Konstantin Bogaevsky Stary Krym, 1903
|• Total||9.97 km2 (3.85 sq mi)|
|Elevation||300 m (1,000 ft)|
|• Density||1,000/km2 (3,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Former name||Solkhat (until the 14th century)|
Staryi Krym (Ukrainian: Старий Крим, Russian: Старый Крым, Crimean Tatar: Eski Qırım) is a small historical town in the Eastern Crimean Peninsula, approximately 25 km (15 mi.) west of Theodosia. The population of Staryi Krym in 2001 was 9,960 people.
The town has a long history. It was probably founded in the first half of the thirteenth century when Crimea was taken by Batu Khan. The Mongols fortified the city and thereafter it became a capital of the Crimean Yurt (Crimean province of the Golden Horde) and a home for the Emir of Crimea. During that period the city had two names at the same time: Turkic-speaking inhabitants of the Crimean Yurt named it Qırım (Crimean Tatar: qırım - ‘my steppe, hill’, from OTur., MTur. qır ‘mountain top, mountain ridge; steppe, desert, level ground’), while Italian traders usually called it Solcati (Italian: solcata - furrow, ditch). Solkhat is a turkified form of the Italian name.
Another theory given on the etymology of the town's name is that it was a corruption of the name of an Armenian monastic complex in Staryi Krym, built in 1338 and known in Armenian as "Surb Khach," Armenian: Սուրբ Խաչ or Holy Cross.
The Turkic name of the city - Qırım was eventually given to the whole peninsula.
In the 13th and 14th centuries the city of Qırım was a large, prosperous city referred to by Arabic contemporaries as the second Baghdad. From that period remain the Ozbek Han Mosque, built in 1314 by Uzbeg Khan, and the ruins of a madrassa built in 1332. Early Crimean Khans had their capital in Qırım until the first part of the 16th century. After the Crimean Khanate capital was moved to Bakhchisaray, the city declined into relative obscurity.
Since the annexation of Crimea by Catherine II of Russia in 1783, the town has been known by the Russian name Staryi Krym (literally "Old Crimea" - Russian translation of the original Crimean Tatar name Eski Qırım). It was the city where the famous Russian writer Alexander Grin lived and died, and now has a museum dedicated to him.
- “kır” in Nişanyan Dictionary (Turkish Etymological dictionary)
- “*Kɨr” in Sergei Starostin, Vladimir Dybo, Oleg Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers
- Maksoudian, Krikor (1997). "Armenian Communities in Eastern Europe" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume II: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century. Richard Hovannisian (ed.) New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 57. ISBN 1-4039-6422-X.
- "Crimean Tatar Architecture". International Committee for Crimea. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
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