Star of South Africa (1952)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Star of South Africa (Decoration))
Jump to: navigation, search
Star of South Africa
Star of South Africa.jpg
Awarded by the Governor-General and, from 1961, the State President
Country  South Africa
Type Military decoration for merit
Eligibility General and flag officers
Awarded for Exceptionally meritorious service
Status Discontinued in 1975
Post-nominals SSA
Statistics
Established 1952
First awarded 1960
Last awarded 1975
Total awarded 20
Precedence
Next (higher)
SANDF precedence:[2]
  • Flag of Bophuthatswana.svg Order of the Leopard, Military Division, Commander
Next (lower)
SADF succession:[1]
SANDF succession:[2]
SSA1lint.gif
Ribbon bar

The Star of South Africa, post-nominal letters SSA, is a military decoration for merit that was instituted by the Union of South Africa in 1952. It was awarded to general and flag officers of the South African Defence Force for exceptionally meritorious service. The Star of South Africa was discontinued on 1 July 1975 when a new set of orders, decorations and medals was instituted.[3][4]

The South African military[edit]

The Union Defence Forces (UDF) were established in 1912 and renamed the South African Defence Force (SADF) in 1958. On 27 April 1994 it was integrated with six other independent forces into the South African National Defence Force (SANDF).[4]

Orders, decorations and medals[edit]

In April 1952 a series of military decorations and medals was instituted, consisting of substitutes for many of the British and Commonwealth awards which had earlier been used. More decorations and medals, as well as an emblem for being mentioned in dispatches, were added between 1953 and 1970. In July 1975 the military decorations and medals of the Republic were revised. Some decorations and medals were carried over from the earlier series of 1952-1975 and new awards were instituted, followed by more between 1987 and 1991. Finally, all but one of these earlier awards were discontinued in respect of services performed on or after 27 April 2003, when a new set of nine decorations and medals was instituted to replace them.[4][5][6][7][8]

Fount of Honour[edit]

Until 1958 the top three awards were reserved for conferment by the Queen while the rest were awarded by the Governor-General, but in 1958 the Governor-General was authorised to also award the top three. In 1961 the State President became the Fount of Honour, and in 1994 the President.[4]

Award criteria for the Star of South Africa[edit]

The Star of South Africa, post-nominal letters SSA, was awarded to general and flag officers for exceptionally meritorious service. It was introduced on 6 April 1952 and formally instituted by Queen Elizabeth II on 26 January 1953. In effect, it took the place of the Commander of the Order of the British Empire, which had been awarded to senior South African officers during World War II. The decoration was named after the first large diamond to be found in South Africa, the Star of South Africa that was found on the banks of the Orange River in 1869 and that sparked the New Rush, leading to the establishment of Kimberley.[4][9][10]

Order of precedence[edit]

The position of the Star of South Africa in the official order of precedence was revised three times after 1975 to accommodate the inclusion or institution of new decorations and medals, first with the integration into the South African National Defence Force in 1994, again when decorations and medals were belatedly instituted in April 1996 for the two former non-statutory forces, the Azanian People's Liberation Army and Umkhonto we Sizwe, and again when a new series of military decorations and medals was instituted in South Africa on 27 April 2003.

South African Defence Force until 26 April 1994

Star of South Africa, Silver (SSAS) Star of South Africa (1952) (SSA) Louw Wepener Decoration (LWD)

South African National Defence Force from 27 April 1994

Star of South Africa (1952) (SSA) Louw Wepener Decoration (LWD)

South African National Defence Force from 27 April 2003

Star of South Africa (1952) (SSA) Louw Wepener Decoration (LWD)

Description[edit]

Obverse

The Star of South Africa is struck in silver and consists of eight five-pointed stars of different sizes, superimposed on each other.[9][10]

Reverse

The reverse has the pre-1994 South African Coat of Arms. Specimens that were minted and awarded before South Africa became a republic on 31 May 1961 have Queen Elizabeth's royal cipher (E II R) above the Coat of Arms.[9][10]

Ribbon

The decoration is worn around the neck on an orange ribbon, 44 millimetres wide with three green bands in the centre, all 3 millimetres wide and spaced 6 millimetres apart.[9][10]

Discontinuation[edit]

The conferment of the decoration was discontinued in respect of services performed on or after 1 July 1975, when a new set of orders, decorations and medals was instituted.[6]

Recipients[edit]

Name Rank Service
Arm
Appointment Date
awarded
Melville, S.A. Cmdt Gen SAAF Commandant General SADF 13 May 1960
Grobbelaar, P.H. Maj Gen SA Army Deputy Commandant General 13 May 1960
Hiemstra, R.C. Maj Gen SAAF Inspector General SADF 13 May 1960
Viljoen, B.G. Maj Gen SAAF Air Chief of Staff 13 May 1960
Biermann, H.H. R Adm SAN Naval Chief of Staff 13 May 1960
Bierman, J.N. Maj Gen SA Army Director of Operations 14 May 1965
Jacobs, P.J. Maj Gen SA Army Army Chief of Staff 14 May 1965
Hartzenberg, C.H. Maj Gen SAAF 16 Jun 1967
Fraser, C.A. Lt Gen SA Army General Officer Commading, Joint Combat Forces 13 Jun 1969
Laubscher, P.H. Maj Gen SA Army Deputy Chief of Defence Staff 13 Jun 1969
Loots, F.W. Maj Gen SA Army Director General Military Intelligence 13 Jun 1969
Raymond, E.C. Maj Gen SAMS Surgeon General 13 Jun 1969
Van der Riet, W.R. Lt Gen SA Army Chief of Defence Staff 25 May 1973
Terry-Lloyd, M.R. R Adm SAN 25 May 1973
Cockcroft, C.R. Lt Gen SAMS Surgeon General 28 Jun 1974
Louw, W.P. Lt Gen SA Army Inspector General SADF 28 Jun 1974
Verster, J.P. Lt Gen SAAF Chief of the Air Force 28 Jun 1974

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Republic of South Africa Government Gazette no. 15093, Pretoria, 3 September 1993
  2. ^ a b c d e f Republic of South Africa Government Gazette Vol. 477, no. 27376, Pretoria, 11 March 2005, OCLC 72827981
  3. ^ South African Medals Website - Post-nominal Letters
  4. ^ a b c d e South African Medals Website - SA Defence Force : 1952-1975
  5. ^ Suid-Afrikaanse militêre dekorasies: 1952-1975
  6. ^ a b South African Medals Website - SA Defence Force : 1975-2003
  7. ^ Suid-Afrikaanse militêre dekorasies: 1975-2003
  8. ^ Republic of South Africa Government Gazette Vol. 457, no. 25213, Pretoria, 25 July 2003
  9. ^ a b c d Alexander, E.G.M., Barron, G.K.B. and Bateman, A.J. (1986). South African Orders, Decorations and Medals. Human and Rousseau.
  10. ^ a b c d Monick, S, (1988). South African Military Awards 1912-1987. South African National Museum of Military History.