6]

It is generally susceptible to antistaphylococcal antibiotics, but increasing penicillin resistance has been reported.

Acute postoperative endophthalmitis[edit]

Acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis is infrequently reported in clinical studies. Five cases of acute postcataract surgery endophthalmitis caused by S. lugdunensis were taken from a multicenter prospective study conducted in four university-affiliated hospitals in France (2004 to 2005). These cases were characterized by severe ocular inflammation occurring with a mean delay of 7.6 days after cataract surgery, severe visual loss (hand motions or less in three cases), and dense infiltration of the vitreous. Each of these patients was initially treated by using a standard protocol with intravitreal (vancomycin and ceftazidime), systemic, and topical antibiotics. Given the severity of the endophthalmitis, even though bacteria were sensitive to intravitreal antibiotics, pars plana vitrectomy was needed in four cases. The final visual prognosis was complicated by severe retinal detachment in three cases. The microbiological diagnosis was reached by using conventional cultures with specific biochemical tests and eubacterial PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chu, Vivian H. "MD, MHS". Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  2. ^ Klotchko, A.; Wallace, M. R.; Licitra, C.; Sieger, B. (2011). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis:". Southern Medical Journal 104 (7): 509–514. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31821e91b1. PMID 21886051.  edit
  3. ^ Babu, E.; Oropello, J. (2011). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis: The coagulase-negative staphylococcus you don't want to ignore". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 9 (10): 901–907. doi:10.1586/eri.11.110. PMID 21973302.  edit
  4. ^ Mei-Dan, O.; Mann, G.; Steinbacher, G.; Ballester, S. J.; Cugat, R. B.; Alvarez, P. D. (2007). "Septic arthritis with Staphylococcus lugdunensis following arthroscopic ACL revision with BPTB allograft". Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy 16 (1): 15–18. doi:10.1007/s00167-007-0379-8. PMID 17684731.  edit
  5. ^ Papapetropoulos, N.; Papapetropoulou, M.; Vantarakis, A. (2012). "Abscesses and wound infections due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis: Report of 16 cases". Infection 41 (2): 525–528. doi:10.1007/s15010-012-0381-z. PMID 23242962.  edit
  6. ^ Liu, P. Y.; Huang, Y. F.; Tang, C. W.; Chen, Y. Y.; Hsieh, K. S.; Ger, L. P.; Chen, Y. S.; Liu, Y. C. (2010). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis Infective Endocarditis: A Literature Review and Analysis of Risk Factors". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection 43 (6): 478–484. doi:10.1016/S1684-1182(10)60074-6. PMID 21195974.  edit