Staraya Ladoga

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For other uses, see Ladoga (disambiguation).
Staraya Ladoga (English)
Старая Ладога (Russian)
-  Inhabited locality  -
Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Leningrad Oblast in Russia
Staraya Ladoga is located in Leningrad Oblast
Staraya Ladoga
Staraya Ladoga
Location of Staraya Ladoga in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 59°59′N 32°18′E / 59.983°N 32.300°E / 59.983; 32.300Coordinates: 59°59′N 32°18′E / 59.983°N 32.300°E / 59.983; 32.300
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Leningrad Oblast
Statistics
Population (2002 Census) 3,200 inhabitants[1]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[2]
Founded 753[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[3] 187412
Dialing code(s) +7 81363[citation needed]
Staraya Ladoga on WikiCommons

Staraya Ladoga (Russian: Ста́рая Ла́дога), Finnish: Vanha Laatokka or the Aldeigjuborg of Norse sagas, is a village (selo) in the Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River near Lake Ladoga, 8 km north of the town of Volkhov. The village used to be a prosperous trading outpost in the 8th and 9th centuries. A multi-ethnic settlement, it was dominated by Scandinavians who were called by the name of Rus and for that reason it is sometimes called the first capital of Russia.

Origin and name[edit]

The fortress of Ladoga was built in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. It is now mostly reconstructed since being heavily damaged during World War II.

Dendrochronology suggests that Ladoga was founded in 753.[4] Until 950, it was one of the most important trading ports of Eastern Europe. Merchant vessels sailed from the Baltic Sea through Ladoga to Novgorod and then to Constantinople or the Caspian Sea. This route is known as the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks. An alternative way led down the Volga River along the Volga trade route to the Khazar capital of Atil, and then to the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, all the way to Baghdad. Tellingly, the oldest Arabian Middle Age coin in Europe was unearthed in Ladoga.

Old (staraya means "old") Ladoga's inhabitants were Norsemen, Finns, and Slavs, hence different names for the city. The original Finnish name, Alode-joki (i.e., "lowland river"), was rendered as "Aldeigja" in Norse language and as "Ladoga" (Ладога) in Old East Slavic.

Ladoga under Rurik and Rurikids[edit]

According to the Hypatian Codex, the legendary Varangian leader Rurik arrived at Ladoga in 862 and made it his capital. Rurik's successors later moved to Novgorod and then to Kiev, thus laying foundations for the powerful state of Kievan Rus. There are several huge kurgans, or royal funerary barrows, at the outskirts of Ladoga. One of them is said to be Rurik's grave, and another one—that of his successor Oleg. The Heimskringla and other Norse sources mention that in the late 990s Eiríkr Hákonarson of Norway raided the coast and set the town ablaze. Ladoga was the most important trading center in Eastern Europe from about 800 to 900 CE, and it is estimated that between 90 to 95% of all Arab dirhams found in Sweden passed through Ladoga.

8th- to 10th-century Viking burial mounds along the Volkhov River near Staraya Ladoga.

Ladoga's next mention in chronicles is dated to 1019, when Ingigerd of Sweden married Yaroslav of Novgorod. Under the terms of their marriage settlement, Yaroslav ceded Ladoga to his wife, who appointed her father's cousin, the Swedish earl Ragnvald Ulfsson, to rule the town. This information is confirmed by sagas and archaeological evidence, which suggests that Ladoga gradually evolved into a primarily Varangian settlement. At least two Swedish kings spent their youths in Ladoga, king Stenkil and Inge I, and possibly also king Anund Gårdske.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Ladoga functioned as a trade outpost of the powerful Novgorod Republic. Later its trade significance declined and most of the population engaged in fishing in the 15th century.[5] After new fortresses such as Oreshek and Korela were constructed in the 14th century further to the west of Ladoga the town's military significance also decreased. Ladoga belonged to the Vodskaya pyatina of the republic and contained 84 homesteads in the 15th century; most of the land belonged to the church.[5] The Novgorodians built there a citadel with five towers and several churches.

Sights and landmarks[edit]

The fortress was rebuilt at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, while the mid-12th-century churches of St. George and of Mary's Assumption stand in all their original glory. Inside St. George's, some magnificent 12th-century frescoes are still visible.

In 1703, Peter the Great founded the town of Novaya Ladoga (New Ladoga) closer to the bank of Lake Ladoga. The ancient fortress thenceforth declined and came to be known as Old Ladoga, in order to distinguish it from the new town.

The heart of Staraya Ladoga is an old fortress where the Yelena River flows into the Volkhov River. In earlier times, it was a strategic site because it was the only possible harbour for sea-vessels that could not navigate through the Volkhov River. Apart from the churches mentioned above, there is a mid-12th-century church of St. Climent, which stands in ruins. There is also a monastery, dedicated to St. Nicholas and constructed mainly in the 17th century.

Culture and art[edit]

Staraya Ladoga always had been drawing an attention of Russian painters by the ancient barrows, architectural monuments and romantic views of the Volkhov River. There were the artists Ivan Aivazovsky, Orest Kiprensky, Aleksander Orłowski, Ivan Ivanov, Alexey Venetsianov and many others in the 19th century.[6] A future member of the Imperial Academy of Arts and the Peredvizhniki group Vassily Maximov was born and laid to rest there. He portrayed scenes from an everyday life of peasants.

Nicholas Roerich painted his studies there during the summer of 1899. He named this landscape the best of the Russian one.[7] Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin, Boris Kustodiev also worked there. Alexander Samokhvalov was in Staraya Ladoga many times in 1924-1926. He took part in the restoration of the St. George's Church.[8] That experience gave a great deal to the artist, he wrote. It helped him to understand the effect of joining a monumental painting with the architectural forms.[9] In result of this dwelling in that place painter made his "Staraya Ladoga" (1924) and "Family of Fisherman"(1926, Russian Museum)[10]

In the February of 1945 the ex-estate of the prince Shakhovskoy was given to Leningrad artists as a base zone for the rest and creative work.[11] The restoring works continued 15 years from 1946.[12] But Leningrad artists began to arrive to Staraya Ladoga from 1940s. It became a source of inspiration for Sergei Osipov, Gleb Savinov, Nikolai Timkov, Arseny Semionov and many others for many years.[13]

A House of creativity «Staraya Ladoga» began to work permanently in the beginning of 1960s after the finish of the restoration. It was an important center of the art life of Russia for 30 years.[14] Such artists as Evsey Moiseenko, Alexander Samokhvalov, Vecheslav Zagonek, Dmitry Belyaev, Vladimir Ovchinnikov, Boris Ugarov, Boris Shamanov, Vsevolod Bazhenov, Piotr Buchkin, Zlata Bizova, Taisia Afonina, Marina Kozlovskaya, Dmitry Maevsky, Alexander Semionov, Arseny Semionov, Irina Dobrekova, Vladimir Sakson, Gleb Savinov, Elena Zhukova, Sergei Zakharov, Ivan Varichev, Veniamin Borisov, Valery Vatenin, Ivan Godlevsky, Vladimir Krantz, Lazar Yazgur, Irina Dobrekova, Piotr Fomin and many other Leningrad and other regions painters and graphic artists worked there.

In 1970-1980 a House of Creativity was widening, the new buildings were built. They used it a whole-year. A dwelling there for 1–2 months was without any payment for them. All commitments on habitation, feed and journeys took the Art Foundation of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.[7] The paintings created there were exposed in the first-rate art exhibitions.[15][16][17] It completed the collections of the main museums of Soviet Union and numerous private collections of Russia and abroad. Also it bacame a base of an extensive found of painting, graphics and sculpture of the museum “Staraya Ladoga”.[18]

Financing of the House of Creativity stopped at the beginning of the 1990s on the breakup of the USSR and after the liquidation of the Art Foundation. It stopped to receive the artists and was closed.

Staraya Ladoga in paintings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  2. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  3. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  4. ^ Chernykh, N.B. (1985). Дендрохронология древнейших горизонтов Старой Ладоги (по материалам раскопки Земляного городище) (Dendrochronology of the oldest layers of Starya Ladoga (from material of the excavation of the city's Earthmound)). Новые археологические открытия (New Archeological Discoveries) I (Leningrad (Saint Petersburg)). p. 79. 
  5. ^ a b Bernadsky, Viktor Nikolayevich (1961). Новгород и новгородская земля в XV веке (Novgorod and the Novgorod Land in the 15th Century). Leningrad (Saint Petersburg): published by the USSR Academy of Sciences. pp. 130–131. 
  6. ^ Н. В. Мурашова, Л. П. Мыслина. Дворянские усадьбы Санкт-Петербургской губернии. Южное Приладожье. Кировский и Волховский районы. — СПб, Алаборг, 2009. C. 207—224.
  7. ^ a b Д. П. Бучкин. О доме творчества «Старая Ладога» // Д. П. Бучкин. Гравюры и рассказы. — СПб, Бибилиотека «Невского альманаха», 2004. — С. 10.
  8. ^ А. Н. Самохвалов. Ладога, и не только Ладога // А. Н. Самохвалов. Мой творческий путь. — Л: Художник РСФСР, 1977. — С. 102 —113.
  9. ^ А. Н. Самохвалов. В поисках монументальной выразительности // А. Н. Самохвалов. В годы беспокойного солнца. — СПб: Всемирное слово, 1996. — С. 193 —194.
  10. ^ Баршова И., Сазонова К. Александр Николаевич Самохвалов. — Л: Художник РСФСР, 1963. — С. 50.
  11. ^ Стенографический отчёт заседания Правления ЛССХ совместно с Правлением Ленизо и Художественным фондом по обсуждению плана работ на 1945 год и о подготовке к выставке 1945 года // Центральный Государственный Архив литературы и искусства. СПб. Ф.78. Оп.1. Д.49, Л.8.
  12. ^ Л. С. Конова. Санкт-Петербургский Союз художников. Краткая хроника 1932-2009 // Петербургские искусствоведческие тетради. Выпуск 20. — СПб, 2012. — С.176.
  13. ^ А. Н. Семёнов, С. И. Осипов, К. А. Гущин. Выставка произведений. Каталог. Авт. вступ. статьи Г. Ф. Голенький. — Л: Художник РСФСР, 1977. — С. 4.
  14. ^ Дом творчества художников «Старая Ладога» в галерее «Голубая гостиная» Санкт-Петербургского Союза художников
  15. ^ Зональная выставка «Ленинград». — Л: Художник РСФСР, 1965. — С. 9, 13, 14, 15, 19, 21, 25, 31.
  16. ^ Изобразительное искусство Ленинграда. — Л: Художник РСФСР, 1976. — С. 15, 16, 17, 19, 32.
  17. ^ Выставка произведений петербургских художников «Старая Ладога». 14 марта – 6 апреля 2014 года
  18. ^ Фонд живописи, графики и скульптуры музея - заповедника «Старая Ладога»

Sources[edit]

  • А. Н. Самохвалов. Ладога, и не только Ладога // А. Н. Самохвалов. Мой творческий путь. — Л: Художник РСФСР, 1977.
  • А. Н. Самохвалов. В поисках монументальной выразительности // А. Н. Самохвалов. В годы беспокойного солнца. — СПб: Всемирное слово, 1996.
  • Д. П. Бучкин. О доме творчества «Старая Ладога» // Д. П. Бучкин. Гравюры и рассказы. — СПб, Бибилиотека «Невского альманаха», 2004.
  • Н. В. Мурашова, Л. П. Мыслина. Дворянские усадьбы Санкт-Петербургской губернии. Южное Приладожье. Кировский и Волховский районы. — СПб, Алаборг, 2009.
  • Л. С. Конова. Санкт-Петербургский Союз художников. Краткая хроника 1932-2009 // Петербургские искусствоведческие тетради. Выпуск 20. — СПб, 2012.

External links[edit]