Star of Caledonia
|Star of Caledonia|
Artist's impression of the Star of Caledonia at night
|Location||Gretna, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland|
|Designer||Cecil Balmond, Charles Jencks and Andy Goldsworthy|
|Material||steel frame lit by LEDs|
The Star of Caledonia, also called the Gretna Landmark, is a planned sculpture designed by Cecil Balmond, Charles Jencks and Andy Goldsworthy. It is to be located near Gretna, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, close to the England-Scotland border. The sculpture was approved on 27 February 2013. The project is being promoted by the Gretna Landmark Trust.
The project was first instigated by local businesses and landowner Alisdair Houston. The sculpture is hoped to bring social and economic benefits to the area. Other interested parties included both Gretna and Gretna Green and public art manager Jan Hogarth. The sculpture is hoped to bring visitors to the area to boost tourism.
About 84% of all visitors to Scotland by road pass near Gretna. For the past seven years, meetings have been held with Scottish academics, cultural thinkers and the local community in a series of seminars and workshops run by the Gretna Landmark Project which resulted in the appointment of international architect Charles Jencks as the Trust's Creative Director. In 2011 a competition was launched by the Gretna Landmark Trust called "The Great Unknown" as a way to get ideas for a new local iconic landmark. Three shortlisted artists and designers collaborated with Jencks on proposals for the landmark. In July 2011 it was announced that Cecil Balmond had won the competition with the Star of Caledonia design. Planning permission was first proposed in 2012. A debate on the proposal was later held in the Scottish National Gallery in Edinburgh in October 2011 by the two artists.
It was also hoped that the sculpture would be built in early 2014, in time for both the 2014 Commonwealth Games and 2014 Homecoming Scotland and only taking a year to build. However, the projected date has now slipped to 2015, which has been designated the UNESCO International Year of Light.
The initial design was expected to cost £3.8 million but this has since risen to £4.8 million. In 2011 Creative Scotland awarded the project £1 million towards its development from its capitals investment programme.
However by May 2014 much of the funding has still yet to be obtained and it is hoped that is can be sorted out by near the end of the year. 
The sculpture is to be located in a field opposite the Gretna Gateway Outlet Village, located on the outskirts of the town of Gretna in Scotland. The sculpture will be visible from the nearby A74(M) motorway. Instead of using road signs, the surrounding landscape is to be used as a way to recognise it and to turn crossing the border into a memorable experience. It will also not be far from the River Sark.
Estimates of the height of the sculpture range from 40 metres (130 ft) to 55 metres (180 ft) projected to be twice the size of the Angel of the North. The design is meant to pay homage to innovation within Scotland and be inspired by inventors and innovators, in particular prominent Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who was famous for his work in electromagnetic theory.
The sculpture is to be in a star shape and to be made of galvanised steel and illuminated at night at its tips using "subtle lighting". The lights will be using LEDs, although the light emissions will be explored in more detail as part of the approval by the council.
The sculpture intends to pull together the surrounding hills, the adjacent site and the Solway. The Gretna Landmark Trust have said that the sculpture's aim was to be "visually spectacular but meaningful, relating strongly to place and identity".
Although no objection occurred to the planning application, the design and proposal of the Star of Caledonia has received a mixed reception. The design has been supported by author Ian Rankin who has described it as futuristic and forward looking. A Scottish politician has also described it as fitting, in such an iconic location, novel and inspirational. It is also supported by local businesses including the Gretna Gateway Outlet Village.
The sculpture was subsequently included in a campaign to raise awareness of James Clerk Maxwell.
Research has claimed the sculpture could be £16 million in its first year. In an external impact assessment carried out by BOP Consulting on behalf of Dumfries and Galloway Council and public art development company Wide Open, its findings into the economy found that the Star of Caledonia could result in £2 million from construction, £4 million a year from tourism, up to £10 million in national and international publicity in the first four months and £300,000 locally. The sculpture is expected to attract a modest 70,000 people a year when built.
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